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2. What rule is observed in arranging chords for more than and for fewer than four voices ? On what principle is the rule based ?
3. What are sequences ? Explain the differences between tonal and real sequences.
4. Is there anything objectionable in the arrangement of the following chords?
5. In musical composition what relation ought to exist between the chords in order to produce the best effect ?
6. Give a list of the consonant and dissonant intervals, distinguishing what are anomalous, perfect, and imperfect.
PERSPECTIVE. 1. Explain what is meant by a perspective representation of an object. Give such a representation of a right-angled triangle when one of the sides which contain the right angle is vertical and the triangle is (1) above, (2) below the eye,
2. Define the following terms :-the intersection of the original plane, the parallel of the original plane, the vanishing point of a line, and the centre of the picture.
Tilustrate your definitions by a diagram.
3. Make an accurate drawing of a cube, supposing the plane of the picture to be parallel to one of the sides, and the cube to be below the eye on the left.
Place upon it another cube of half the linear dimensions exactly over its centre.
4. Draw an accurate perspective representation of a square, the sides of which are parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the picture, having given the centre and distance of the picture, the side of the square, and the seat of one of its corners.
LANGUAGES. (Four Hours allowed for this Paper, with that on Music.) 1. Translate, literally, one of the following passages :
(1) Και εγένετο εν τώ ελθείν αυτόν εις οίκόν τινος των αρχόντων των Φαρισαίων σαββάτω φαγείν άρτον, και αυτοί ήσαν παρατηρούμενοι αυτόν, και ιδού, άνθρωπός τις ην υδρωπικός έμπροσθεν αυτού και αποκριθείς ο Ιησούς είπε προς τους νομικούς και Φαρισαίους, λέγων, “Eί έξεστι τα σαββάτω θεραπεύειν ;” Οι δε ησύχασαν, και επιλαβόμενος ιάσατο αυτόν, και απέλυσε. και αποκριθείς προς αυτούς είπε, «Τίνος υμών όνος ή βούς εις φρέαρ εμπεσείται και ουκ ευθέως ανασπάσει αυτόν ή τη ημέρα του Σαββάτου;”. Και ουκ ίσχυσαν ανταποκριθήναι αυτή προς ταύτα.
(2) 'Ετύγχανον λέγων ότι πολλαι και καλαι ελπίδες ημϊν είεν σωτηρίας. πρώτον μεν γαρ ημείς μέν έμπεδούμεν τους των θεών όρκους, οι δε πολέμιοι έπιωρκήκασί τε και τας σπονδας και τους όρκους λελύκασιν. ούτω δ' εχόντων είκός τους μεν πολεμίοις εναντίους είναι τους θεούς, ημίν δε συμμάχους, οίπερ ικανοί είσι και τους μεγάλους ταχύ μικρούς ποιείν και τους μικρούς, κάν εν δεινοίς ώσι, σώζειν ευπετώς, όταν βούλωνται. "Έπειτα δε, αναμνήσω γάρ υμάς και τους των προγόνων των ημετέρων κινδύνους, ίνα είδητε ως αγαθοίς τε υμίν προσήκει είναι, σώζονται τα συν τοις θεούς και εκ πάνυ δεινών οι αγαθοί. Parse the words printed widely in the passage
which you translate.
2. Translate into literal English prose one of the following passages
Quæ civitates commodius suam rem publicam administrare existimantur, habent legibus sanctum, si quis quid de re publica a finitimis rumore ac fama acceperit, uti ad magistratum deferat, neve cum quo alio communicet; quod sæpe homines temerarios atque imperitos falsis rumoribus terreri et ad facinus impelli et de summis rebus consilium capere cognitum est. Magistratus, quæ visa sunt, occultant; quæque esse er usu indicaverint, multitudini produnt. De re publica nisi per concilium loqui non conceditur.
Sæpe fugam Danai Troia cupiere relicta
toto sonuerunt æthere nimbi.
ossa tremor, cui fata parent, quem poscat Apollo. Parse the words printed in italics.
