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he should take it to be the fruit of one or as our own souls, and no one but the God other of these palms.

of all consolation can make it easy to us; There is one circumstance connected but when we think of the glorious things with its history, which deserves to be re- He has prepared in heaven for his people, corded, for it intimates the care and good- our tears for those who die in Christ ness of Providence not only in providing, should be those of thankfulness, and our but also in guarding things for the use of sorrow should be turned into jos man. While the tree is young and tender, To a christian, death appears the portal the leaf-stalks are furnished with sharp to eternal life, and therefore he ought to thorns, which Rumphius, who first describ- rejoice when a fellow-pilgrim to the heaed these palms, compares again and again venly city is mercifully permitted to pass to sewing needles. The use and final cause through it; but it is otherwise with the of this defence might not suggest itself at worldly man; the grave must needs be a first to the observer; but when he recollect- fearful thing to him who has no hope beed that hogs or wild boars are very nume- yond it. It has often been a puzzle to rous in the places where it is found, and my mind, how worldly men bear up under that they are very fond of the young plants, the loss of their friends. Is it not enough he would soon infer that these fierce points, to touch our hearts, to see those who have which often inflict great pain upon the un- been precious to us as the “ ruddy drops heeding passenger, were beneficial to man- that warm the heart," stretched on a bed of kind, for without them the sago could sickness, unconscious of our presence and never be enjoyed. The writer remembers sympathy? To hear the hard-drawn breath, a palm which is very common in the and midnight moan; to mark the glazed woods near St. Blas, Mexico, which is pro- eye, the heaving breast, and the falling vided with thorns, doubtless for purposes jaw, while the last breath rattles in the of self-defence, as it is remarkable for the throat ? shortness of its trunk ; the flowers and fruit, Are not these things, and the shroud, ere they are ripe, would therefore fall a the coffin, and the grave, enough to try prey to every hungry or wanton invader humanity to the utmost, without the inamong the beasts of the field, from which tolerable burden, the soul-sickening perthey are preserved by this simple provision suasion, that we have parted with our that nature has made for their safety. friends for ever ? Though it has pleased God, in this and all Surely the cup of sorrow that every sinother instances, to give pre-eminence to cere mourner has to drink is bitter enough, man, yet, as his mercy is over all his works, without the gall and the wormwood of an “ he giveth fodder to the cattle," as well as eternal separation. Blessed be God, for his “ herb for the use of man.” For the lower gracious promises of an eternal world, for animals, which depend upon man for their they are as unchangeable as eternity itself ! supplies, share with him in the participa- What poor creatures we are ! Here tion of the full-grown tree, as hinted above, have I received tidings that a highly rewhen we spoke of the ela, and in a far spected, and dearly beloved friend, has larger measure than if they had been suf- been removed from the gloom of earth, to fered to eat it at first without the interfer.the glory of heaven, and yet. I cannot reence of their competitor.

joice. My selfish heart will brood over what it has lost, and will not exult over what my friend has gained. In our day we had shared both joy and sorrow. We had taken “sweet counsel together, and

walked to the house of God in company." Shame upon us ! Shame upon us! We had encouraged each other to endure when our friends are taken away from this worldly trouble patiently, and to rejoice in world of tribulation, we think more of their the hope set before us of eternal glory ; and perishing bodies than we do of their im- yet for all these things I cannot help visitmortal souls. We go amid the gloom of ing his resting-place in sorrow. eventide to sigh over their graves, rather But the spirit is not there! than take the wings of the morning to visit better employment, and more likely to be their enfranchised spirits in the mansions successful, to prepare to follow them to of the blest! Shame upon us! Shame the heaven of heavens, than to wish to drag




them once more down to this poor perishable It is a hard thing, to be sure, to part with world. I am ashamed of myself, for every those who have been almost as dear to us now and then, a tear rolls down my cheek,

It is a

upon us !

