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WIND.

them richly and long. Othat we had been the inhabitants, is perverted into the instru." wise, and not neglected our day of grace, ment of their poverty, feebleness, and deneither abused the riches of thy goodness! moralization. More than thirty millions of The time of visitation is come. That de- gallons of this destructive fire-water are anstructive plague, from which Thou for so nually consumed by a population of three long a time preservedst us, now spreads millions ! even in our land dread and sorrow. 0 our fathers' God, we know not what Thou hast decreed concerning us; but we know that from Thee only proceed life and death. SENECA defines wind to be air flowing, Lord of life and death, we humble ourselves and he illustrates this by saying, that a under thy mighty hand. Grant patience current of air is to the atmosphere during under suffering ; hope and confidence in a calm, what a river is to a lake. Nothing Thee, when human help is no more. In- is wanted to complete the accuracy of this cline our hearts to reverence thy holy com- definition as far as the effect is concerned. mandments, to obedience to our beloved But Seneca, though he refutes and exposes rulers, to mutual love, aid, and comfort. some erroneous attempts to explain this Then, O Father, Thy will be done, whe- phenomenon, and asserts that the air has ther it be for life or death! Before Thee, the power of contracting and expanding then, Eternal Compassion, do we prostrate itself, yet seems not clearly to have seen ourselves with our petitions, confiding, not that this contraction and expansion were in our own righteousness, but in Thy great caused by the agency of heat alone. To inpity, for Jesus Christ's sake. Amen!" clude the effect and the cause in the same

At the same time, the Consistory of definition, wind may be defined, a current Stockholm exhorted the clergy of the ca- of air moving in one direction to restore pital to urge on their hearers the propriety the equilibrium, which has been broken by of each one setting his house in order, and the rarefaction caused by the excess of seeking, while in health, a preparation for heat in one place, above that of another; sudden death. But no day of humiliation or, in the words of Professor Playfair, was set apart; no call to national repent- “ the disturbance of the equilibrium of the ance heard ; no effort made to improve the atmosphere by the unequal distribution of visitation as a means of awakening sinners. heat."

It would be no difficult matter, were it. To exemplify this description, we may necessary, to make out a dark catalogue of begin with the most striking instance, and national sins, each meriting such a visita- say, as the air will always move from the tion as that now sent. The word of God is colder to the warmer regions, that if the lamentably neglected or ridiculed; the sab- earth was at rest, and its surface covered baths of the Lord most disgracefully pro- with water, an atmospheric tide would faned; the solemnity of that day seems a flow in an uninterrupted manner from the thing unknown, and unacknowledged. In- poles to the equator, and return again todividuals and corporate bodies hesitate not wards the poles by an upper current. to find their own pleasure on that day; and This motion is combined with the moin the most public manner show their dis- tion of the earth in its rotation round its regard for the holy sabbath. The theatre, axis; hence we have, on the north side of and similar places of amusement, are regu- the equator, a north-east, and on the south larly opened on the Lord's day evening ; side, a south-east wind, gradually declining and I have known no less than twenty-one towards the east as we approach the equapublic balls advertised to be held in Stock-tor. This is called the trade wind, and is holm on one sabbath. “Shall I not visit the most considerable and extensive instance for these things ? saith the Lord.”

of irregularity. But, after this, there is a Another crying national sin is the abuse numberless variety of causes, which produce of the precious fruits of the earth. Consi- further irregularity: one of them in partidering the nature of the soil and climate cular consists in the different capacities here, the goodness of God is conspicuous which the parts of the earth's surface have in granting generally a sufficient crop; but for acquiring and communicating heat. The the food of the land, the grain that God so sea, for example, that washes the margin of kindly vouchsases, is destroyed to produce an island, will have a greater capacity for that curse of the country, brandy. Nothing heat than the land, because the heat peneis laid up to meet the possibility of a fail-trates into the mass of the body heated ing crop the next harvest; and thus what is with greater facility in one case than in the granted by the Creator to feed and strengthen other: hence the air at the surface of the

