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and he only, hath arrayed in all this mag- part of a neighbouring cliff slaked his nificence, and prodigality of endowment, thirst. what will he say, if his own bounties are He had formerly been a priest in a magnito be piled up as a tower whereby men ficent mosque, and scrupulously conducted may build themselves a name, and exalt the ceremonies of the Mohammedan faith their pride unto the heavens?
but, disgusted with the hypocrisy and injusIf there be any one thing in the course tice of those around him, he abandoned the of this world, which proclaims more mosque, and his authority as a priest, beloudly than another the power, and the taking himself to the desert to spend his majesty, and the goodness of the Al- days as an anchorite, in sanctity, self-demighty, it is the victorious progress of the nial, and devotion. mind of man. For what are the triumphs Years rolled over the head of Ben of the human mind but manifestations Achmet, and the fame of his sanctity spread of that One Supreme and Eternal Mind abroad. In seasons of drought he supwhich contains all truth and wisdom ; and plied the traveller of the desert with water, from which alone the mind of man derives from his little well. In times of pestievery particle of its energy, every particle lence he left his solitary abode to attend and source of its prodigious mastery? the sick and comfort the dying, in the vil
And can any one gravely imagine that lages that were scattered around, and often these powers were given to man that he did he stanch the blood of the wounded might erect himself into a deity, and Arab, and heal him of his wounds. His forget the work of the Lord, and the ope- fame was spread abroad. His name inrations of his hand ? The mightiest intel- spired veneration, and the plundering lects this world has ever seen have never Bedouin gave up his booty at the comimagined this. It has been their glory and mand of Ben Achmet, the Dervise. delight to lay their treasures at the feet of Akaba was an Arabian robber; he had Him who “ sitteth enthroned on the riches a band of lawless men under his command of the universe.” Even those grand and ready to do his bidding ; large numbers of ruling spirits who shone like burning slaves, and a treasure-house well stored lights in the dark places of the ancient ig- with his ill-gotten wealth. The sanctity norance, even they were often impatient to of Ben Achmet arrested his attention ; his “ feel after” the “ Divinity which stirred conscience smote him on account of his within them," and to pay Him the honour guilt, and he longed to be as famed for his and the love which are his righteous due, devotion as he had been for his crimes. “if haply they might find him.” And He sought the abode of the Dervise, and of those wbo have lived in brighter and told him his desires. “ Ben Achmet," more glorious times, the greatest and the said he, “I have five hundred cimeters best have always honoured their Creator ready to obey me; numbers of slaves at with all the powers of the understanding my command ; and a goodly treasurewhich he gave them. And if this was the house, filled with riches ; tell me how crown of rejoicing to those master-spirits, to add to these the hope of a happy imwhat does their great example say to us? mortality ?” Does it not tel. us that our intellect was Ben Achmet led him to a neighbouring given us for high and holy purposes; that cliff that was steep, rugged, and high ; and it is a light kindled within us by Him who pointing to three large stones that lay near dwells in light; and that it is both our together, he told him to lift them from the glory and reasonable service, so to let this ground, and to follow him up the cliff. light shine before men that they may glorify Akaba, laden with the stones, could scarcely our Father which is in heaven ?-Le Bas.
move; to ascend the cliff with them was impossible. “I cannot follow thee, Ben Achmet,” said he, “ with these burdens." “ Then cast down one of them,” replied
the Dervise, “ and hasten after me." It was on the confines of the desert, Akaba dropped a stone, but still found himamid sterile and almost inaccessible rocks, self too heavily encumbered to proceed. that Ben Achmet, the Dervise, led a life of “ I tell thee it is impossible," cried the austerity and devotion. A cave in the rocks robber chieftain, “ thou thyself couldst not was his dwelling. Roots and fruits, the proceed a step with such a load.” scanty product of the inhospitable region “Let go another stone, then,” said Ben he inhabited, satisfied his hunger, and the Achmet. Akaba readily dropped another fountain that bubbled up from the lower stone, and, with great difficulty, clambered
the cliff for a while, till, exhausted with the an almost incredible advance, and now effort, he again cried out that he could holds a prominent place among the phycome no farther. Ben Achmet directed him sical sciences. The important facts that to drop the last stone; and, no sooner had have been discovered by the labours of the he done this, than he mounted with ease, many distinguished men who have devoted and soon stood with his conductor on the themselves to the pursuit, have now been summit of the cliff.
