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THE FORCE OF CONSCIENCE.

of the same metal; and many articles come for that purpose.

Mr.

on are either entirely of iron, or of iron par- being informed of the object of her visit, tially, and superficially coated with tin. told her not to make herself any longer unZinc, and copper, and antimony, and lead, happy, as she was not the only young lady and tin, are component parts of his pewter who had acted in that manner. After and brazen utensils. Quicksilver is a main begging his forgiveness, which he most rea ingredient in the metallic coating of his dily granted, she insisted on his acceptance humble mirror ; cobalt and platina, and of a sum of money, which, she said, she metals perhaps more rare and costly than believed was about the value of the artithese, as chrome, are employed in the cles she had stolen ; and after remaining glazing of his drinking cups and jugs. about an hour, she departed, evidently Šo that of the whole number of metals much happier. made use of by society at large, for common purposes, more than half of them are either directly used by the mere pea

THE GLORY OF SCRIPTURE. sant, or enter into the composition of the THEN do we find food for our souls in furniture and implements employed by him. the word of truth, then do we taste how - Professor Kidd.

gracious the Lord is therein, then is the scripture full of refreshment

us, as a

spring of living water, when we are taken The following remarkable instance of into a blessed view of the glory of Christ the force of conscience occurred a few days that it is the great, the only outward means

therein. This is the glory of the scripture, since in the neighbourhood of London. A of representing unto us the glory of Christ: lady, about thirty-eight years of age, ele- and He is the Sun in the firmament thereof, gantly dressed, entered the shop of Mr. which only hath light in itself, and com-, a respectable pastry-cook, in a state

municates it to all other things besides, of great mental excitement, and inquired if John i. 9; v. 39; Col. i. 15—19.-Dra Mr. were still alive. On being an

Owen. swered in the affirmative, she, in the most earnest manner, begged to see him. Being engaged in superintending the making of

NOTHING USELESS. some confectionary, he begged to be ex- An extensive manufacture is carried on cused, and referred her to his daughter, in Leeds, by which old woollen rags are who, he said, would wait upon her. The made into new cloth. The rags are subdaughter immediately withdrew with her jected to a machine which tears them in into the parlour ; when, after sitting a few pieces, and reduces them nearly to their moments in silence, she burst into a flood primitive state of wool : they are then, with of tears. When she became more com- a small admixture of new wool, again cardposed, she stated, that upwards of twenty ed, slubbed, spun, and woven, and made years since, she had been a boarder at a into a cloth ; not very strong, but answering highly respectable boarding-school in that very well for paddings, and other purneighbourhood, which school Mr. had

poses of a similar nature. So extensive is for nearly forty years supplied with pastry, this manufacture, that it is said five million &c.; and while there, she had been in the pounds weight of woollen rags are yearly habit of abstracting small articles from his exported for Germany and other parts for tray, unknown to the person who brought this purpose. it. She had now been married some years, Philosophers say that “nothing is lost in was the mother of six children, and in the nature," and it seems nothing is lost in art. possession of every happiness this world Linen rags are converted into paper, and could afford; but still the remembrance of now a use is discovered for woollen rags, her youthful sin had so haunted her con- by transmuting them into cloth. How inscience, that she was never happy. Her genious is the skill of man ! and how vast husband, perceiving her unhappiness, had, the difference betwixt instinct and reason, after many fruitless endeavours, at last got if not in their nature, certainly in their appossession of the cause, when he advised plication. her, for the easement of her conscience, to see if Mr. were alive, and to make

JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London. him or his family a recompence; and as

Price jd. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Five she was going to leave London on the fol

Numbers in a Cover, 8d. lowing day, perhaps for ever, she had then

W. TYLER, Printer, 4, Ivy Lane, St. Paul's.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic]

LANTERN-FLY OF BRAZIL, TWO-THIRDS NATURAL SIZE. Wings brown, powdered with white dots and dark brown dashes and zigzag lines, with a beautiful peacock-eye on the tip of the under wings; the centre of the eye is light yellowish brown, with & white dot in the middle encircled by brown, and a brown circle surrounds the whole.