1

earth will be warmer than it is at the sur- disposed them in different places : but, face of the sea ; and consequently, the air, in the first instance, that he might not moving to the warmer spot, we shall have suffer the air to become inactive, but might a sea breeze. At night, on the contrary, render it useful by a constant agitation, the heat will pass from the earth's surface and fit for the purposes of life to those who with greater rapidity by radiation, than it were destined to breathe it. Next, that he does from that of the sea, the air will be might supply the earth with rains, and reof course warmer at sea than on land; strain them at the same time from bethe breeze will therefore set in from the coming excessive. For the winds not only land to the sea; whence the land breeze. draw the clouds together, but part them

Mr. Clare exemplifies this by the fol- asunder, that the showers may be distrilowing experiment:

buted over the whole globe. The corn “ In the middle of a vessel of water, could not be enjoyed, if the superfluous place a water-plate of warm water, the particles which are mingled with the essenwater in the vessel representing the ocean, tial had not been fanned by the breeze, if and the plate the island, rarefying the there were not something to awaken the air above it. Then hold a lighted can- standing corn, and expose the latent grain dle over the cold water, and blow it by bursting its integuments or coverings. out, and the smoke will move towards What is that which has given to different the plate. But if the plate be filled with nations the means of commercial intercold water, and the fluid in the vessel be course, and has brought together tribes warm, the smoke will move in a contrary scattered in different places ? The wind, direction.

which would be one of the vast benefits of If we advance near a marsh, or enter a nature, did not the madness of men turn it wood in warm weather, a cool breeze pro- to their own injury.” ceeding from them seems to welcome our approach. The air which has been cooled

SCRIPTURE REFERENCES TO THE WIND. by evaporation in one case, and by a shade impervious to the sun's rays in the other, is The Hebrews acknowledged four prinin motion to restore the balance, which cipal winds, as we do, Ezek. xli. 16-18; has been disturbed by the greater warmth Solomon says, in Prov. xxv. 23, that the of the circumambient atmosphere, or that north wind disperses the clouds, and the which is extended round the wood or rain ; but other interpreters translate it, “ it the marsh. A little before sun-rise, the produces rain.” air sometimes, as if awakened by the near The powerful operations and motions of approach of the sun, rises in a gentle God's Spirit, quickening or reviving the breeze, and advances to salute him. This heart towards God, are compared to the is occasioned by the greater warmth of blowing of the wind, John iii. 8. For as the region which has already felt the influ- it is with the wind, man perceives, by ence of his rays. The ancient naturalists the effects of it, that there is such a were misled by a reluctance to suppose thing, and that it does blow, yet his that a change of temperature which they power cannot restrain it, neither can his confessed had some share in the production reason reach to know whence it rises, or of wind, was adequate to occasion those from how far it comes, or how far it terrible effects which they beheld in a reaches ; so is the spiritual change wrought storm. But the progress we have made in in the soul ; freely, where, in whom, when, discovery has taught us, that, if two solu- and in what measure, the Spirit pleases ; tions of any phenomenon are proposed, for and also powerfully, so as to make an eviwhich the arguments are equally balanced, dent sensible change, though the manner we ought to prefer that which is most sim- thereof is incomprehensible. ple, and least imposing.

Elsewhere the motions of the Spirit are The goodness of the Creator manifested set forth by wind; as in Canticles iv. 16. in the silent and beneficent effects of the The judgments of God are compared to wind, is acknowledged by the Roman wind; as in Isa. xxvii. 8. “ He stayeth his moralist quoted above, whose words we rough wind in the day of his east wind ;" will translate with as little paraphrase He assuages the fury of the storm, and mias possible :-" Therefore, among all the tigates the severity of the judgment. other works of Providence, this one also It is said in Isa. xxvi. 18,

- We have might be regarded as worthy of our been with child, we have, as it were, admiration. For it was not for a solitary brought forth wind;" that is, We have reason that he contrived the winds, or been in expectation of help, and deliver

extent.

ance out of our troubles, but our hopes the rule. The government is absolute, have proved empty and unsuccessful, and and of the most despotic kind. It is the we have not been able to do any thing to- patriarchal system carried out to its fullest wards our own deliverance.

