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ing; it is not the eating, nor it is not the drinking, that is to be blamed, but the excess. So in pride.
A king is a thing men have made for their own sakes, for quietness sake; just as in a family one man is appointed to buy the meat: if every man should buy, or if there were many buyers, they would never agree; one would buy what the other liked not, or what the other had bought before, so there would be a confusion. But that charge being committed to one, he, according to his discretion, pleases all. If they have not what they would have one day, they shall have it the next, or something as good.
"Tis a vain thing to talk of an heretic, for a man for his heart can think no otherwise than he does think. In the primitive times there were many opinions, nothing scarce, but some or other held. One of these opinions being embraced by some prince, and received into his kingdom, the rest were condemned as heresies; and his religion, which was but one of the several opinions, first is said to be orthodox, and so to have continued ever since the apostles.
Learning and Wisdom.
No man is wiser for his learning: it may administer matter to work in, or objects to work upon; but wit and wisdom are born with a man.
Oracles ceased presently after Christ, as soon as nobody believed them just as we have no fortunetellers, nor wise men [wizards], when nobody cares for them. Sometimes you have a season for them, when people believe them; and neither of these, I conceive, wrought by the devil.
Dreams and Prophecies.
Dreams and prophecies do thus much good: they make a man go on with boldness and courage upon a danger, or a mistress. If he obtains, he attributes much to them; if he miscarries, he thinks no more of them or is no more thought of himself.
Nothing is text but what is spoken of in the Bible, and meant there for person and place; the rest is application, which a discreet man may do well; but 'tis his scripture, not the Holy Ghost's.
First, in your sermons use your logic, and then your rhetoric: rhetoric without logic is like a tree with leaves and blossoms, but no root.
Though some make light of libels, yet you may see by them how the wind sits: as, take a straw and throw it up into the air, you shall see by that which way the wind is, which you shall not do by casting up a stone. More solid things do not show the complexion of the times so well as ballads and libels.
Devils in the Head.
A person of quality came to my chamber in the Temple, and told me he had two devils in his head, (I wondered what he meant), and, just at that time, one of them bid him kill me. With that I began to be afraid, and thought he was mad. He said he knew I could cure him, and therefore intreated me to give him something, for he was resolved he would go to
TO 1649. nobody else. I, perceiving what an opinion he had of me, and that it was only melancholy that troubled him, took him in hand, warranted him, if he would follow my directions, to cure him in a short time. I desired him to let me be alone about an hour, and then to come again; which he was very willing to. In the in a piece of taffeta, and put strings to the taffeta; mean time, I got a card, and wrapped it up handsome and when he came, gave it to him to hang about his neck; withal charged him, that he should not disorder himself, neither with eating or drinking, but eat very little of supper, and say his prayers duly when he be well in three or four days. Within that time I went to bed; and I made no question but he would went to dinner to his house, and asked him how he did! He said he was much better, but not perfectly well; for, in truth, he had not dealt clearly with me; he had four devils in his head, and he perceived two of them were gone, with that which I had given him, but the other two troubled him still. 'Well,' said I, I am glad two of them are gone; I make no doubt to get away the other two likewise.' So I gave him another thing to hang about his neck. Three days after, he came to me to my chamber, and professed he was now as well as ever he was in his life, and did extremely thank me for the great care I had taken of him. I, fearing lest he might relapse into the like distemper, told him that there was none but that could cure the devils in the head, and that was myself and one physician more in the whole town Dr Harvey (whom I had prepared), and wished him, if ever he found himself ill in my absence, to go to him, for he could cure his disease as well as myself. The gentleman lived many years, and was never troubled after.
For the old sceptics that never would profess that they had found a truth, yet showed the best way to search for any, when they doubted as well of what those of the dogmatical sects too credulously received for infallible principles, as they did of the newest conclusions. They were indeed, questionless, too nice, and deceived themselves with the nimbleness of their own sophisms, that permitted no kind of established truth. But, plainly, he that avoids their disputing levity, yet, being able, takes to himself their liberty of inquiry, is in the only way that in all kinds of studies leads and lies open even to the sanctuary of truth; while others that are servile to common opinion and vulgar suppositions, can rarely hope to be admitted nearer than into the base court of her temple, which too speciously often counterfeits her inmost sanctuary.