He says,

and tells me that my earthly affections are sense of touch ; at 'another' time, when opposing my heavenly desires and conso- some caterpillars of a different species lations,

were moving swiftly, he rang a small

bell, on which they instantly stopped, and INSECTS.-No. XXXVII.

moved the anterior part of their body

very briskly. That they possess this (Hearing.)

power in their imago state, is confirmed BEFORE proceeding immediately to the still more strongly by facts. “I once prescribed topic of this paper,

may be

was observing," says Kirby, “the mowell to remark, that men of science are tions of an apion, under a pocket microsscarcely yet agreed as to the senses of cope. On seeing me, it receded : upon my insects, and that the use of some of their making a slight but distant noise, its anorgans, which appear to be organs of tennæ started. I repeated the noise several sensation, has not yet been satisfactorily times, and invariably with the same effect. ascertained. As to the senses in general, A harpalus, which I was holding in my it need scarcely be stated that touch, hand, answered the sound in the same taste, smell, hearing, and sight, is the or

manner, repeatedly. Flies, I have observed, dinary enumeration of them; but as the at brisk and distinct sounds, move all ten term includes every means of communi- legs : and spiders will quit their prey, and cation with the external world, the list retire to their hiding places.' Insects that might, perhaps, be increased. Kirby con live in society give notice of intended tends, for instance, for an internal sense. movements, or assemble their citizens for

“The picture may be painted emigration, by a certain hum. This occurs upon the retina of the eye, and the sound in the evening, and is continued even durmay strike on the tympanum of the ear; ing the night; all seems to be in a bustle, but neither the one nor the other be re- the greatest restlessness agitates the bees. ceived by the intellect, unless the internal Sometimes to hear this hum the ear must power or faculty of perception be in ac

be placed close to the hive, when clear and tion, and mediate between them. This sharp sounds may be distinguished, which is what I mean by the internal sense, appear to be produced by the vibration of which, to use a term of Mr. W. S. the wings of a single bee. This hum has MacLeay's, is osculant between intellect been gravely construed by some into an and sense, or formas the transit from one harangue of the queen to animate her subgroup of powers to the other.”

jects to the great undertaking which she In man the ordinary five senses are now meditates—the founding of a new emusually in their greatest perfection, al- pire. “There sometimes seem to happen though in some animals particular senses suddenly amongst them,” says Reaumur, have a greater range.

The vertebrates “ events which put all the bees in motion, in general are also gifted with the same for which no account can be given. If number, though there are some excep- you observe a hive with attention, you may tions. But in the invertebrates they are often remain a long time and hear only a seldom to be met with altogether in the slight murmur, and then, all in a moment, same object. Some creatures have no a sonorous hum will be excited, and the smell; several can neither hear nor see. workers, as if seized by a panic terror, may The animals of bivalve shells have neither be seen running off in different directions. eyes, nor ears, nor smell ; and the zoo- At these moments, if a young queen goes phytes, and the races below them, have, out, she will be followed by a numerous it is affirmed, only the single sense of troop. touch, which in them is so extremely de- The various sounds produced by insects licate as to be acted upon even by light. suggest that they must have the power of

Not so are insects. These, there is hearing. “Our male green field-hoppers," good reason to believe, possess all the says De Geer, “in that part of the right ordinary senses. Linne and Bonnet, wing-case which is folded horizontally over however, thought them deprived of hear the trunk, have a round plate made of a very ing ; but numerous observations prove fine transparent membrane, resembling a the contrary. That they hear in their little mirror, or piece of talc, and as tense larva state, is evident from facts stated as a drum. It is surrounded by a strong by the latter. He found that the sound and prominent nervure, but is concealed of his voice evidently affected some ca. under the fold of the left wing-case, where terpillars ; which he attributes, but surely there are also strong nervures corresponding without reason, to the delicacy of their with what may be called the hoop of the drun. It is exceedingly probable that the the foot of a range of mountains overlookquick motion with which the insect rubs ing a fine plain that was watered and fertithese nervures against each other, produces lized by the river Cayster. Ephesus was a vibration in the membrane, whence the particularly celebrated for the temple of sound is augmented.” By alternating the Diana, a most magnificent and stately edimotion rapidly from right to left, the sound fice, which had been erected at the comis produced in an almost continued strain.