The first of all duties is for chilSo in Hos. xii. 1, “ Ephraim feedeth on dren to obey their parents; and for the wind;” The ten tribes flatter themselves people to obey the emperor, the great with vain deluding hopes of help from the parent of all. On the other hand, the Egyptians and Assyrians.

power of parents over their children, and In Matt. vii. 25, all sorts of temptations of the emperor over the people, is absolute, are thus described : “The rains descended, including that of life and death. the floods came, the winds blew.”

To show how deeply this principle is And, in Jer. iv. 11, 12, the coming in of inwrought into the very structure of society, an army swiftly and fiercely, destroying all a tract was some time since condemned as before them, is expressed by “a dry wind, heretical, because it taught that reverence a full wind.

is first due to God; which, they said, is The apostle Paul compares vain and in contrary to reason and common sense. constant opinions and doctrines to wind, The emperor has power even over the Eph. iv. 14. “ Carried about with every gods; he may elevate or depress them in wind of doctrine.” As the wind is a sub- rank, and make or unmake them. tile body, so these doctrines are subtile, 4. How CAN SUCH A GOVERNMENT BE but without substance of truth. The wind CARRIED ON ? it may be asked. --The emis uncertain, now blowing from one quar- peror has ministers about him; and so on, ter, now from another; now loud, and by different grades, down to magistrates presently silent; so false doctrines are over ten families. Each magistrate has abuncertain, now making a great, noise, solute power over all under him. and suddenly vanishing. The wind like- Punishments are frequent and severe. wise carrieth chaff, stubble, and such like Capital punishments often take place, but things, along with it; but houses, well the most common is the bastinado, which founded, stand still : so the doctrines of is very cruel. These punishments are infalse teachers carry aside unstable persons; ficted at the will of the magistrate. To but he that is rooted in faith and hu- show their submission to chastisement, the mility, knowing his misery by sin, and the victim, after he has received his bastinado, grace of God in Christ, will not be moved is obliged to kneel down before his puwith them.

nisher, and, if he is able, bow three times, and thank him for his kindness in thus studying to promote his welfare,

5. POPULATION. — The common esti

mate of the dense population of China is Dr. Wisner, of Boston, stated the fol- corroborated by Dr. Morrison, Mr. Bridge lowing particulars in a speech he recently man, and others; and is believed not to delivered :

fall short of 350,000,000. Nor is this 1. WHEN WAS CHINA SETTLED ?-Proba- unaccountable, since under the present bly as early after the flood, or even earlier, dynasty of nearly two hundred years, no than the west of Asia; as multitudes came wars have prevailed. Travellers speak of from the east, while the west was but thinly the provinces as pouring forth their multisettled. And the Bible tells us, that the tudes, not like the densely settled parts of early inhabitants came from the east to Europe, but like the large cities, at the Shinar. He also stated that there is some time of general festivals. evidence that the ark rested on the moun- 6. LANGUAGE.—There are two kinds of tains of China.

language. First, the spoken, which is of 2. EXTENT.—China is the largest empire various dialects, so different, that different on the globe, excepting Russia. It em-tribes cannot understand each other. Sebraces China Proper, Corea, Mantchoo cond, the written language, which is one Tartary, Mongolia, Little Bukaria, Thibet, and the same; not only through China, and the adjacent islands ; extending through but in Japan, Siam, &c. &c.; so that forty degrees of latitude and seventy-seven 400,000,000, or one half the people of the degrees of longitude.

globe, and all who can read, can under3. GOVERNMENT. The reigning em- stand it. The Chinese characters do not peror is a Mantchoo Tartar. This branch stand for words, as in our language, but for of the Tartar race conquered China in ideas; similar to our Arabic figures, 1, 2, 1644 ; since which time they have retained 3, &c. To these the English give one

CHINA.

