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In this calculation one-fourth only of the mistresses' annual premium is assumed to be paid from the education fund, as in the case of the masters. But if one-third of the mistresses' premium be paid, then the charge in respect to them will be increased by one-third, and will become 6431. 28. 8d. ; so that the total charge will be 1,7831. 138. 3d.
TABLE showing the Amount chargeable upon the Education
Fund in respect to Annual Premiums for deferred
3 15 21 40 39
7 22 37 56 53 78 51
18 and under 19
13 20 13 14 19 15 8 9 11 7
33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47
d. 0 12 6 4 13 4 15 2 6 26 19 7 42 0 0 41 192
0 0 44 12 6 61 8 4 44 1 8 56 0 0 62 10 0 56 6 3 56 0 0 60
4 9 56 16. 8 57 15 0 48 11 8 33 18 4 47 17 6 29 7 11 22 5 0 45 10 5
7 6 24 19 7 12 5 10 21 3 4 14 7 6 15 12 6 13 15 0 22 15 0 12 11 3
46 56 60 51 48 49 44 42 34 22 27 17 12 23 11 11 5 8 5 5 4 6 3
£ 8. d. 2 3 9 11 11 3 16 12 6 33 6 8 34 2 6 40 6 4
7 6 16 0 0 23 7 6 14 7 1 23 6 8 15 19 7 17 11 8 25 14 7 21 11 3 12 0 0 14 5 0 18 11 3 12 10 10 3
15 10 12 2 6 8 11 6 6 17 6 9 16 8 7 18 9 8 11 3 6 3 4 10 1 3 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 13 12 6
6 4 3 4 3
42 43 44 45 46
1 0 3
1,140 10 7
482 7 0 Sum chargeable upon the education fund for The preceding calculations have reference to adult teachers, retiring pensions to teachers who few or none of whom can have been pupil teachers, are at present pupil-teachers.
receiving annual stipends under the Minutes of 1846.
The calculation I am now about to enter upon, has reference to the aggregate of the sums annually chargeable on the education fund in respect to retiring pensions for pupil-teachers which sums are those payable annually in respect to all teachers who shall hereafter have begun by being pupil-teachers; to which class the great majority, if not the whole body, of certificated teachers cannot but eventually belong.
The present number of male pupil-teachers being 3,824, and their mean age not certainly exceeding sixteen years, the sums annually chargeable on the Education Fund to provide for them (according to the plan proposed) retiring pensions, would average 118. 3d., and amount in the whole to 2,1511.
The number of female pupil-teachers being 1,966, their retiring pensions would, on the same supposition, create an average charge of 128. 11d. each, and amount in the whole to 1,2691. 14s. 2d., making a total cost of 3,4201. 148. 2d. But if one-third instead of one-fourth the premium of the female pupil-teachers be paid by Government, then the charge in respect to these will be in greased to 1,6911. 11s. 7d., and the total charge to 3,8421. 118. 7d.
On the whole, there would, therefore, be created for Total chargo for retiring pensions for all the present pupil-teachers and and certificated certificated teachers the following charges upon the educa- teachers. tion fund.
If one-third instead of one-fourth be allowed in respect to the mistresses' premiums, this sum will be increased to 5,6261. 4s. 10d. The expenditure of this sum will cause nearly three times the same amount to be applied to that object from the incomes of the teachers themselves. It may perhaps be worth while to consider what would Total charge
which would be be the cost to the Government of providing retiring pen- incurred if all the sions on this plan for teachers, on the supposition that teachers in the popular education were extended to its utmost practicable certificate care limit; that all the elementary teachers in England held teachers and Government certificates ; and that there were a sufficient population under number of apprenticed pupil-teachers to fill up the vacancies elementary created annually in this number of teacherships.
Assuming one-sixth of the population of England to be the greatest number which can thus be expected at any time to be brought under daily instruction, and the population from the present time to remain stationary, the number of adult teachers employed at the average rate of 1 to every 60 children will be 49,785.*
The average number of vacancies which may be expeeted to be created in these teacherships does not exceed four per cent. (See Minutes 1851, 1852, vol. i. p. 275.) In the most favourable state of the education of the country, not more than 1,991 vacancies in the office of the teacher can therefore be calculated upon annually.
