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body grows, is repaired, and all its secre- occasion considerable differences. For intions are produced at the expense of arte- stance, the quantity of oxygen consumed is rial blood, with one exception; the bile is increased by exercise, and, according to elaborated in the liver from venous blood, Peguin, in a ratio nearly four times in venous ramifications.
greater than when the body is quietly at What is arterial blood ? It is blood rest. Prout, however, observes, from nuwhich has been immediately subjected merous experiments, that exercise, when to the influence of atmospheric air, in the moderate, increases the consumption of cellular structure of the lungs, in mam- oxygen, but that when continued so as to malia, birds, and reptiles, or of water in produce fatigue, the consumption is dimithe gills of fishes; and it is the oxygen of nished : that the exhilarating passions apthe air and of the water which effects that pear to be attended with an increased conchange, or imparts those qualities, by which sumption ; the depressing passions, togethis vital stream is rendered fitted for the ther with tea, alcohol, (spirits of wine, or great demands of the system.
liquors,) and sleep, to be attended with a It may not here be out of place to allude diminished consumption ; and that the to the nature of the blood, as far as che consumption varies during the twenty-four mistry has been able to throw light upon hours of the day, being on an average it. When this fluid is taken from the body, greatest in the forenoon, and at its lowest it quickly separates, if suffered to remain ebb from eight o'clock in the evening till at rest, into two parts, the one part being three o'clock in the morning. a fluid termed serum, the other a solid In all diurnal animals, the season of mass, called crassamentum. The serum their greatest activity is the forenoon, at consists of water, albumen, muriate of which time also the consumption of oxygen soda, and potass, phosphate of soda, and is the greatest, while lassitude and fatigue animal matter. The crassamentum is di
come on gradually in the afternoon, when visible into two parts, namely, fibrine, the consumption of oxygen is diminished. (which is composed of carbon, oxygen, In nocturnal animals, the reverse most hydrogen, and azote,) and colouring parti- probably takes place. It would appear, cies. These colouring particles are glo- also, that temperature exerts much inbules of extreme minuteness, formerly sup- Auence in regulating the consumption of posed to contain oxyde of iron in their this principle, the quantity being greatest composition, a theory unsupported by the during cold, as if the system under such most modern experiments.
circumstances had a greater demand upon We have said that venous blood is dark, the sanguinary Auid, in order to the due and that arterial blood is bright scarlet ; maintenance of its vital energies. M. now what is the operation by which this change is effected ? It would appear from experiments, that in its course through the SCRIPTURE EXPLANATIONS. NO, XXIII. system, the arterial blood gradually loses its character as such, in supplying the de- A POPULAR superstition among the anmands of the vital functions; and at the cient Arabians, was the azlam, or divinasame time acquires, as it is said, a certain tion by arrows; those used for the purpose portion of carbon ; which carbon, when the being kept in the temple of some idol, in biood is sent to the lungs, unites with the whose presence they were consulted. The oxygen of the atmospheric air, taken in art was thus performed : three arrows were during inspiration, so as to form a com- enclosed in a vessel ; on the first was inpound called by chemists carbonic acid scribed, “God command me:" on the segas, which, with azote, the other principle cond, “ God forbid me;" the third was of the air, is returned during expiration. plain. If the first was drawn out, the supThe blood having thus lost the carbon, to pliant prosecuted his design ; if the second, which its dark colour was owing, now be- he deferred it for a year; if the third, he comes of a vivid red. Such is the only drew again, until he received an answer, change appreciable by chemistry; and va- not forgetting to repeat his present to the rious philosophers have endeavoured to as-idol, or the priest, each time. No affair of certain the quantity of oxygen consumed by importance was undertaken, be it a journey, the human subject in a given space. a marriage, a battle, or a foray, without the
Allen and Pepys found it to be 26-6 advice of these sacred implements. Matters cubic inches in a minute. Sir Humphrey of dispute, such as the division of property Davy, 31-6; and Murray, 36.
or plunder, were settled by an appeal to Various states of the system, however, them The ancient Greeks practised this
DIVINATION BY ARROWS.