The man who, along with Selden, at this time lish learning throughout civilised Europe, was his contributed most to extend the reputation of Engfriend JAMES USHER, archbishop of Armagh, and born at Dublin in 1581, and would have devoted primate of Ireland. This celebrated scholar was himself to the law, had not the death of his father, whose wishes pointed to that profession, allowed him to follow his own inclination for theology. He succeeded to his father's estate, but, wishing to devote himself uninterruptedly to study, gave it up to his brother, reserving for himself only a sufficiency for his maintenance at college and the purchase of books. He early displayed great zeal against the Roman Catholics; and, notwithstanding the mildness of his personal character, continued throughout his life to manifest a highly in
tolerant spirit towards them. In 1606 he visited England, and became intimate with Camden and Sir Robert Cotton, to the former of whom he communicated some valuable particulars about the an
lion, in 1641, drove him to England, where he settled at Oxford, then the residence of Charles. Subsequently the civil war caused him repeatedly to change his abode, which was finally the Countess of Peterborough's seat at Ryegate, where he died in 1656, at the age of seventy-five. Most of his writings relate to ecclesiastical history and antiquities, and were mainly intended to furnish arguments against the Catholics; but the production for which he is chiefly celebrated is a great chronological work entitled Annales, or Annals,' the first part of which was published in 1650, and the second in 1654. It is a chronological digest of universal history, from the creation of the world to the dispersion of the Jews in Vespasian's reign. The author intended to add a third part, but died before accomplishing his design. In this work, which was received with great applause by the learned throughout Europe, and has been several times reprinted on the continent, the author, by fixing the three epochs of the deluge, the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, and their return from Babylon, has reconciled the chronologies of sacred and profane history; and down to the present time, his chronological system is that which is generally received. A posthumous work, which he left unfinished, was printed in 1660, under the title of Chronologia Sacra; it is accounted a valuable production, as a guide to the study of sacred history, and as showing the grounds and calculations of the principal epochs of the Annals.'
cient state of Ireland and the history of Dublin: these were afterwards inserted by Camden in his 'Britannia.' For thirteen years subsequently to WILLIAM CHILLINGWORTH was a still more pro1607, Usher filled the chair of divinity in the uni-minent, though less bigoted, opposer of the docversity of Dublin, in performing the duties of which trines of the church of Rome, than his contempohe confined his attention chiefly to the controversies between the Protestants and Catholics. At the convocation of the Irish clergy in 1615, when they determined to assert their independence as a national church, the articles drawn up on the occasion emanated chiefly from his pen; and by asserting in them the Calvinistic doctrines of election and reprobation in their broadest aspect, as well as by his advocacy of the rigorous observance of the Sabbath, and his known opinion, that bishops were not a distinct order in the church, but only superior in degree to presbyters, he exposed himself to the charge of being a favourer of Puritanism. Having been accused as such to the king, he went over to England in 1619, and, in a conference with his majesty, so fully cleared himself, that he was ere long appointed to the see of Meath, and in 1624 to the archbishopric of Armagh. Soon afterwards he gave evidence of his intolerant spirit towards the Catholics, by acting as the leading man at the drawing up of a protestation commencing thus:-The religion of the Papists is superstitious and idolatrous; their faith and doctrine erroneous and heretical; their church, in respect of both, apostatical. To give them, therefore, a toleration, or to consent that they may freely exercise their religion, and profess their faith and doctrine, is a grievous sin.' At a subsequent period, Usher's zeal showed itself in a more creditable shape on the occasion of a letter from the king to the Irish archbishops, complaining of the increase of Popery in Ireland. He invited persons of the Catholic persuasion to his house, and endeavoured to convert them by friendly argument, in which attempt his great skill in disputation is said to have given him considerable success. During the political convulsions of Charles's reign, Usher, in a treatise entitled The Power of the Prince, and Obedience of the Subject, maintained the absolute unlawfulness of taking up arms against the king. The Irish rebel