DANGER OF TRIFLING WITH

name, the French another, the Germans | sidence, a lie against his omnipresence another, the Arabians another ; but all have and immensibility : their limited and subthe same idea when the figure is presented divided departments of operation, against to the eye. Thus it is with the Chinese his universal proprietorship and dominion: characters. Can any thing be more adapted their follies and weaknesses, a lie against in the providence of God for the spread his infinite wisdom : their defects, and of the gospel ?

vices, and crimes, a lie against his unsul(To be continued.)

lied purity and perfection. In what a strange unhallowed state must that man's heart be, who contemplates without emotion this sacrilegious robbery of heaven

this universal slander upon the character CONVICTIONS.

of Deity! Yet there are some--would I Perhaps there is no minister of the could say with truth they are few in numgospel, who could not furnish some most ber!—who feel it very lightly. They affecting illustrations of the sentiment, can contemplate the whole scene with a that impressions and convictions do not careless smile; or, if their spirits are at always end in conversion. I began my all stirred in them, if their indignation is own religious course with three compa. at all moved, it is against those officious, nions, one of whom was materially ser- | intrusive intermeddlers, that would disviceable, in some particulars, to myself; turb the idolaters by attempts to enlighten but he soon proved that his religion was them. With an affectation of sentimental nothing more than mere transient devo- feeling, they fancy the universal Parent tion. A second returned to his sin, “like equally pleased with all descriptions of a dog to his vomit, and a sow that is worship from his erring children, and im washed to her wallowing in the mire." piously exclaim : The third, who was for some time my in

“ Father of all, in every age, timate friend, imbibed the principles of

In every clime adored, infidelity ; and so great was his zeal for

By saint, hy savage, and by sage,

Jehovah, Jove, or Lord.” his new creed, that he sat up at night to copy out Paine's“Age of Reason.” After a while he was seized with a dangerous disease; his conscience awoke; the convictions of his mind were agonizing; his remorse was horrible. He ordered all The laws by which the moisture, conhis infidel extracts, that had cost him so tained in the atmosphere, is precipitated many nights to copy out, to be burnt from it in dews or rain, are not among the before his face; and if not in words, yet least admirable instances of the provision in spirit

made by nature for a constant supply of

the wants of man.
“Burn, burn," he cried, “in sacred rage,
Hell is the due of ev'ry page."

The mechanism, if the term be allowaHis infidel companions and his infidel the occasional descent of rain are regulated,

ble, by which the formation of clouds and principles forsook him at once, and in the resides in the variableness of the state of hearing of a pious friend who visited him, the heat and electricity of the atmosphere; and to whom he confessed, with tears in consequence of which, a given mass of and lamentations, his backsliding, he ut- air is incapable of retaining, in solution or tered his confessions of sin, and his vows suspension, the same quantity of moisture of repentance.

He recovered ;-hut, which it did before ; and hence that moispainful to relate, it was only to relapse ture is precipitated in the form of dews or again, if not into infidelity, yet into an fogs; or, being previously condensed into utter disregard to religion.-James.

accumulated masses of clouds, is discharged from those clouds, in the form of rain.

It almost seems puerile to illustrate the Dr. WARDLAW very justly observes :- adaptation of the present laws and order of The worship of idols, is “a lie" against nature to the wants of man, by the suppoGod's Supreme Majesty. Their number is sition of the consequences that would ensue a lie against his unity : their corporeal na- from a failure of those laws; and yet, as ture is a lie against his pure invisible in actual life, we often feel not the value spirituality: their confined and local re- of the good we possess, till admonished

NATURAL SOURCES OF WATER.

IDOLATRY.