3. Translate literally the following passage, and parse the words printed in italics
La conduite d'un homme n'est vraiment morale que quand il ne compte jamais pour rien les suites heureuses ou malheureuses de ses actions, lorsque ces actions sont dictées par le devoir. Il faut avoir toujours present à l'esprit, dans la direction des affaires de ce monde, l'enchaînement des causes et des effets, des moyens et du but; mais cette prudence est à la vertu comme le bon sens au génie : tout ce qui est vraiment beau est inspiré, tout ce qui est désintéressé est religieux.
WELSH. 1. Translate into English one of the following passages :
" Pan eisteddych i fwytta gyd â thywysog, ystyria yn ddyfal beth sydd ger dy fron: a gosod gyllell ar dy geg, os byddi ddyn blysig. Na ddeisyf ei ddanteithion ef: canys bwyd twyllodrus ydyw. Nac ymflina i ymgyfoethogi : dod heibio dy synwyr dy hun. A beri di'i'th lygaid ehedeg ar y peth nid yw? canys golud yn ddiau a gymmer adenydd, ac a eheda ymaith megis eryr tu h'r wybr.”
“Mor belled ag y gellai golwg y llygad gyrhaeddyd, i'r dehau, i'r aswy, ac ym mlaen, nid oedd dim i'w weled ond yr un dorf yn ymsymmud. Rhessau hirion o asynod ac ychain, yn llwythog o bebyll duon, crochanau anferth, a
llawrlenni amryliwiog; hen wragedd a hen wŷr, heb allu mwyach gerdded, yn glymmedig wrth bentwr o ddodrefn teuluaidd; babanod wedi gosod mewn cyfrwygydau, a'u pennau bychain wedi ei gwthio allan drwy yr agoriadau culion, ac yn cael eu gwrthbwyso yr ochr arall i'r anifail gan fynnod neu w yn wedi eu clymmu a'u sicrhau. Y cyfryw ydoedd y dorf gymmysgliw, trwy yr hon yr oeddym i fyned am oriau lawer.”
2. Parse, in full, the first period in whichever of the above passages you have translated.
3. Translate into Welsh one of the two following passages :
“ Take care that your children come punctually to school, and that they all have clean hands and faces. It is an old but true saying, that “ Cleanliness is next to godliness.” If, however, you wish your scholars to behave well in these respects, set them a good example yourself; an idle, careless, dirty teacher does almost as much harm as good in a school, no matter what may be his acquirements.”
“ This is a great and glorious land we live in; rich in many of the most precious gifts of Providence, and powerful, beyond what could have been expected, among the nations of the earth. The people, however, are torn by civil factions and religious dissensions; exposed to the extremes of misery and prosperity; fond of sensual enjoyment, notwithstanding their boasted spirituality; and easily deceived by designing men, notwithstanding their constant pretence to a more than ordinary share of common sense.”
4. In this sentence "A gwybyddwch hyn, pe gwybuasai gwr y ty pa wyliadwriaeth y deuai y
y leidr, efe a wyliasai, ac ni adawsai gloddio ei dý trwodd,”-explain clearly the reasons of all the initial mutations of letters. Why is "pe” used here instead of " os" ?
5. Compare the grammatical treatment of the negative particles “na” and "not" in the Welsh and English languages.
Special Report, for the year 1852, on the Church of England
Training Schools for Schoolmistresses. By Her Majesty's Inspector of Schools, the Rev. F. C. Cook, M.A., &c.
January 1853. In the report which I had the honor to lay before you last year I had the gratification of being able to state that there were manifest symptoms of a general improvement in the training schools for female teachers. The facts which have since presented themselves to my observation will fully justify that statement, and confirm the hope which I then expressed, that a large number of well-taught and completely trained schoolmistresses will be regularly supplied by these institutions. Whether, indeed, the annual supply, though large, will be sufficient, is a question with reference to which, upon further consideration, I have seen reason to modify the opinion which I then expressed. I have adduced facts in my general report of this year which point to a different conclusion. A searching inquiry into the actual state of elementary schools, the number of female teachers employed, and the average duration of their engagements, will assuredly prove that, unless the existing institutions are considerably enlarged, and others established, especially in the northern districts of England, a large proportion of schools most continue of necessity to be conducted by untrained and incompetent schoolmistresses.
My report of this year includes,-1. An account of each institution which I visited, either alone or accompanied by the Inspectors of the several districts, in the spring and summer of last year. 2. An inquiry into the proficiency of the students, as ascertained by the results of the general examination at Christmas 1851, with a brief reference to the papers worked by the candidates at Christmas 1852. And, 3, a few observations upon facts bearing upon the progress of elementary education, and of normal training as connected with these institutions.