rary Usher. This famous polemic was born at Oxford in 1602, and studied there. An early love of disputation, in which he possessed eminent skill, brought upon him such a habit of doubting, that his opinions became unsettled on all subjects, insomuch that a Jesuit, named Fisher, was able to argue him into a belief of the doctrines of Popery. The chief argument which led to this result was that which maintained the necessity of an infallible living guide in matters of faith, to which character
the Roman Catholic church appeared to him to be the maintenance, perhaps, of truth, but perhaps only best entitled. For some time after this, he studied the profession of it, in one place, and the oppression of at the Jesuits' college at Douay; but his friends in- it in a hundred? What will follow from it but the duced him to return to Oxford, where, after addi-preservation, peradventure, of unity, but, peradventional study of the points of difference, he declared ture, only of uniformity, in particular states and in favour of the Protestant faith. This drew him churches; but the immortalising the greater and into several controversies, in which he employed more lamentable divisions of Christendom and the the arguments that were afterwards methodically world? And, therefore, what can follow from it but, stated in his famous work entitled The Religion of perhaps, in the judgment of carnal policy, the temthe Protestants a Safe Way to Salvation, published in poral benefit and tranquillity of temporal states and 1637. This treatise, which has placed its author in kingdoms, but the infinite prejudice, if not the desothe first rank of religious controversialists, is con- lation, of the kingdom of Christ? But they sidered a model of perspicuous reasoning, and one that know there is a King of kings, and Lord of lords, of the ablest defences of the Protestant cause. The by whose will and pleasure kings and kingdoms stand author maintains that the Scripture is the only rule and fall, they know that to no king or state anything to which appeal ought to be made in theological dis- can be profitable which is unjust; and that nothing putes; that no church is infallible; and that the can be more evidently unjust than to force weak men, apostles' creed embraces all the necessary points by the profession of a religion which they believe not, of faith. The latitudinarianism of Chillingworth to lose their own eternal happiness, out of a vain and brought upon him the appellations of Arian and needless fear lest they may possibly disturb their temSocinian; and his character for orthodoxy was still poral quietness. There is no danger to any state from further shaken by his refusal to accept of prefer- any man's opinion, unless it be such an opinion, by ment, on condition of subscribing the thirty-nine which disobedience to authority, or impiety, is taught articles. His scruples having, however, been overor licensed (which sort, I confess, may justly be come, he was promoted, in 1638, to the chancellor- punished as well as other faults), or unless this sanship of Salisbury. During the civil war, he zealously guinary doctrine be joined with it, that it is lawful adhered to the royal party, and even acted as en- for him by human violence to enforce others to it. gineer at the siege of Gloucester in 1643. He died Therefore, if Protestants did offer violence to other in the succeeding year. Lord Clarendon, who was men's consciences, and compel them to embrace their one of his intimate friends, has drawn the following reformation, I excuse them not. character of this eminent divine: He was a man of so great a subtilty of understanding, and so rare a temper in debate, that, as it was impossible to provoke him into any passion, so it was very difficult to keep a man's self from being a little discomposed by his sharpness and quickness of argument, and instances, in which he had a rare facility, and a great advantage over all the men I ever knew.' Writing to a Catholic, in allusion to the changes of his own faith, Chillingworth says-'I know a man, that of a moderate Protestant turned a Papist, and the day that he did so, was convicted in conscience that his yesterday's opinion was an error. The same man afterwards, upon better consideration, became a doubting Papist, and of a doubting Papist a confirmed Protestant. And yet this man thinks himself no more to blame for all these changes, than a traveller, who, using all diligence to find the right way to some remote city, did yet mistake it, and after find his error and amend it. Nay, he stands upon his justification so far, as to maintain that his alterations, not only to you, but also from you, by God's mercy, were the most satisfactory actions to himself that ever he did, and the greatest victories that ever he obtained over himself, and his affections, in those things which in this world are most precious. In the same liberal spirit are written the following passages, extracted from his great work :—
[Against the Employment of Force in Religion.]
