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THE

ELEMENTARY

ARITHMETIC,

ORAL AND WRITTEN.

BY

ALBERT N. RAUB, A. M.,

PRINCIPAL OF THE CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA STATE NURMAL SCHOOL,

AND AUTHOR OF “THE COMPLETE ARITHMETIC.”

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PREFACE.

BELIEVING that Oral and Written Arithmetic form properly but a single study, and that they are best taught together, the author has in this, as in his Complete Arithmetic, combined both oral and written exercises in the same book. He claims that by this arrangement much valuable time may be saved to both teacher and pupil, and the science of Arithmetic be even better taught than by the plan of teaching the two from separate books.

In the composition of this book two main objects have been steadily kept in view : first, that of teaching the elements of Arithmetic thoroughly; and, secondly, that of training the pupil to think for himself and apply his knowledge of the science as he acquires it to the actual business operations of life. To accomplish the first of these objects, the author has adopted a natural and systematic gradation, not only of subjects, but also the divisions of these subjects and the various operations under these divisions. To this end also the problems have been systematically graded throughout the book.

To accomplish the second object, simple, concise solutions have been given as a basis where it was thought they could be of advantage; but in many cases the pupil is left to depend upon his own knowledge, gained from his previous study of the book, to frame his own solutions. He is required to give his explanation of many of the written solutions of the problems as given by the author.

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