sort of divination, as did the Chaldeans; tion; the eggs that produce drones being for we learn from Ezekiel xxi. 21, that the laid in the course of April and May, and King of Babylon, in marching against Je- their destruction being usually accomrusalem," stood at the parting of the way, plished in the months of July and Auto use divination, making his arrows bright,” gust. The bees then, as M. Huber ob(or, as Jerome explains it, mixing and serves, chase them about, and pursue them shaking them together,) that he might know to the bottom of the hives, where they which city first to attack.- Andrew Crichton. assemble in crowds. At the same time,
numerous carcases of drones may be seen on the ground before the hives. Hence he conjectured, though he never could
detect them engaged in this work upon (Character and Age, concluded.)
the combs, that they were stung to death Some insects, as flies, moths, and butter- | by the workers. To ascertain how their flies, and indeed the majority of these death was occasioned, he caused a table creatures, live a few days or weeks, and to be glazed, on which he placed six a comparatively small number, six, nine, hives, and under this table he, being twelve, or fifteen months-aperiod beyond blind, employed the patient and indefatiwhich, the life of perfect insects rarely gable Burnens, who was to him instead extends. Some, however, certainly en- of eyes, to watch their proceedings. On joy a longer existence in the perfect state. the 4th of July, this accurate observer saw Mr. Baker kept one of the darkling bee- the massacre going on in all the hives at tles alive under a glass upwards of three the same time, and attended by the same years. Rosil fed the rose beetle with circumstances. The table was crowded fruit and moist white bread for as long a with workers, who, apparently in great period. Esper kept our most common rage, darted on the drones as soon as they water beetle in water in a large white arrived at the bottom of the hive, seizing vessel, feeding it with meat, for three them by their antennæ, their legs, and years and a half. Audebert is stated to their wings; and killing them by violent have kept a spider for several years. In strokes of their sting, which they genethis respect, insects follow a law very rally inserted between the segments of different to that which obtains amongst the abdomen. The moment this fearful vertebrate animals. In these the duration weapon entered their body, the poor of their life is in proportion to the term helpless creatures expanded their wings of their growth; those which attain to and expired. After this, as if fearful that maturity the latest, in almost every case they were not sufficiently despatched, the live the longest. In insects, on the con- bees repeated their strokes, so that they trary, we often meet with the very reverse
often found it difficult to extricate their of this rule. Thus the larva of the great stings. On the following day they were goat moth is three years, that of the cab- equally busy in the work of slaughter; bage butterfly not three months, in at- but their fury, their own drones having taining maturity; yet the perfect insects perished, was chiefly vented on those live equally long. One insect, which in which, after escaping from the neighbourits first state lives four years, lives as a ing hives, had sought refuge with them. beetle only eight or ten days; some ephe- Not content with destroying those that meræ, whose larvæ have been two years were in the perfect state, they attacked in acquiring their full size, live only an also such male pupæ as were left in their hour; while the flesh fly, whose larva cells; and then dragging them forth, sucked has attained to maturity in three or four the fluid from their bodies, and cast them days, will exist several weeks.
out of the hive. It appears that the stimulus of heat A fact, the reverse of this, is recorded shortens the lives of insects, and conse- by Morier, with respect to the locusts. quently that colds tends to lengthen them. He affirms, that when the female has done Thus Buffon found that, other circum. laying her eggs, she is surrounded and stances being alike, the silk-worm moths killed by the males. If this be admitted, placed in northern, lived longer than two instances have been given in which, by those exposed to a southern aspect, a law of nature, the life of insects is short
It is also a singular fact, that the drones ened by violence. Still, in these as well of a bee-hive are at a certain period slaugh- as others, the fatal blow is not struck till tered without mercy by the workers. ' the creature, however inconsiderable, has Their life is, indeed, of very short dura. fully answered the purposes of its being.
