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AN

INTRODUCTION

TO

GEOGRAPHY

AND

THE USE OF THE GLOBES,

FOR THE

USE OF SCHOOLS.

BY JAMES CHARLTON,

MASTER OF THE ANCHORAGE SCHOOL, GATESHEAD.

NEWCASTLE:

PRINTED BY T. AND J. HODGSON; AND SOLD BY E. CHARNLEY,
AND J. AND R. AKENHEAD; GEO. ANDREWS, DURHAM ;
AND JAMES BOOKER, NO. 40, WARWICK-LANE,

NEWGATE-STREET, LONDON.

(Price 3s. 6d. bound.)

1829.

51.

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PREFACE.

The plan of this work comprehends two distinct courses of geographical instruction. The first is comprised in the larger type, together with the tabular divisions of countries; the second embraces, along with these, the information contained in the smaller type. The questions for examination are also printed in type of two sizes ;-the larger of which referring to the first course, and the smaller to the second. It is intended that the whole of that portion of the work which is printed in the larger type should be committed to memory, except when the pupil is very young, or his time limited; in such cases a considerable proportion may be dispensed with, by an attentive perusal, and a reference to maps. The information contained in the type of smaller size should be carefully read over, and the questions adapted to it answered in the pupil's own language.

The practice of putting questions to the pupil upon those portions of a book which he has studied, is the most effectual of all methods to fix in his mind the knowledge which he has acquired; and, that this may be done to the most advantage, the teacher

ought to vary the questions in such a way as to arrest the attention of the pupil, and to convince himself that the answer is well understood and firmly imprinted on the youthful mind. In order the more completely to secure this most important object, it is desirable, that, along with every new lesson, a portion of what has been previously gone over should be carefully revised. As an acquaintance with the natural features of the globe, and the position of the countries and cities, constitutes a material part of the information to be gained from a book of this kind; and as Maps are one of the best means of acquiring this, a constant reference to them is indispensable, from the very commencement of the study to its close. The boundaries of every continent and country, the shores of every ocean and sea, the course of every river, the situation of every mountain, the site of every city, all, in short, that is of consequence and marked in an atlas, should be sought for and discovered there. In order to ascertain the accuracy of the pupil's knowledge, he should be examined on a skeleton map, in which the outlines only are drawn. He should then be required to sketch from memory, the outlines of the country upon a slate or paper, to write the names of the seas and countries around it, to draw the rivers and mountains, and to mark the principal places upon it. He may then proceed, if time permits, to the construction of maps and charts.

AN
INTRODUCTION

TO

GEOGRAPHY.

DEFINITIONS.

1. GEOGRAPHY is the science which describes the surface of the earth, as consisting of land and water.

OF LAND.

2. The land is divided into continents, islands, peninsulas, isthmuses, promontories, mountains, and coasts.

3. A CONTINENT is a large extent of land, containing several countries not separated by any ocean or sea; as, America.

4. An ISLAND is a smaller portion of land surrounded by water; as, Great Britain.

5. A PENINSULA is a tract of land almost encompassed by water; as, the Morea, in Greece.

6. An Isthmus is a neck of land joining two portions of land together ; as, the isthmus of Darien.''

7. A PROMONTÓRY is a portion of land projecting into the sea, the end of which is called a cape; as, the Cape of Good Hope.

B

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