To supply this annual demand by teachers, each of whom has first been apprenticed five years as a pupil-teacher, and afterwards resides an average period of one year in a training school, there would be required a constant staff of 11,946 pupil-teachers. These, together with the adult teachers, will make up a total number of 61,731, or in round numbers 60,000 persons occupied in elementary teaching Whence it may be calculated that on the extreme supposition of one-sixth of the population of the country being under elementary instruction, and of every elementary teacher being a Government certificated teacher, or receiving an annual grant as an apprenticed papilteacher, the total annual cost of providing retiring pensions for the whole of these 60,000 in number will not exceed 35,4401. ; which expenditure would cause to be set apart for the samé object three times that sum, or 106,3201. out of the annual income of those teachers themselves, and would secure that the sum so set apart from their own incomes should be returned to their families or representatives if they died before the age of sixty, or to themselves if they should before that time retire from the office of
teacher, A portion of the The portion of the total annual premiums paid out of the returnable to the education fund in favour of any teacher being, moreover, education fund. returnable to it in case of his death or retirement before the
age of sixty, the total annual cost to the fund, as calculated above, will be reduced to the amount of all such repayments; a reduction which may perhaps be calculated upon, as sufficient to cover the expenses of management.
The above sums have been calculated on supposition of
The population by the Census of 1851 was 17,922,709, one-sixth of which number is 2,987,118, being the assumed number of children under education ; which gives 49,785 schools of sixty each,
the population remaining stationary ; whatever increase may be created by an increase of the population, may be supposed to be met by a corresponding increase in the public revenue.
The plan I have submitted to your Lordship’s considera- Principle on tion rests on the principle that it is incumbent upon the websish the plan Government, in augmenting the stipends of teachers to whom it grants its certificates, to provide that the education of the country shall not be burdened by their maintenance, or the State embarrassed by their destitution, when, by reason of old age, they shall be no longer equal to the discharge of their duties.
It is not intended to come in the place of that provision of retiring pensions for teachers of distinguished merit contemplated by their Lordships Minutes of 1846, and more fully defined by the Minute of August 1851.
That provision is limited to 270 teachers, selected on the ground of superior claims. Teachers of so much merit as is implied in this selection their Lordships will, I have no doubt, consider to be entitled to benefit by a double provision. Having been successful and provident teachers, their old age might thence (and from their own savings) become one of comparative affluence; as it would have been if they had been successful and provident tradesmen.
I have the honor to be, &c.
H. MOSELEY. To the Lord President of the Council.
Special Report on Grants to aid in the purchase of Appa
ratus for instruction in Science; by the Rev. H. Moseley, M.A., F.R.S., Her Majesty's Inspector of Schools, dic.
ranging appard tus in sots.
Wandsworth, 5 January 1853. In compliance with their Lordships instructions communicated to me in your letter of the 22d October 1851, to the effect that I should prepare lists of apparatus in experimental science proper to be used in Elementary Schools and in Training Schools, I beg to report that, having placed myself in communication with some of the most eminent makers of scientific apparatus in London, with a view to the preparation of such lists, I have found that
apparatus for the same object is often made differently by Economy of ar. different makers; and that some kinds of apparatus are
arranged in sets, so that the same pieces in a set are adapted to serve different uses. To secure the economy which results from this arrangement of apparatus in sets, and to avoid the inconvenience of selecting among the forms
adopted by different makers, all of which are perhaps equally List of apparatus good, I have thought it best to procure complete lists from prepared different makers. each of three extensive makers of such apparatus. It is a
further recommendation of this arrangement that it secures to the public the fair advantage of that competition which a great demand cannot fail to create, and that it tends to prevent those abuses to which this expenditure of the public money might perhaps otherwise be liable.
I have appended these lists to my Report. List of apparatus There are three lists adapted to elementary schools, at adapted to elementary
the estimated costs of 101., 15l., and 201. And there are schools.
three for training schools, whose prices are 1001., 125l., and
1501., respectively. A prominence
In the selection of apparatus in so many sciences, it mistry. seemed expedient to give a greater prominence and a more
complete development to one. The science so selected is Chemistry, that being the science round which all the other experimental sciences are most easily grouped, and to which they are ancillary. Much pains has been taken in the
adaptation of the apparatus to the particular use contemSuch apparatus will probably he plated by their Lordships. I believe, however, that the from year to year increased demand which their measures can scarcely fail to improved. create, will tend to improve the class of instruments used
for the popular illustration of science. Much of the apparatus in these lists is, I am informed, charged at a lower rate than it has ever before been offered to the public. I
given to che