mon expense of the inhabitants of Asia But the power of hearing in these crea- Proper, and was reputed one of the seven tures is placed beyond all doubt. Bru- wonders of the world : but the very site of nelli, an Italian naturalist, kept and fed this magnificent and celebrated edifice is several males of a grasshopper, not uncom- now undetermined, though some stupendous mon with us, in a closet, which were very columns in the large mosque, there is reamerry, and continued singing all the day; son to believe, once graced that structure. but a rap at the door would stop them in- Widely scattered and noble ruins attest the stantly. By practice he learned to imitate splendour of the theatre mentioned in their chirping : when he did this at the Acts xix. 31; the elevated situation of door, at first a few would answer him in a which, on Mount Prion, accounts for the low note, and then the whole party would ease with which an immense multitude was take up the tune and sing with all their collected ; the loud shouts of whose voices, might. He once shut up a male in his reverberated from the neighbouring mount garden, and gave the female her liberty ; Corissus, would not a little augment the but as soon as she heard the male chirp, uproar which was occasioned by the popushe flew to him immediately.

lace rushing into the theatre, just below The grasshoppers and locusts produce which is the public place where the law their chirp by applying the hind shank to proceedings were going forward, to which the thigh, rubbing it smartly against the the town-clerk referred Demetrius and his wing-case, and alternating the right and companions. In the time of Saint Paul, left legs.

They have also a drum, like the this city abounded with orators and philopreceding family, for augmenting the sound. sophers; and its inhabitants, in their gentile "On each side," says De Geer, “of the state, were celebrated for their idolatry and first segment of the abdomen, immediately skill in magic, as well as for their luxury above the origin of the hind thighs, there is and licentiousness. a large deep opening, somewhat oval in The present state of Ephesus affords a form, and partly closed by an irregular flat striking illustration of the accomplishment plate or lid, of a hard substance, but co- of prophecy. Ephesus is the first of the vered by a flexible, wrinkled membrane. apocalyptic churches addressed by the The opening left by the lid is in form of a evangelist in the name of our Lord Jesus half-moon, and at the bottom of the cavity Christ. “ His charge against her is a deis a white membrane, shining like a mirror, clension in religious fervour, Rev. ii. 4; and tensely stretched. On the side of the and his threat in consequence, (verse 5,) opening, towards the head, there is a small a total extinction of her ecclesiastical brightoval hole, into which the point of a pin ness. After a protracted struggle with the may easily pass; and when membrane sword of Rome, and the sophisms of the is removed, a large cavity is brought into gnostics, Ephesus at last gave way. The view. The whole of this apparatus seems incipient indifference, censured by the to contribute much both to produce and to warning voice of the prophet, increased to increase the sound caused by insects." a total forgetfulness; till at length the

threatenings of the Apocalypse were ful

filled, and Ephesus sunk with the general SCRIPTURE EXPLANATIONS. No. XXIV.

overthrow of the Greek empire in the four teenth century.

Ephesus is now under the dominion of Their History and present State.

