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SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS.-No. XVI. being recovered from its ruins. So we read Then they that feared the Lord spake often one to in Esther, that Mordecai the jew had disanother: and the Lord hearkened, and heard it, and a book of remembrance was written before
covered a plot of two of the chamberlains him for them that feared the Lord, and that of king, Ahasuerus, to dethrone or destroy thought upon his name.- Mal: iii. 16.
him, and having made it known to queen Light is thrown upon this passage by Esther, she immediately told it to the king. a reference to the practice of chronicles, or “And when inquisition was made of the books of record, being kept by Eastern matter, it was found out; therefore they princes, in which books were entered many were both hanged on a tree, and it was matters of importance relative to the state. written in the book of the chronicles before Thus, “When the adversaries of Judah the king.” Some time elapsed, and no and Benjamin heard that the children of notice was further taken of Mordecai, exthe captivity builded the temple unto the cept by the king's proud minister of state, Lord God of Israel," and set to work to Haman, who, mortified that Mordecai oppose it; Rehum, the chancellor, and would not pay him the homage he received Shimshai, the scribe, wrote a letter against from the obsequious Persians around him, Jerusalem, to Artaxerxes, the king” of determined, in revenge, to destroy both him Persia, in which they petitioned the king and his people. For this purpose he, as a in these words :—“That search may be favourite servant of the king, obtained a made in the book of the records of thy royal decree, which was on the eve of exefathers : so shalt thou find in the book of cution, when Providence remarkably interthe records, and know that this city is a posed. One night, the king could not sleep, rebellious city, and hurtful unto kings and and he commanded to bring the book of provinces, and that they have moved sedi- records of the chronicles; and they were tion within the same, of old time : for read before the king. It was found in which cause was this city destroyed.” The reading them, that Mordecai had rendered king, in consequence, searched the book of the greatest service to the king in discoverthe records, and found as they said, and ing the plot of his chamberlains, and, on prevented Jerusalem at that time from | further inquiry, that he had never been
rewarded. This led to the elevation of Mor- | stances nearly analogous; for there is decai, the downfal of Haman, the preser- but a shade of difference in their comvation of the Jews, and the destruction of position. The one body is so constituted, their principal enemies.
that its particles are more firmly united These little scripture narratives at once together than in the other, and also illustrate the expression of “the book of somewhat more homogeneous in its comremembrance” kept before the Lord, “ for position: but, although no greater differthem that feared the Lord, and thought ence can be discovered between them, yet upon his name.” Such there were during because of the commonness of the one, it the most wicked state of the Jews, just is, to the man who knows not its value in prior to the destruction of Jerusalem, and scientific investigations, almost worthless; the gracious eye of God was upon them. while a diamond, weighing only one ounce As the scribe of an earthly prince would and one eighth, has been estimated at the record all the actions of distinguished sub- enormous price of 126,0001. If it were not jects, so every one that feared and reve- difficult, on account of their value, to obrenced God was carefully noticed by him, tain diamonds, it would be easy for the and would be safe in the day of approach- student to prove by experiment that they ing calamity. “ They shall be mine, saith are of the same nature as charcoal ; for if the Lord of hosts, in the day when I make raised to an intense temperature, both subup my jewels ; and I will spare them, as a stances form, by union with the oxygen they man spareth his own son that serveth him." absorb, the same gaseous body, carbonic We may stretch our thoughts still further, acid gas. Charcoal takes fire at 370° Fahto that awful day of which the destruction renheit, and, if kindled in oxygen gas, it is of Jerusalem may e considered as a faint gradually consumed with a most brilliant type, and then, when the wicked shall be flame; but the diamond will not ignite at a consumed in the flames of Divine wrath, heat less than 5000° Fahrenheit. Charcoal the great King of kings shall see, infinitely possesses the property of slowly absorbing more clearly than ever monarch saw the re- gases in very large quantities, and it has gister of his subjects'deeds, all the evidences been stated that it will in some cases take of his people's characters, and great shall up ninety times its own volume ; but if it be the reward which his grace shall bestow be afterwards immersed in water that is at upon them in glory.