discipline were soon rendered more conTas ideas of obedience ought to be spicuous, during the very long illness of early and firmly associated with ideas of this amiable mother; who, when confined security and happiness. Hence the imbe- to her chamber, continued to regulate her cility and helplessness of infancy afford us family through the medium of her eldest the means of effecting one salutary purpose. daughter, then a child of eleven years old. Entirely dependent on the wisdom and ex- | Affectionate as obedient, this amiable girl perience of others, to guard them from the not only attended her mother's sick bed danger to which they are hourly exposed, with the most tender assiduity, but, acting children might be easily made to learn thé as her mother's substitute towards her little advantages of obedience; and thus they brothers and sisters, directed their conduct infallibly would learn it if obedience were and behaviour, and was obeyed with the properly enforced. Were all prohibitions same unmurmuring submission as if their made absolute, and the necessity of issuing mother had herself been present. them guarded as much as possible, so that
Was her mother so ill as to render noise they should not often occur, it would go far particularly injurious ? All was, by her towards rendering obedience natural and care, hushed into silence. She invented easy, for it would then appear a matter of plays for the little ones, which would make necessity, and, as such, be submitted to no disturbance, and taught them to speak without reluctance.
in whispers. It was a sufficient reward for I was some years ago intimately ac- their forbearance to be told by her that quainted with a respectable and happy mamma sent them a kiss, and thanked family, where the behaviour of the children them for their goodness, and that she had excited my admiration. One morning, on
been the better for it. What a foundation entering the drawing-room, I found the was here laid for the operation of benevolittle group at high play round their fond lence! mother, who was encouraging their sportive Let us compare this with the behaviour vivacity, which was at that time noisy of an indulged child, to whom the gratifienough, but which, on my entrance, she cation of self-will had become habitual, hushed with a single word. No bad hu- who had never been taught to submit mour followed. But as the spirits, which to aught but force, and to whom submishad been elevated by the preceding amuse
sion was consequently hateful, exciting all ment, could not at once sink into a state of the painful emotions of anger, indignation, quiescence, the judicious mother did not and resentment. I have known such a require what she knew could not without child make use of a parent's illness as a difficulty be complied with ; but, calmly means of procuring the gratification of all addressing them, gave the choice of re- its capricious humours; when, seeing the maining in the room without any noise, or pains that were taken to prevent noise, it of going to their own apartment, where would, on the least opposition, cry out, they might make what noise they pleased. “ If you don't give it me this minute, I'll The eldest and the youngest of the four roar!” and accordingly she would roar till preferred the former, while the two others she had what she wanted. What are the went away to the nursery. Those who dispositions which, in the latter case, must stayed, amused themselves by cutting paper have naturally been inspired? To the in a corner, without giving any interruption pleasing associations attached to the gratifito our conversation. I could not refrain cation of self-will, the idea of inficting from expressing my admiration at their be pain upon others must likewise be attached. haviour, and begged to know by what art What a foundation for that cruelty which is she had attained such a perfect government always allied to a tyrannical disposition ! of her children's wills and actions. “By Nor is this all. The exultation consequent no art,” returned this excellent parent, upon thus carrying her point, must have “ but that of teaching them from the very engendered pride; and pride, by aggravating cradle an implicit submission. Having opposition into injury, brought forth anger never once been permitted to disobey me, and resentment; and from the extravagance they have no idea of attempting it; but of childish humours, this opposition must you see I always give them a choice when frequently occur, so that these hateful pasit can be done with propriety; if it cannot, sions must soon gain the strength of habit, whatever I say, they know to be a law, and a propensity to them be for ever fixed like that of the Medes and Persians, which and rooted in the disposition. Let us supaltereth not." The happy effects of this pose the same indulgence continued through
the early stages of youth, in the fond hope | unto himself, not imputing their sins unto that reason will conquer passion as the them, 2 Cor. v. 19. Because, as God child advances to maturity. Were the na- stands in relation to man according to the ture of passion, with regard to the influence tenor of the covenant of works, and so out it has upon the judgment, properly attended of Christ, he could not, without prejudice to, I believe this fond hope would soon be to his justice, be reconciled unto them, nor annihilated. On a mind under the domi- have any thing to do with them otherwise nion of passion, the calm suggestions of than in wrath and indignation; therefore, reason can have little influence, supposing to the intent that justice and mercy might the calm suggestions of reason possible in meet together, and righteousness and peace such circumstances. But it is not possible; might embrace each other, and so God for to a mind under the dominion of the stand in relation to man according to the selfish passions, that appears to be just and tenor of the covenant of grace, he took our reasonable, which is, in reality, unjust and nature, and became “God manifest in unreasonable in the last degree ; because the flesh,” that so he might speak peace the ideas of just and reasonable are all, to his people. Sweetly saith Luther, beby pride, associated with the idea of the cause the nature of God was otherwise gratification of self-will.- From Miss higher than we are able to attain unto, Hamilton's Letters on Education.