the Turks, and is in a state of almost total Ephesus, in the time of the Romans, ruin; innumerable inscriptions are lying was the metropolis of proconsular Asia. about in disorder or neglect, or built int This celebrated city, the vast remains of the Turkish structures. The plough has which give a high idea of its former beauty, passed over the city; and in March 1826, extent, and magnificence, was situated in green corn was growing, in all directions, that part of Asia which was anciently called amidst the forsaken ruins ; and one solitary Ionia, (but now Natolia,) about five miles Greek only was found, who bore the name from the Ægean sea, on the sides and at of Christ, instead of its once flourishing



church. Where once assembled thousands | 100 jews, who have a synagogue. Per exclaimed, “Great is Diana of the Ephe- gamos, or Bergamo, as it is now called, is sians,” now the eagle yells, and the jackal about sixty-four miles north of Smyrna. moans. As for the stork, the ruins of Ephe- THYATIRA, a city of Asia Minor, was sus are her house. This bird is seen perch- a considerable city in the road from Pering in all directions upon the summits of gamos to Sardis, and about forty-eight the buildings, or hovering round them in miles eastward of the former. It is called the air, or fixing its immense nest, like the by the Turks, Akhisar, and is embosomed capital of a column, on the large masses of in cypresses and poplars ; it is now, as an

ciently it was, celebrated for dyeing, and SMYRNA, a city of Asia Minor, was si- large quantities of cloths, dyed scarlet, are tuated about forty miles to the north of sent weekly to Smyrna. In 1826, the poEphesus, of which city it was originally a pulation was estimated at 300 Greek colony. It is now celebrated chiefly for the houses, thirty Armenian, and 1000 Turknumber, wealth, and commerce of the in- | ish. Each of the two former have a habitants. Of its population, which is es- church. The streets are narrow and dirty. timated at about 75,000 inhabitants, 45,000 Sardis, the metropolis of the region are Turks; 15,000 Greeks; 8000 Arme- of Lydia, in Asia Minor, is situated near nians ; 8,000 Jews; and less than 1,000 mount Tmolus, between thirty and forty Europeans. There are more than twenty miles east from Smyrna. It was celemosques in Smyrna, and three Greek brated for great opulence, and for the churches, and the Jews have several syna- voluptuous and debauched manners of gogues. The angel of the church of Smyrna, its inhabitants. Considerable ruins still addressed in the second apocalyptic epistle, attest the ancient splendour of this once is supposed to have been Polycarp, the celebrated capital of Cresus and the Lydisciple of Saint John, by whom he was dian kings, which is now reduced to a appointed bishop of Smyrna. As he af- wretched village, called Sart, consisting terwards suffered much, being burnt alive of a few mud huts occupied by Turkish at Smyrna, A. D. 166, the exhortation in herdsmen. A great portion of the Rev. ii. 10 would be peculiarly calculated ground once occupied by this imperial to support and encourage him. Smyrna city, is now a smooth grassy plain, browsed will ever interest the real christian. On over by the sheep of the peasants, or trodthe firmness of the early martyrs depended, den by the camels of the caravan; and under Divine Providence, the transmission all that remains to point out the site of of the truth to the latest generations. its glory, is a few disjointed pillars, and

Pergamos was the ancient metropolis the crumbling rock of the Acropolis." of Mysia, and the residence of the Attalian The ruins are more entirely gone to dekings ; it still preserves many vestiges of cay than in most of the ancient cities in its ancient magnificence. Against the church those parts. No christians reside on the at Pergamos, was adduced the charge of spot; two Greek servants of a Turkish instability, Rev. ii. 14, 15, but to its wa- miller, in 1826, were the only representvering faith was promised the all-powerful atives of the church at Sardis ; the preprotection of God. “The errors of Balaam sent state of which affords a most strikand the Nicolaitanes have been purged ing illustration of the accomplishment of away: Pergamos has been preserved from the prophetic denunciation against the the destroyer; and three thousand chris- church in that city—A name to live, while tians" (out of a population of about 15,000 dead. inhabitants) now cherish the rites of their

(To be continued.) religion in the same spot where it was planted by the hands of Saint Paul, though, alas! their religion has little in common with SIMPLE MACHINES-THE LEVER. the faith taught by the apostle, but the