so arranged as to develope the relations Son,” said Ben Achmet, “ thou hast they bear to each other, and in their comthree burdens which hinder thee in thy way bination, form a system as clear and comto a better world. Disband thy troop of prehensive as it is beautiful. The arts lawless plunderers ; set thy captive slaves and manufactures in all civilized countries, at liberty, and restore thy ill-gotten wealth and in England especially, are more into its owners; it is easier for Akaba to as- debted to chemistry than to any other cend this cliff with the stones that lie at its branch of physical inquiry; for a great part foot, than for him to journey onward to a of the operations, in manufactures of all better world, with power, pleasure, and kinds, are dependent on chemical laws. riches, in his possession.”
Those natural productions, which are the If the words of a Dervise, a blind be- raw materials from which the manufacturer liever in an erring faith, can command our prepares the articles of commerce, must admiration, how much more ought we to undergo great chemical changes before estimate and obey the words of Christ, they are suited to supply the wants, and “Let us lay aside every weight, and the sin minister to the comforts of man; and which doth so easily beset us, and let us run before any improvements, calculated to inwith patience the race that is set before us, crease their cheapness and perfection can looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher be made, an accurate acquaintance with of our faith.” Heb. xii. 1, 2. Whether chemical laws and facts is absolutely neour possessions consist of power, pleasure, cessary. The iron-founder, the tanner, or riches, they must be sacrificed rather the bleacher, the glass-maker, the woollenthan be allowed to hinder us in our heavenly manufacturer, the brewer, the vinegarcourse, remembering that “it is easier for maker, and many others, perform their a camel to go through the eye of a needle, operations under the guidance of chemistry. than for a rich man to enter into the king- The articles employed in domestic economy dom of heaven."
are subject to chemical laws, and many domestic operations are, strictly speaking,
chemical experiments. CHEMISTRY.-No. I.
All substances on the earth we inhabit, Introduction.
in the air which surrounds us, and in the The different branches of physical science waters of the ocean, are subject to cheare so intimately connected together, that mical changes, and to new combinations. it is difficult to detail the facts which re- There are three states in which bodies are late to one without an allusion to those found : sometimes they are solid, or have that belong to others. Several papers their particles so intimately united together, have appeared in the Weekly Visitor on that they resist pressure; sometimes they subjects which have an intimate connexion are liquids, the particles of which have an with the science of chemistry, such as easy motion among each other; and at those on light, heat, and atmospheric air ; other times they ocour as gases or vapours. and as it is intended to insert others upon There are four agents, light, caloric, electhe same subjects, it will only be necessary, tricity, and magnetism, that have, by a in this series of papers, to make such strange contradiction of terms, been called allusions to them as will enable the reader imponderable bodies. Philosophers have to understand their connexion with chemi- hitherto been quite unable to determine the cal science.
nature of these occult agents, and have The object of chemistry is to determine amused themselves in speculating upon the constitution of bodies, and the laws their characters. But although we are igby which elementary substances are com- norant of their nature, yet we know many bined. It is, therefore, a science of vast of the effects they produce, and the influence extent, and comprehends an immense they have upon the chemical constitution number of facts ; but it is only within of bodies. the last seventy or eighty years that it The operations of chemistry are perhas been cultivated with the assiduity it formed by producing changes in the subdeserves; but in this period, it has made stances under examination, either by mean:
INTERVIEW WITH SIR JOSUUA REYNOLDS IN HIS LAST ILLNESS.
of mixture, or, more generally, by the ap- destroyed ; and sulphate of lime, a suoplication of heat. Bodies composed of stance entirely different from either of the different substances, distinct in their nature, substances employed, will be produced.” are in this manner decomposed, or sepa
S. rated into the original substances of which they are formed. This method of discover
JOHNSON's ing the nature of bodies, is called analysis. After decomposition has taken place, if the parts thus disunited have lost their identity, and cannot be brought together again,
“ He sent the other day for Sir Joshua, the analysis is called complicated; but and, after much serious conversation, told where the parts thus separated are capable him he had three favours to beg of him, of being again united, so as to constitute and he hoped he would not refuse a dying
Sir the same body, it is termed a simple ana- friend, be they what they would. lysis, and the process of reuniting the Joshua promised. The first was, that he parts is denominated synthesis. The na
would never paint on a Sunday; the seture of chemical composition and decom- cond, that he would forgive him thirty position may be illustrated by the follow- pounds that he had lent him, as he wanted ing experiments.