C. a boiling temperature, the gas will be ab
stracted. It is often used for, and is a useful agent in the removal of taints of pu
tridity from meats and utensils. It is one CARBON, SULPHUR, AND PHOSPHORUS.
of the ingredients of gunpowder: it is used CHARCOAL is a well-known substance, for the deoxidization of metals; that is to easily procured by burning wood under say, for attracting from them the oxygen sand at a red heat. It is a light, hard, they may have collected, so as to render sonorous, brittle substance, without smell; them pure: it is the chief ingredient in biand is capable of resisting the most intense tumen and pit coal : it is the base of vegeheat that can be applied to it, provided table substances, and of a great variety of that air be excluded, or, in other words, if bodies in the animal and vegetable kingoxygen gas be not present. It possesses doms: it enters largely into the composithe useful property of being incapable of tion of sugar, oils, gums, and resins, and decay from age, for instances are upon frequently combines with oxygen and other record of its having possessed its original substances. These statements are sufficient characteristics after the lapse of a thousand to prove that carbon is an important prinyears.
ciple to the chemist, in manufactories. The elementary principle of this sub- Sulphur is a substance so generally stance is carbon; a principle that exists known, that it requires but a brief descripabundantly in nature. The diamond is a tion. It is found in greater purity than any pure carbon, charcoal consists of carbon other principle with which we are acquainted. and oxygen. Diamond is a crystallized It is generally found in the neighbourhood carbon, and cannot be scratched by the of volcanoes, and is usually in a crystallized hardest steel; it is, in fact, the hardest state. Sulphur is a brittle and combustible substance in nature. When we compare body, of a pale yellowish colour; it burns the appearance of charcoal with that of with a blue hue ; melts at 1849 Fahrenheit, the diamond, we are forcibly impressed is volatilized, or passes into a gaseous form with the extraordinary difference of vi- at 289°; and takes fire at 302o. Its specific sible impression produced by two sub- gravity is about 2°. It is of great use in
CHEMISTRY. No, VI.
medicines, and in the arts, and forms some dignity. The highest aim of Boodhism most important combinations with the me- is insensibility. The doctrine of the tals, the earths, and oxygen.
Boodhists is, that there are periods of the Phosphorus is more rarely found than revolutions of things, each of which oceither of the aforementioned substances. cupies millions of ages, and they are now It
may be produced from both animal living in one of those cycles. and mineral compounds; but is usually Over the various countries of the east, made from the bones of animals. It burns Boodh is the principal object of worship. at a very low temperature, 148°Fahrenheit, In China, he is Boodh; in Thibet, the and may be melted at a temperature of Grand Lama, &c. When this cycle has 90°. If a small portion of phosphorus be passed, he will be absorbed in the supreme dropped into a Florence flask, nearly filled divinity, and another god will take his with water, and a sufficient heat be pro- place. This religion is said to have more duced to raise the temperature of the devotees than any other. They may water to the boiling point, balls of fire will worship as many other gods as they be seen to ascend towards the top of the please, or believe as they please, if they flask. This experiment proves the extreme only believe in Boodh. "Of the introducinflammability of the substance. This tion of Boodhism into China, the Chinese statement is also proved by the fact, that writers give the following account. In phosphorus has a slow combustion at the year 65, or about thirty years after common temperatures, and consequently the crucifixion, the emperor was informed always appears luminous in the dark. As in a dream that the holy one was born this substance is frequently used by youth in the west. The ministers of religion for the sake of sport, it may be necessary recollected that something was said in the to caution them to use it with much care, or sacred odes of the rise of such a personthe most disastrous effects may be produced. age. They concluded, therefore, that the
period had arrived when he was to appear. The emperor despatched ambassadors to the west, to bring some disciple
of the new-born sage. They proceeded (Concluded from page 127.)