I have learned from the ancient fathers of the church, that nothing is more against religion than to force religion; and of St Paul, the weapons of the Christian warfare are not carnal. And great reason; for human violence may make men counterfeit, but cannot make them believe, and is therefore fit for nothing but to breed form without and atheism within. Besides, if this means of bringing men to embrace any religion were generally used (as, if it may be justly used in any place by those that have power, and think they have truth, certainly they cannot with reason deny, but that it may be used in every place by those that have power as well as they, and think they have truth as well as they), what could follow but
[Reason must be appealed to in Religious Discussions.]
But you that would not have men follow their reawhat would you have them follow their passions, or pluck out their eyes, and go blindfold? No, you say; you would have them follow authority. In God's name let them; we also would have them follow authority; for it is upon the authority of univer sal tradition that we would have them believe Scripture. But then, as for the authority which you would have them follow, you will let them see reason why they should follow it. And is not this to go a little about-to leave reason for a short turn, and then to come to it again, and to do that which you condemn in others? It being, indeed, a plain impossibility for any man to submit his reason but to reason; for he that doth it to authority, must of necessity think himself to have greater reason to believe that authority.
A collection of nine sermons, preached by Chillingworth before Charles I., has been frequently printed. From one of these we select the following animated expostulation with his noble hearers :
But how is this doctrine [of the forgiveness of injuries] received in the world? What counsel would men, and those none of the worst sort, give thee in such a case? How would the soberest, discreetest, well-bred Christian advise thee? Why, thus: If thy brother or thy neighbour have offered thee an injury, or an affront, forgive him? By no means; thou art utterly undone, and lost in reputation with the world, if thou dost forgive him. What is to be done, then? Why, let not thy heart take rest, let all other business and employment be laid aside, till thou hast his blood. How! A man's blood for an injurious, passionate speech-for a disdainful look! Nay, that is not all: that thou mayest gain among men the reputation of a discreet, well-tempered murderer, be sure thou killest him not in passion, when thy blood is hot and boiling with the provocation; but proceed with as great temper and settledness of reason, with as much discretion and preparedness, as thou wouldest to the communion : after several days' re
spite, that it may appear it is thy reason guides thee, and not thy passion, invite him kindly and courteously into some retired place, and there let it be determined whether his blood or thine shall satisfy the injury. Oh, thou holy Christian religion! Whence is it that thy children have sucked this inhuman poisonous blood, these raging fiery spirits? For if we shall inquire of the heathen, they will say, They have not learned this from us; or of the Mahometans, they will answer, We are not guilty of it. Blessed God! that it should become a most sure settled course for a man to run into danger and disgrace with the world, if he shall dare to perform a commandment of Christ, which is as necessary for him to do, if he have any hopes of attaining heaven, as meat and drink is for the maintaining of life! That ever it should enter into Christian hearts to walk so curiously and exactly contrary unto the ways of God! That whereas he sees himself every day, and hour almost, contemned and despised by thee, who art his servant, his creature, upon whom he might, without all possible imputation of unrighteousness, pour down all the vials of his wrath and indignation; yet he, notwithstanding, is patient and long-suffering towards thee, hoping that his long-suffering may lead thee to repentance, and beseeching thee daily by his ministers to be reconciled unto him; and yet thou, on the other side, for a distempered passionate speech, or less, should take upon thee to send thy neighbour's soul, or thine own, or likely both, clogged and oppressed with all your sins unrepented of (for how can repentance possibly consist with such a resolution?), before the tribunal-seat of God, to expect your final sentence; utterly depriving yourself of all the blessed means which God has contrived for thy salvation, and putting thyself in such an estate, that it shall not be in God's power almost to do thee any good. Pardon, I beseech you, my earnestness, almost intemperateness, seeing that it hath proceeded from so just, so warrantable a ground; and since it is in your power to give rules of honour and reputation to the whole kingdom, do not you teach others to be ashamed of this inseparable badge of your religion-charity and forgiving of offences: give men leave to be Christians without danger or dishonour; or, if religion will not work with you, yet let the laws of that state wherein you live, the earnest desires and care of your righteous prince, prevail with you.