(Continued from page 133.) name and profession. Of these christians, about 200 belong to the Armenian com- The balance, as we have already stated,

union; the remainder are members of the is a lever of the first order, with equal Greek church. They have each one church, arms, and its use is to determine unknown but the other churches of Pergamos have weights. The balance, as made by the been converted into mosques, and are pro- best workmen, consists of a light beam of faned with the blasphemies of the pseudo- some inflexible material, but its shape prophet, Mohammed. There are also about differs according to the caprice or skill of the constructor. Ramsden's celebrated ba- | a grain be required, measure a piece of lance-beam consisted of two cones, joined wire weighing exactly one grain, and oneat their bases, and to the centre of the hundredth part of the whole length will beam is attached a finely polished knife- give the weight required : in this way the edge, which works upon polished agates; student may construct the smallest possible but that these delicate edges may not be weights by using wires of proportional injured by reclining for any length of time thinness. on the agate planes, supporting the whole Another modification of the lever used to weight of the balance, two upright forks determine the weight of bodies, is the Roman are provided, which may be elevated by balance, or common steelyard, which is, touching a small attached lever or screw, strictly speaking, a lever of the first order. which causes them to seize the beam, and It consists of an iron beam moving on a hold it suspended. A good instrument for pivot, having one arm much longer than philosophical purposes should indicate to the other. These two arms are so balanced 1-30,000th part of the weight in the scale. that the beam is horizontal when unloaded. In all well-constructed beams the centre of A hook is fixed to the shorter arm, on which gravity is immediately under the centre of the substance to be weighed is suspended. motion, that is the axis ; for if it be above On the longer arm a determined weight is the axis, the slightest motion will cause placed, which slides into any position, and it to upset, being in a state of instable the equilibrium of the lever or weight of the equilibrium; and if the centre of motion body is obtained, by bringing the weight be also the centre of gravity, then the nearer to, or further from, the centre of arms will rest indifferently in any posi- motion. The longer arm being graduated, tion.

the point at which the weight remains will The general theory of weighing is, to give the weight of the body. This instruplace the substance whose weight is re- ment is well known, being commonly used quired in one scale, and to add weights to in families, and in some trades. Its printhe opposite scale until the balance beam ciple of action is the same as the lever, that is in equilibrio. But in weighing bodies is to say, the weight multiplied into its that have but little weight, there are many distance from the fulcrum, is equal to the circumstances to be attended to, or the power multiplied into its distance. weight cannot be accurately estimated. There are many other modifications of The weights themselves must not be touched the lever adapted to weighing, as the Dawith the fingers, for the heat that would nish balance, Brady's balance, and others, be communicated, might be sufficient to to which we cannot at present refer; all cause light currents of air that would de- these, however, act upon the same prinrange the balance, even if no impurity were ciple, and the reader may easily acquaint communicated. These currents of air must himself fully with the action of this beautibe carefully guarded against, and it is there- ful though simple machine, by taking all fore desirable to remove the weights by the opportunities which present themselves means of a small pair of nippers. It was of applying the law we have explained. once asserted that the principle called caloric, or heat, had weight, because a flask of water weighs more when the liquid is cold, than when it is hot; but this does not arise from any influence that caloric If a convincing and familiar proof of the has upon weight, but because a current of extensive application of the metals to the air is produced when the temperature is common purposes of life were required, raised, which ceases when the water is cold. we need only refer to the case of many

It is often advantageous in delicate che a common cottager, who could not carry on mical experiments, requiring the art of his daily concerns and occupations without weighing, to be able to construct your own the assistance of several of the metals. small weights; and this may at any time He could not, for instance, make his larger be done. Take a length of silver or plati- purchases, nor pay his rent, without silver, num wire, the latter is preferable, weighing, gold, and copper. Without iron, he could for instance, one grain. By carefully mea- neither dig, nor plough, nor reap; and, with suring the length, it is easy to determine respect to his habitation, there is scarcely a the proportionate lengths required to pro- part of the structure itself, or of the furniduce any given weight less than a grain. ture contained in it, which is not held toSupposing that a weight one-hundredth of gether, to a greater or less extent, by means


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