to leave them to a distressed family ; the Drop a piece of camphor into a phial third was, that he would read the Bible about half-full of diluted alcohol, or com
whenever he had an opportunity, and that mon spirits of wine, and a union will take he would never omit it on
a Sunday. place between these two bodies, from the There was no difficulty, but upon the first affinity between them, and the camphor point; but at length Sir Joshua promised will be perfectly dissolved. Then pour to gratify him in all.”— Miss H. More. into the phial a small quantity of water, which has a greater affinity for the camphor than the alcohol possesses ; a union VANITY OF EARTHLY GOOD.- - There are will instantly take place beween the water no contentments of this life, let them be and the camphor, and they will fall to the ever so many, that can possibly accombottom of the phial in white flakes. If pany us farther than our death-bed. It the whole be now placed in an open ves- may be, that for a few days of our lives sel, and a sufficient heat applied, to cause they have detained us in a fool's paraevaporation of the spirit and water, the dise, yet full of vipers and scorpions. camphor will be left at the bottom as pure What then shall comfort the immortal as when first used. This last process is soul, when, being dislodged from this called distillation.
tabernacle of clay, it shall begin to enter “ It may,” observes Parkes, “ with few the confines of eternity ? For if it look exceptions, be considered as an axiom in back, it may ask, Why have I disquieted the science of which we are treating, that myself in vain ?: What hath pride prowhenever chemical action takes place, a fited, or what profit hath the pomp of real change is produced in the substance riches brought?- Old MS. Sermon. operated upon, and that its identity is destroyed. An example will place this in a clear point of view. If a little carbonate of lime (powdered chalk) be put into a
CARELESSNESS.—The Duke of Richglass of water, the chalk will sink to the mond, the late postmaster-general, states, bottom of the vessel. Though it should that about one thousand letters are annually be mixed with the water, if left at rest, it put into the post office without any address will soon subside. No chemical action whatever. In a single year, one hundred has taken place, therefore the water and of these, which were opened with the dethe carbonate of lime both remain unal- sign of returning them to their writers, were tered. But if a small quantity of diluted found to contain money and bills, to the sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) be added to
amount of from twenty to thirty thousand a glass of chalk and water, a violent effer
pounds. vescence will commence the moment they come into contact with each other; a che- JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London, mical union of the two substances will be Price 4d. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Pivo the consequence of this chemical action ;
Numbers in a Cover, 3d. the identity of each substance will be
W. TYLER, Printer, 4, Ivy Lane, St. Panl's.
and delivers it with such adroitness, that In the above sketch an ox having been it very rarely fails to encircle the object suddenly cast down by the noose, which aimed at, whether that object be the horn one horseman had dexterously laid for his of an ox, or the neck of a human being. foot, another horseman is seen coming up to They have often been seen, while riding at secure the fallen animal before it has time full speed in chase of an ox, to cast the to recover from the effects of its sudden noose on the ground just where the animal and violent overthrow.