therefore hath he humbled himself unto us, If this reasoning be correct, and daily and taken our nature upon him, and so facts lamentably prove its correctness, it put himself into Christ : bere he looketh gives a very humbling view of human for us, here he will receive us; and he that nature; and, at the same time, most for- seeketh him here shall find him. This, cibly urges upon parents the indispensable saith God the Father, is my well-beloved duty of wisely and firmly using that autho- Son, in whom I am well pleased, Matt. iii. rity with which Providence has intrusted 17. We must not think that this voice them, very early and steadily to counteract came from heaven for Christ's own sake, the risings of innate depravity, and, at the but for our sakes, even as Christ himself same time, to imbue the infant mind saith, John xii. 30. The truth is, Christ with the principles of christianity, from had no need that it should be said unto which alone we may reasonably expect the him, This is my well-beloved Son; he knew production of "whatsoever things are just, that from all eternity, and that he should pure, lovely, and of good report.”
still so remain, though these words had not been spoken from heaven: therefore by
these words God the Father, in Christ his There is a law in force with respect to Son, cheereth the hearts of poor sinners, us, the nature of which should be well un- and greatly delighteth them with singular derstood. The laws by which the universe comfort and heavenly sweetness, assuring is governed, must all have proceeded from them, that whosoever is married unto its Creator and Ruler. To determine what Christ, and so in him by faith, he is as acis proper to such a government, is reserved ceptable to God the Father as Christ him!0 his supreme wisdom; and to enforce it
, self, Eph. i. 6. He hath made us accepted is the province of his supreme power. in the Beloved. Wherefore, if you would Wherever he has bestowed a capableness be acceptable to God, and be his dear of serving him, there a law or rule has child, then by faith cleave unto his bebeen imparted, more or less immediately, loved Son Christ, so shall the love and for its guidance. By means of his will, as
favour of God be as deeply insinuated thus expressed, the whole of his intelligent into you as into Christ himself; and creatures are divided into two classes--the so shall God the Father, together with his obedient and disobedient. The obedient beloved Son, wholly possess you and be dwell in heaven, and are happy; the dis- possessed of you ; and so God and Christ obedient are on earth and in the regions of and you shall become entirely one, accorddarkness, and are in a state the opposite of ing to Christ's prayer, John xvii. 22 ; that happiness. This is the view of the Divine they may be one in us, as thou and I are government which occurs throughout the one.”—Marrow of Modern Divinity. scriptures; and, regarded thus generally, it commends itself to our ordinary notions of rectitude.
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AMONG the splendid animals of the an- The koodoo, as this antelope is termed telope tribe, which inhabit the southern by the colonists of the Cape, is equal to a and central regions of Africa, one of the horse in magnitude, the adult male being most beautiful and magnificent is the upwards of five feet high at the shoulders, koodoo, (antilope strepsiceros, Pallas,) of Both sexes have horns, spirally twisted, which we here present our readers with a and of great strength. In the male they sketch. In the collections of Europe, often attain to enormous dimensions, and, this noble animal is very rarely to be met wielded as they are by an animal of prodiwith; we allude to museum specimens; gious muscular power, must prove terrifie for in a living state, we believe, there is weapons. The neck is thick and strong, po instance on record of its having been and the whole of the body is firmly and brought to our quarter of the globe. compactly built, so as to unite strength