as far as Ceylon, and brought thence 7. RELIGION.—There are three sys- some priests of Boodh; when, being tems of religion prevalent in China, friendly, the government rapidly propaConfucianism, Tahooism, and Boodhism. gated their system, which soon became
Confucius lived about five hundred and the popular religion of the country. fifty years before Christ. His religion, 8. INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY. something like the rationalism of the pre- -Christianity was introduced into China sent day, states that what a man believes by the Nestorians, in the seventh century; is of little consequence, provided he leads and was continued for three or four cena moral life. His precepts are many of turies. What now remains of it we canthem good, so far as they extend; not at present know. The roman caradically defective in principle. His in- tholics entered China about 1550. When structions had reference chiefly to social this religion was declining in Europe, the intercourse. His system was calculated Jesuits were making great efforts in the only for the learned and contemplative, east. They met with great success. By and hence had no influence over the com- means of pictures, and imposing ceremon people. To remedy this evil, Tahoo monies, and by their knowledge of astrointroduced his system, but went into spe- nomy, and by allowing the Chinese to culations respecting the nature and rela- retain their customs and practices, if they tions of gods; so that his system was not would only profess the Catholic religion embraced by the common people. and be baptized, they converted great
Boodhism was next introduced, from numbers. It was at length suspected Ceylon. Boodh was originally a mortal they were meddling with the affairs of man. The fabulous account given of him government: persecutions arose, and is, that after various transmigrations, some they were driven from China. As the of which were into the meaner animals, character of their converts was not on account of his sins, and after having changed, of course they soon fell back to suffered in hell 80,000 years, he resolved idolatry. to reform and become a god. He was 9. PROTESTANT MISSIONS.— Dr. Morthen born the son of a Hindoo king, and rison, the first protestant missionary, en. raised himself by austerities to his present tered China in 1807, and was for a while
associated with Dr. Milne. The labours and the screw are but varieties of the inof Dr. Morrison, in translating the whole clined plane; but that we may render our Bible into Chinese, are well known. The description of their action as simple as Rev. Mr. Bridgman, of the American possible, we shall treat of them separately. Board, arrived in 1830.
The lever is a bar of some inflexible Dr. Wisner then enumerated the Ame- material, resting on a point called its fulrican and English missionaries now in or crum, the power and the resisting body near China, and on their way thither. being differently arranged according to cirGutzlaff has proved, he said, that China cumstances. may be entered; that access may be had to There are three kinds of lever. the Chinese. Here he has been labouring 1. That in which the fulcrum is placed since 1831. The Bible and tracts are between the weight and the power, as in now distributed in great numbers. Converts have been made, particularly Leang Afa, the first Chinese convert, who was
F a printer by trade. It has also recently been ascertained, that Chinese blocks can be stereotyped.
10. PROVIDENCE RESPECTING CHINA. -Several years since, the enterprise was commenced by the Bible and Tract Societies of sending Bibles and Tracts to the above figure.* The common balance foreign countries. The design was well is a lever of this kind, but as both its arms received and responded to b the churches. are equal, and the fulcrum is in the centre, About three or four years ago, Gutzlaff re- no increase of power is gained. The Rosolved to enter China. The result is well man steelyard, the handspike, and the known.
crowbar, are also levers of the first class.
2. The second class is that in which the weight is between the fulcrum and the
SIMPLE MACHINES-THE LEVER.
WHENEVER a machine is used, it is intended to accomplish one or more of the three following purposes :—1. To direct the force which is put into action by the moving power. 2. To change the velocity of a force, and to produce one suited to the object required : or, 3. To assist or
W regulate the intensity of a force, and to enable it to perform just that which is
power. A door is an example of this required.
class: the hand applied to it is the power, All machines, however complicated they the hinges the fulcrum, and the door itself may be, consist of a number of simple ma- the weight. But an oar is a still better chines, such as levers, wheels, and axles, illustration : the rower is the power, the pulleys, inclined planes, wedges or screws. water the fulcrum, and the boat on which These are the elements of all machinery, the oar rests is the weight to be moved. and the principles and action of any me- 3. The third class of levers is that in chanical arrangement may be discovered, with a little attention, if the principles of these be perfectly understood. They are sometimes very erroneously called the me
F chanical powers, for they possess no actual power, but merely offer a means by which a power may be directed in such a way as to produce the greatest possible result, by
Op directing the force, changing the velocity,
W and regulating its intensity. Some writers have treated of the simple machines under which the power is between the weight and three classes, the lever, the pulley, and the the fulcrum. The limbs of animals are inclined plane; and, strictly speaking, the levers of this class; the socket of the bone wheel and axle can only be considered as a modification of the lever; and the wedge
* F means fulcrum, W the weight, and
P the power.