SOLEMN APPEAL OF A CHRISTIAN MI

eneth me."

by the prospect of its loss; so, with refer- of things in our thoughts, and extenuated ence to the constitution of nature, we them all that we possibly could, when may more forcibly be impressed with the speaking of them, we should think little of conviction of its general harmony and sub- them ourselves, and the afflictions would serviency to our wants, by the supposition really, in a great measure, vanish away.of its being different from what it is, than President Edwards. by the direct contemplation of its actual state. In supposing, then, that means had not been provided for the regular discharge of portions of that mass of water which has NISTER TO HIS CONGREGATION. been carried up into the atmosphere by the « In the world there are two kingdoms: process of evaporation, the existence of that over one, Jesus Christ reigns supreme, inass would have been of little avail to and over the other, Satan, the prince of man; for mere contact of an atmosphere, darkness, sways his sceptre; to be withhowever moist, could not promote vegeta- out' here signifies being out of the kingtion to any useful extent ;* and the forma- dom of Christ, and consequently in that tion of springs and rivers would be as ef- of Satan. If there is one unconverted fectually prevented by rain ceasing to fall sinner in this congregation, to him would from the mosphere, as if the material of I address myself most particularly. Have the rain itself did not exist in it.-Pro- you, my dear fellow-sinner, considered fessor Kidd.

well what it is to be without,' and are you contented to remain 'without,' are

you determined to remain 'without? is A BOLD SPEECH-BUT TRUE. “I can do all things through Christ which strength. suade or terrify you, and are you really

there nothing in the Bible either to perThis seems a great speech for him who resolved to stay without ?' Oh, if you had once exclaimed, O wretched man that felt for your own soul any thing like what I am! who shall deliver me from the body I feel for it, you would most eagerly of this death ?" Yet this text contains a inquire what you are to do to be saved. true saying, and has a close connexion with So earnestly did I determine, on entering that distressing cry. For though the be the pulpit this sacred evening, to urge the liever's soul be often weak, and in conflict, necessity of your seeking the salvation of we yet find him rejoicing in a Deli- your soul, and so anxious am I that my verer, mighty to save, even our Lord endeavour should be successful, that if Jesus Christ. Behold, then, the Deliverer my life would purchase it, I would willfound ! Behold him come with his very ingly descend from this pulpit, and lay present help! Now, O believer, what my head upon a block, and say to the canst thou do? “I can do all things,” executioner, Sever my head from my body, meekly answers the apostle,

if that will secure but one soul a mansion Christ which strengtheneth me.

- Ham- in the kingdom of God. But no; such a bleton.

sacrifice could not be availing. There is One who shed his blood for sinners, whose

life was worth ten thousand lives like TURN TO THE BRIGHT SIDE.

mine, or that of any other mortal. He It is a most pernicious practice, in medi- could and did lay down his life for his tations on afflictions, to sit ruminating on people; but all we can do is to be faiththe aggravation of the affliction, and reckon- ful instruments in the hands of God, to ing up the evil, dark circumstances thereof, the salvation of the souls of sinners. I and dwelling long on the dark side; it know not how to finish this part of my doubles and trebles the affliction. And so subject. O my dear fellow-sinners, as when speaking of them to others, to make this may be the last time you may ever them as bad as we can, and use our elo hear my voice in this place, let me enquence to set forth our own troubles, is to treat you to flee from the wrath to come; be all the while making new trouble, and let me beseech you to pray for a particifeeding and pampering the old; whereas pation in the atonement of Christ.” the contrary practice would starve our af- | 1. Hyatt

. fiction. If we dwelt on the bright side

• Niebuhr asserts, what is confirmed by other JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London. travellers, that many tracts in Egypt and Palestine,

Price Id. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Five formerly well cultivated and fertile, are at present mere deserts for want of irrigation.-(Descript

Numbers in a Cover, 3d. de l'Arabie, p. 241.)

W. TYLER, Printer, 4, Ivy Lane, St. Paul's.

“ through

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