was about to place one of its feet, and thus The term lazo, sometimes erroneously secure it by its leg. The horses are so written lasso, in the Spanish language, is trained that the moment the lazo is thrown, of the same import as lazada, and signifies they turn and gallop off in an opposite dia noose or gin, and is applied by way of rection; and, as the other end is firmly atpre-eminence to a line ending in a running tached to the saddle, the object entangled noose, very much in use among the Chilians. has to encounter the force of the horse, It is made of untanned ox-hide, and, from when exerted at its maximum, or greatest being in constant use, acquires great power, namely, in the act of drawing. It smoothness, so that the loop, or knot, tra- is this circumstance that renders the lazo a verses or runs without impediment. Its fearful weapon, when used against an length is about thirty or forty feet, varying enemy; for, if from want of foresight or according to the skill and dexterity of the agility, he is taken in this toil, death is his person who wields it. The Chilian gathers portion, and that of a most revolting kind. his lazo into a coil, and fastens one end to Achilles dragged the dead body of Hector, his saddle, and, with the additional equip- tied to his chariot, over the walls of Troy ; ment of a long knife, which is carried in but the Chilian takes that method to dishis gaskens, or leathern guiters, accounts patch a living foe. himself a match for whatever he may meet Though the lazo is most frequently seen with by theway, whether man or beast. When among the. Chilians, who are excellent he has a mind to entrap any thing with this horsemen, and famous for the use of it, it strange missile, he lays hold of the noose, is by no means confined to them, but is
met in all parts of Spanish America. , same force that directs falling bodies to the Spaniards, who settled in that continent, centre of the earth. The unknown cause brought it with them; and the reader, who which produces all these effects, is called is acquainted with the Spanish language, the attraction of gravitation. That force may see a short description of it in the which causes all the atoms composing difDictionary of the Academy, (Dict. de la ferent substances to adhere together, is lengua Castillana,) printed in 1823. The called the attraction of cohesion; or, the writer was once under great obligations attraction of aggregation. It varies in into a lazo, while collecting botanical speći- tensity in different bodies, producing the mens, near Tepic, in the Republic of peculiar qualities that distinguish solids, Mexico : for it happened, as he was in liquids, and gases. There are many subspecting the vegetable habitants of a deep stances that can be presented in all three valley, that his horse, which had been tied states, by increasing or diminishing the tó a tree by the road-side, took fright at the force of cohesion between the particles. sudden passing of some muleteers, broke Water, for instance, sometimes exists in the his bridle, and began to return towards the form of ice; but if heat be applied, the atcity from whence he had started. We in- traction of cohesion is weakened, and a liquid stantly pursued him; but the cunning crea- is formed. A further application of heat ture, now and then turning his head to will cause an evaporation of all the liquid, observe our progress, kept us for several and an air or vapour will be produced. miles at a convenient distance, till we en- From the circumstance that nearly all botered a road that was about twice the dies are subject to contraction from intense breadth of our ordinary turnpikes, when a cold, and other remarkable facts that canMexican horseman came in sight, who not here be detailed, it is very reasonably alighted, placed his horse on one side of supposed, that however closely the atoms the road, and, extending his lazo, sta- of bodies may be brought to each other, tioned himself on the other. We were as there is no actual contact between them. much surprised as delighted to see the But the particles of substances have not wayward steed stop short of the barrier only an aitraction among themselves by thus suddenly opposed to him, till we had which they maintain their combination ; overtaken and secured him. Our obli- but also an elective or chemical force, gations did not end here; for the stranger, which causes the atoms of different dies upon perceiving that the bridle had been to unite together and form compounds. broken, immediately, with the dignified We are totally ignorant of the real nature gravity peculiar to the Spanish character, of this principle, as well as of the other set about repairing it, by borrowing a few kinds of attraction that have been alluded hairs from the mane of its wearer, and We have been made acquainted with thus in a few minutes restored the dishe- the laws which govern these several forces, velled headstall and reins to their former but we are unable to determine whether state of usefulness, and enabled the writer they are inherent properties of matter, or to prosecute his journey with a resolution depend upon some external agent. to be a little more wary in the bestowment The power of which we are now speakof his confidence another time.
L. ing is called chemical attraction, or af
finity. It is the principle by which the operations of chemistry are governed ; and
it is therefore necessary to devote to it a CHEMISTRY, No. II.
more enlarged consideration. There is a (Attraction of gravitation, cohesion, and distinction to be observed between two or afinity.)
more bodies being simply mixed together, The wisdom of God is remarkably dis- and their being chemically combined. If played in the simplicity of the laws by some oil and water be shaken together in which the motions and properties of matter a phial, they will appear to be united ; are governed. One great object in natural but if the phial be left for a short time, science is to discover, amidst the multitude a separation will take place between of facts and phenomena in the material the two substances, the water descending world, some general principles to which to the bottom, and the oil occupying the motions and changes of different bodies the upper part of the phial. But if a may be referred. It was a grand discovery small lump of sugar be dropped into a by Sir Isaac Newton, that the planets of glass of water, the particles of the sugar our system are directed in their course, will gradually enter into combination with and preserved in order and harmony, by the the component particles of the water, and