ON LUMINOUS INSECTS.

allow it to shine at will. A species of inSHOULD any of our readers, at least on sect allied to our glow-worm, but of which the southern parts of this island, take a sum- both sexes are alike winged, (Pygolampsis mer evening's ramble along lanes with Italica,) is very abundant in Italy; and high mossy banks, and hedges of hawthorn, when numbers are seen glittering like stars sweetbriar, and honeysuckle, where, shroud fitting about at night through the woods ed in thick foliage, the nightingale is pour- and groves, the effect is said to be extremely ing out her song, he will most probably see beautiful. To return, however, to our the bank here and there studded with living island, we may observe that the glowsparks of fire, and at once recognise them worm is not the only luminous insect which as glow-worms. The glow-worm is the bespangles the dewy lawn : a very common wingless female of a winged beetle, (Lam- species of centipede, (Geophilus electricus,) pyris noctiluca,) which itself is not, as has which resides under clods of earth during been supposed, altogether destitute of the the day, and crawls forth at night, possesses property of giving out light, though in a this luminous property. It is abundant in very trifling degree. The female of this gardens, at least in the neighbourhood of beetle might be mistaken for the larva of London, and the southern counties, and some insect, and is very different in appear- cannot fail to have been observed during ance froin its less illuminated but aerial dark, moonless nights, glowing with phosmate. Thi: Juinuous property of the glow- phorescent radiance along the garden walks worm is confined to the three last ventral and the grass-plats. An allied species, the segments of the abdomen, which are appa- Geophilus phosphoreus, is a native of rently capable of being withdrawn, so that Asia. the insect can either conceal the light, or Europe, however, cannot vie with the

VOL. III.

hotter regions of the globe in the brilliancy , of night, "now motionless and dark, eludof its luminous insects; it is in the regions ing search,”- " and anon starring the skyof the humming-bird, that winged gem“ like a shower of fire.” Most have heard whose lustre seems borrowed from a tropic of the fire-Aly of St. Domingo and the West sun, that we are to seek for the insect lamps India islands. The fire-fly is an insect of

[graphic]

Fire-Fly, (Elater Noclilucus,) from nature; natural Size. Colour-Chestnut Brown. the beetle tribe, (Elater noctilucus,) about before us, more than two inches and a an inch in length, and one-third in breadth ; half in length, with a hollow transparent “ it gives out its principal light from two projection of the head, seven lines in transparent eye-like tubercles, placed upon length, (some individuals are larger in the thorax (chest;) but there are also two both respects, which is the organ whence luminous patches concealed under the ely- has been said to issue the lamp-like flame. tra, (horny wing-cases,) which are not vi- “Madame Merion,” says Kirby,“ informs sible except when the insect is flying, at us that the first discovery which she made which time it appears adorned with four of this property caused her no small alarm. brilliant gems of the most beautiful golden The Indians had brought her several of blue lustre; in fact, the whole body is full these insects, which by day-light exhibited of light, which shines out between the ab- no extraordinary appearance, and she endominal segments when stretched. We are closed them in a box until she should have told that the original natives (a race whose an opportunity of drawing them, placing it memory even is passing away) were for- upon a table in her lodging-room. In the merly accustomed to employ " these living middle of the night the confined insects lamps, which they called Cucuij, instead of made such a noise as to awake her, and candles, in their evening household occu- she opened the box, the inside of which, to pations. In travelling at night they used her great astonishment, appeared all in a to tie one to each great toe, and in fishing blaze : and, in her fright, letting it fall, she and hunting required no other flambeau.” was not less surprised to see each of the Besides this, they were sought for and en- insects apparently on fire. She

soon,

howcouraged in houses, and especially sleep- ever, divined the cause of this unexpected ing-rooms, as extirpators of gnats, which phenomenon, and re-inclosed her brilliant constitute a great part of their food. (See guests in their place of confinement. She Decades of the New World, by P. Martire, adds, that the light of one of these Fulgore quoted in Southey's Madoc.) The fire-fly is sufficiently bright to read a newspaper is common in the inter-tropical regions of by: and though the tale of her drawing the American continent, as well as the West one of these insects by its own light, is Indies. In addition to the E. noctilucus, the without foundation, she doubtless might E. ignitus, and several other allied species, have done so had she chosen.” are also luminous. But of all luminous The Fulgora laternaria is said to be not insects, by far the most transcendent (if the only blazing lamp of the genus ;