fellowship under his friend Sir Henry Saville as
JOHN HALES (1584-1656) is by Mosheim classed with Chillingworth, as a prominent defender of rational and tolerant principles in religion. He was highly distinguished for his knowledge of the Greek language, of which he was appointed professor at Oxford in 1612. Six years afterwards, he went to Holland as chaplain to Sir Dudley Carleton, ambassador at the Hague; and on this occasion he attended the meetings of the famous synod of Dort, the proceedings of which are recorded in his published letters to Sir Dudley. Till this time, he held the Calvinistic opinions in which he had been educated; but the arguments of the Arminian champion Episcopius, urged before the synod, made him, according to his own expression, bid John Calvin good night.' His letters from Dort are cha-sophers and Christian fathers.§ The subjoined exracterised by Lord Clarendon as the best memorial of the ignorance, and passion, and animosity, and injustice of that convention." Although the eminent learning and abilities of Hales would certainly have led to high preferment in the church, he chose rather to live in studious retirement, and accordingly withdrew to Eton college, where he had a private
The style of his sermons is clear, simple, and in general correct; and the subjects are frequently illustrated with quotations from the ancient philo
* Clarendon's Life of Himself, i. 27.
*Athenæ Oxon. xi. 124.
Preface to The Golden Remains of the Ever-memorable
Aubrey's Lives of Eminent Persons, ii. 363.
§ In the year 1765, an edition of his works was published by Lord Hailes, who took the unwarrantable liberty of modernising the language according to his own taste. This, we learn from Boswell, met the strong disapprobation of Dr Johnson. 'An author's language, sir,' said he, is a characteristical
tracts are from a sermon, Of Inquiry and Private your eyes to direct you, and your legs to support you, Judgment in Religion. in your course of integrity and sanctity; you may no more refuse or neglect the use of it, and rest yourselves upon the use of other men's reason, than neglect your own and call for the use of other men's eyes and legs. The man in the gospel, who had bought a farm, excuses himself from going to the marriage-supper, because himself would go and see it: but we have taken an easier course; we can buy our farm, and go to supper too, and that only by saving our pains to see it; we profess ourselves to have made a great purchase of heavenly doctrine, yet we refuse to see it and survey it ourselves, but trust to other men's eyes, and our surveyors and wot you to what end i I know not, except it be, that so we may with the better leisure go to the marriage-supper; that, with Haman, we may the more merrily go in to the banquet provided for us; that so we may the more freely betake ourselves to our pleasures, to our profits, to our trades, to our preferments and ambition.
Would you see how ridiculously we abuse ourselves when we thus neglect our own knowledge, and securely hazard ourselves upon others' skill? Give me leave, then, to show you a perfect pattern of it, and to report to you what I find in Seneca the philosopher, recorded of a gentleman in Rome, who, being purely ignorant, yet greatly desirous to seem learned, procured himself many servants, of which some he caused to study the poets, some the orators, some the historians, some the philosophers, and, in a strange kind of fancy, all their learning he verily thought to be his own, and persuaded himself that he knew all that! his servants understood; yea, he grew to that height of madness in this kind, that, being weak in body and diseased in his feet, he provided himself of wrestlers and runners, and proclaimed games and races, and performed them by his servants; still applauding himself, as if himself had done them. Beloved, you are this man: when you neglect to try the spirits, to study the means of salvation yourselves, but content yourselves to take them upon trust, and repose your selves altogether on the wit and knowledge of us that are your teachers, what is this in a manner but to account with yourselves, that our knowledge is yours, that you know all that we know, who are but your servants in Jesus Christ?