In this tour of inspection I had generally the advantage of meeting the committees of management, and of conferring with the principals and governesses upon all subjects of importance. In some training schools I was assisted by the Inspector of the district, whom I have consulted upon all points which are noticed in the following reports. Having devoted a considerable time to the inspection of these institutions this year, I was enabled to form a more complete and exact idea of the principles upon which they are conducted, and the methods by which those principles are carried into effect, than on former occasions.
WHITELANDS, NATIONAL Society's TRAINING School.-In last year's report I gave a brief account of the extension and alteration of the buildings. No change of importance has been made since; but it may be useful to state how far the objects contemplated by the committee of management have been attained. It is certainly my impression that at present this institution is not deficient in any essential points connected with the external arrangements, although some improvements might be suggested in order to make it a model building. The principal lecture-room is very large, and admirably adapted for all purposes, and especially for collective lessons and examinations. The want of such a room is much felt in some institutions. The library is in this room; although far from complete, it contains a good assortment of books of reference, and is much used by the students. The committee-room, refectory, and the apartments of the teachers, and principal superintendent, are unusually good and convenient. Great praise is due to the architect for the arrangement of the dormito
ries. Each student has a neat and comfortable room, well lighted and well ventilated, and all are under the regular superintendence of the teachers, whose apartments are placed at the end of the corridors, giving them a perfect oversight and control over the whole. It is often made a question how far such unremitting oversight is attainable or desirable. For my own part I consider that the age of the students, and the previous training of a great proportion of them, render it necessary to take every precautionary measure; nor do I understand how the superintendent can be held respon. sible for the moral discipline of an institution, unless she has constant opportunities of observing the conduct of the students. The lower part of the building contains offices, in which the students are instructed in all branches of domestic economy by Mrs. Harris. Great pains have been taken to introduce a complete system of industrial training in such a manner as not to interfere with the professional instruction and education of the students. I understand that the difficulties, which were certainly formidable, have not been found insurmountable. The managers and all the officers of the institution are fully alive to the importance of the subject. The space for exercise is of course not very extensive; but it is of great value in such a situation. The domestic arrangements appear to combine every requisite for comfort, household discipline, and physical well-being. The infirmary has been little used, and the charges for medical attendance have been remarkably low during the last two years.
The staff of officers remains unchanged; the chaplain, the Rev. H. Baber, conducts the religious instruction, and exercises a general control or superintendence over the institution; he also discharges the duties of secretary, which of course occupy much time. Mr. Knighton gives lectures on grammar, geography, and history, superintends the practising schools, and instructs the students in the art and principles of teaching.
These gentlemen reside near, but not on the premises; there are two governesses, Miss Cuckow and Miss Gillott. I have more than once had occasion to record my opinion that these teachers discharge their duties with skill and remarkable diligence; still taking into consideration the large number of students,-at present seventy-nine-* the inequality of their attainments, the vast quantity of written papers which require careful revision and correction, the necessity of fixed and sufficient leisure hours for due preparation of lessons, and for private study, both for the sake of recreation and improvement,- I am clearly of opinion, that at least one additional governess is needed, nor do I think that two assistants would be too much. It would then be practicable to apportion to the officers just that amount and kind of work for which they are severally best adapted ; and I should anticipate a marked and continuous improvement in those branches of elementary instruction which form at once the most important and the most laborious part of a system of normal training.
The practising schools are under the general superintendence of Mr. Knighton; each school, however, is conducted by a certificated teacher, An account of these schools is given in the appendix; the organization, including both the external arrangements and system of teaching, is at present under the consideration of the committee. Hitherto it must be admitted that the results have not been satisfactory. The difficulties of combining model lessons, good methods of instruction, and practice in teaching for the students, with a steady, equable, and progressive improvement of the children, have certainly not been overcome; but the rooms are good and convenient, the mistress of the practising school has been well trained, and there is both the will, and I believe the power, to adopt and carry out a thorough system of elementary education. I could not report fairly upon
Compare the proportion of teachers to students at Warrington, Cheltenham, Derby, Brighton, the Home and Colonial, and Bishop Stortford,