China the accounts of writers are to be at all produces one, little its inferior, the F. cancredited) are some of the Hemipterous delaria, provided with a slender recurved order, and of the genus Fulgora. Of these hollow projection from the head, in which the lantern-fly of South America (Fulgora resides the luminous matter; and India laternaria) is said to be pre-eminent. (see Donovan's Insects of India) produces This beautiful insect, of which we give a another, the F. pyrrhorhynchus, having a sketch from nature, (see page 145,) is, ac- smaller snout than F. laternaria, of a deep cording to the measurement of the specimen purple hue, with a transparent tip of intense

It may

scarlet ; and as these tints will be imparted | have classed it with the metals. It is, howto the transmitted light, the effect produced ever, more closely allied to sulphur and must, of course, be most splendid and phosphorus, in its general properties. It striking.

combines with sulphur, chlorine, and carIt must, however, be confessed, notwith- | bon, and it may be easily distinguished standing Madame Merion's tale, which sa- from all other substances by its peculiar vours no little of the romantic, that the odour, which greatly resembles that of the luminous power of the Fulgore is very horse-radish. hypothetical. In shrillness of voice, and in Chlorine may be distinguished by its many of their habits, they resemble the tree yellowish green colour, and by its power of crickets; but late observers, who have closely destroying all vegetable colours. investigated the natural history of these in- be obtained from marine plants, and was sects, and of the lantern fly of South Ame- formerly considered an acid, being called rica, in particular, deny that any luminous oxymuriatic acid, but experiment has proved property is situated either in the hollow that oxygen is not an element in its comlantern of the head, or in any other part of position. Chlorine exists either as a gas, or the body; and affirm that the received in combination with water ; it occasions account is altogether fabulous. Sieber, a suffocation when inspired by animals ; is a practised entomologist, who took numbers supporter of combustion, and is of great of Fulgoræ during his stay in the Brazils, importance to many manufacturers, parti(where he continued for several years,) treats cularly the bleacher. When united with the whole as a ridiculous fable; in which hydrogen, it forms muriatic acid, one of statement he is borne out by observers, the most useful of all the compounds, of whose testimony we have personally heard, which it is a constituent part. and who assert that the Indians regard the Iodine may be obtained from kelp, or tale as originating in the mistake of the the ashes of sea-weed, and is a substance that white men, who, seeing the fire-fly (Elater bears a near resemblance, in many respects, noctilucus) glancing about like a meteor, to chlorine. As a gas, it is distinguished by have in some unaccountable manner attri- its violet colour. In its pure state it is buted its luminosity to the Fulgora, per- poisonous, and, like chlorine, destroys all haps because they could conceive no other vegetable colours. use for the hollow projection from its head, BROMINE, also, has a close resemblance than that of a lantern. The true nature of to chlorine ; but as it is of no value, either the luminous property of insects is not yet in the arts or as a medical agent, it will be fully understood ; neither is the use of this unnecessary that we should describe its singular provision very satisfactorily made properties. out. In the glow-worm it has been con- BORON is the base of an article of comjectured to be a beacon-light to its mate, merce called borax, frequently employed but this is not a sufficient explanation as it by manufacturers and physicians. Boron respects other luminous insects, where both is a dark, opaque, olive-coloured powder, sexes are alike lamp-lit. How great a part and incapable of fusion. When united of our Creator's ways in nature are past with oxygen, it forms boracic acid, which, finding out! and can we then wonder if combined with soda, forms borax. mysteries, which bewilder us amidst the Many of our readers are probably acmazes of speculation, occur in the revelation quainted with the substance commonly of grace?

called Derbyshire spar, of which many ornamental and useful things are made. It has been usually called, by chemists,

fluate of lime, but recent experiments have SELENIUM, CHLORINE, IODINE, BROMINE, proved that it is a fluate of calcium. The BORON, FLUORINE, SILICON.

base of this compound is a simple subBERZELIUS, a native of Sweden, and an stance, designated Auorine. It is of a chocoeminent chemist, discovered, when examin- late colour, a supporter of combustion, and ing the products of a copper mine, a new a destroyer of animal life. It cannot be substance, in combination with sulphur presented in a separate form, and is conseand copper, to which he gave the name of quently only known in its combination with selenium. This substance is of a grey other bodies. colour, and in some respects resembles the There is one other simple substance that metals: it is slightly transparent, is inso- remains to be noticed under the present luble in water, and possesses a metallic head, called silicon; it is the basis of flint, lustre, and on this account some chemists quartz, and many other compounds. When

M.