GIFTS TO KINGS.
is the fulcrum, the muscle attached to the transmitted to B, exerts a certain pressure bone near the socket is the power, and the on the second lever, at c, which in its tum limb is the weight.
communicates a pressure on the third lever The condition of equilibrium in the at D, and that supports or raises the weight straight lever is, that the power multiplied w. To calculate the power of this or any by its distance from the fulcrum, shall be other compound lever, multiply the power equal to the weight multiplied by its dis- by the continued product of the alternating tance from the fulcrum. "Let the weight, arms, commencing from the power, and for instance, be 1,200lbs., and its distance when the lever is in equilibrio it will be from the fulcrum be one foot, and let the equal to the weight multiplied by the conpower be 200lbs at a distance of six feet, tinued product of the alternating arms, and the lever would be in equilibrio, for by commencing from the weight. Thus, let multiplying together the weight and its us suppose the alternating arms to be as 1, distance, it will be found that their product 2, and 3, and the weight to be 64; these is equal to the product of the power mul- multiplied into each other will be equal to tiplied by its distance. The immense 384, and let us suppose the arms nearest value of the lever in appropriating power the power to be as 4, 6, and 8, which in the most advantageous manner will be multiplied into each other are equal to immediately perceived from a consideration 192, then a power of 2 would balance the of this law. Suppose that we have a great weight, because 192 multiplied by 2 are weight to raise with a small force, it is equal to 384, the product of the weight only necessary to remove the power so far multiplied into its alternate arms. The distant from the fulcrum that it may com- same rule will apply to all other systems pensate for the great superiority of the of levers to whatever order, they may beweight which we shall bring as near to the long. fulcrum as possible. We might, therefore,
(To be continued.) raise an enormous weight with a very small force, provided that the cohesion of the substance employed as a lever were sufficiently great to oppose the strain to which it would be subject.
It will be hardly necessary to remark, There was a law much observed among that in the lever of the first order, the the Persians, that when the king rode weight and the power act in the same di- near the residence of his subjects, each one rection ; in the levers of the second and according to his means should set somethird orders they act in opposite directions; thing before the king ; husbandmen who and it is equally evident that in a lever of were occupied in the tillage of the earth, the second order the power must be less or handicraftsmen, brought what was neithan the weight, because it is more distant ther contemptible on one hand, nor costly from the fulcrum, while in a lever of the on the other, but oxen, or sheep, or corn, third order it must be greater than the and others wine. As the king walked or weight, because it is nearer the fulcrum. rode by, these things were set forth by
Compound levers, or, in other words, every one, and were called gifts, and acsystems of levers, are sometimes employed cepted by him. Others, who were more in machinery, and the power then acts needy than these offered milk, or palms, upon the weight through the intervention or cheese, and even sweet-meats, and the of a series. In the annexed figure we have first-fruit of their lands or gardens. These a system of levers, consisting of three ; all were esteemed as a symbolical acknowof which belong to the first order. W is ledgment of the allegiance due on the part
of the subject to his sovereign.
In Psalm xlv. 12, it is said, that the FB
daughter of Tyre shall be there with a gift
, or as the hebrew means, an act of homage ; in token of submission. In Hosea x. 6, the calf of Bethaven is threatened with being carried as a present or gift
to the Assyrian king, as a formal declarathe weight attached to the end of the first tion of subjection to his authority. In lever, and p the power attached to the op- Lev. ii. 1, the same hebrew word occurs, posite end of the last. Now the power and is rendered meat.