[Private Judgment in Religion.]
It were a thing worth looking into, to know the reason why men are so generally willing, in point of religion, to cast themselves into other men's arms, and, leaving their own reason, rely so much upon another man's. Is it because it is modesty and humility to think another man's reason better than our own? Indeed, I know not how it comes to pass, we account it a vice, a part of envy, to think another man's goods, or another man's fortunes, to be better than our own; and yet we account it a singular virtue to esteem our reason and wit meaner than other men's. Let us not mistake ourselves; to contemn the advice and help of others, in love and admiration to our own conceits, to depress and disgrace other men's, this is the foul vice of pride: on the contrary, thankfully to entertain the advice of others, to give it its due, and ingenuously to prefer it before our own if it deserve it, this is that gracious virtue of modesty but altogether to mistrust and relinquish our own faculties, and commend ourselves to others, this is nothing but poverty of spirit and indiscretion. I will not forbear to open unto you what I conceive to be the causes of this so general an error amongst men. First, peradventure the dregs of the church of Rome are not yet sufficiently washed from the hearts of many men. We know it is the principal stay and supporter of that church, to suffer nothing to be inquired into which is once concluded by them. Look through Spain and Italy; they are not men, but beasts, and, Issachar-like, patiently couch down under every burden their superiors lay upon them. Secondly, a fault or two may be in our own ministry; thus, to advise men (as I have done) to search into the reasons and grounds of religion, opens a way to dispute and quarrel, and this might breed us some trouble and disquiet in our cures, more than we are willing to undergo; therefore, to purchase our own quiet, and to banish all contention, we are content to nourish this still humour in our hearers; as the Sibarites, to procure their ease, banished the smiths, because their trade was full of noise. In the meantime, we do not see that peace, which ariseth out of ignorance, is but a kind of sloth, or moral lethargy, seeming quiet because it hath no power to move. Again, maybe the portion of knowledge in the miniEducation and breeding is nothing else but the ster himself is not over-great; it may be, therefore, authority of our teachers taken over our childhood. good policy for him to suppress all busy inquiry in Now, there is nothing which ought to be of less force his auditory, that so increase of knowledge in them with us, or which we ought more to suspect: for might not at length discover some ignorance in him. childhood hath one thing natural to it, which is a Last of all, the fault may be in the people themselves, who, because they are loath to take pains (and search great enemy to truth, and a great furtherer of deceit : into the grounds of knowledge is evermore painful), than a child: and our daily experience shows how what is that? Credulity. Nothing is more credulous are well content to take their case, to gild their vice strangely they will believe either their ancients or with goodly names, and to call their sloth modesty, one another, in most incredible reports. For, to be and their neglect of inquiry filial obedience. These able to judge what persons, what reports are credible, reasons, beloved, or some of kin to these, may be the is a point of strength of which that age is not capable: motives unto this easiness of the people, of entertain-The chiefest sinew and strength of wisdom,' saith ing their religion upon trust, and of the neglect of Epicharmus, is not easily to believe.' Have we not, the inquiry into the grounds of it.
[Children Ready to Believe.]
To return, therefore, and proceed in the refutation of this gross neglect in men of their own reason, and casting themselves upon other wits. Hath God given you eyes to see, and legs to support you, that so your selves might lie still, or sleep, and require the use of other men's eyes and legs? That faculty of reason which is in every one of you, even in the meanest that hears me this day, next to the help of God, is part of his composition, and is also characteristical of the age in which he writes. Besides, sir, when the language is changed, we are not sure that the sense is the same. No, sir; I am sorry Lord Hailes has done this.'-Boswell's Life of Johnson, iv. 282; edit. 1823.
then, great cause to call to better account, and exa-
[Reverence for Ancient Opinions.]
Antiquity, what is it else (God only excepted) but man's authority born some ages before us? Now, for