CHEMISTRY.-No. VII.

THE HISTORY OF BOTANY.

combined with oxygen, it forms silica, an one or two others, till about the sixteenth earth of great importance in the arts, of century, when it was again brought into which we shall give a full description when notice by one Brunfels, a German. Once we speak of that class of bodies to which it revived, it continued advancing gradually belongs.

with little intermission, till the time of Linne, who began to write about the year 1736, and continued to prosecute the study

with the most determined perseverance, It is only within the few last years, that till about 1776. His famous work, “SysBotany, considered scientifically, and as a tema Plantarum,” and another, “Genera branch of Natural History, has attained to Plantarum,” went through many editions that degree of perfection and beauty which after his death, and were finally translated it may now be said to possess. Prior to into English. The first clearly demonthe time of Linné, the great Swedish na- strated the sexual nature of plants, on turalist, it could hardly be considered as a which he founded that system h ich has science, inasmuch as it possessed few of received his name, and which is, with vathe requisite qualities, and those only in a rious alterations, almost universally reslight degree. The ancient Greeks and ceived in the present day. He also maRomans, as well as the early Britons, were, terially improved botanical terminology indeed, acquainted with the names and in general, which is universally acknowqualities of many plants and vegetable pro- ledged the most difficult part of the study, ductions; they knew the difference between on which, in a measure, depends the praca tree, a shrub, and a herb, distinctions tical application of the whole system. After which have prevailed in every nation ; but him, John Thedwig, Professor of Botany they were in want of a regular classifica- at Leipzig, appeared, who arranged the tion, which would equally extend to, and mosses, lichens, ferns, &c., consisting of embrace all, and by which they might rea- the lower, though in many cases more beaudily distinguish particular genera and spe- tiful orders of vegetable life, which had cies (to use modern terms.) Amongst them, been left almost untouched by Linne. He plants were generally considered either in discovered the fructification and sexual a medicinal or domestic point of view; organs of the mosses, in which his predethis of necessity very much confined their cessor (Linne) had erred ; and completely ideas, for, restrained within such limits, they formed the whole of our present class, could only extend to a part, and that a very cryptogamia. small part of the vegetable kingdom. The About this time a new era in botanical system itself, therefore, (if system it can be science arose, in the discovery, or rather, called,) was a very imperfect one, and re-application of the natural system ; classing quired the alteration which a far more com- plants, not according to the number or situprehensive acquaintance with nature could tion of their stamens and pistils, but accordafford. Perceiving this necessity, the an- ing to their natural affinities. This was cient philosophers, and particularly Aris- first carried into effect in 1759, by Bernard totle, applied themselves to the task ; he was de Jussieu, who arranged in this manner all the first who wrote a complete system of Na- the plants in the botanical garden of Tritural History : but of all the branches which anon, near Paris; and in 1789, his nephew he treated of, he paid least attention to the Antoine Laurent de Jussieu published his vegetable arrangement, his studies being Genera Plantarum Secundum Ordines chiefly directed to the animal kingdom, or Naturales Disposita." Since this publicawhat is now called zoology: After him, tion, many improvements have been made Theophrastus, his pupil, and finally, suc- in the system, especially within the few cessor in his school, studied the science, last years, by Robert Brown, Decandolle, and wrote a work, about the year 330, B. C., Professor Lindley, and many others. We in which he gives a description of upwards have now given our readers a brief outline of five hundred plants. The Romans also, of the history of botany, from ancient time about the year 73, B. C., soon after the to the present date; mentioning a few who Mithridatic war, engaged in the study; and have distinguished themselves in the Cato and Varro wrote on it; they did not, science, either by their discoveries or imhowever, bestow a special and undivided at-provements ; still, however, we cannot pass tention upon the subject.

over unnoticed that great friend and patron In the first century of the christian era, of botanical study, Sir J. E. Smith, whose this science began to languish, and remained assiduous and persevering labours have almost forgotten, except by Apuleius and never, perhaps, been excelled, and but

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