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body, is not more deadly than the bad | ther. He hath provided for himself a books that poison the principles of the Lamb for a sacrifice, and one of infinite soul.”

dignity and value, wherein he rests for ever well-pleased. He invites sinners also to partake of this feast, and be reconciled

to him; to receive the free remission of Of the great Teacher who came from sins, the adoption of children, and to feast God, it is recorded that his very enemies abundantly on his love and grace, maniwere constrained to say, “ Never man spake fested in, and flowing freely through a as he did.” There seems to have been crucified Saviour. Here he holds forth something, both in the matter and manner himself as their satisfying and everlasting of his teaching, which distinguished it from portion; their Father, their God, and all others. He delivered much of his doc- their all, in time and through eternity. trine in parables, and among them that of What a feast is this ! it is truly a feast of the marriage of the king's son holds a dis- love! tinguished place. The reader will find it To induce sinners to come to this feast, recorded in the 22nd chapter of Matthew, the King sends his servants to invite and also in the 14th of Luke. Reader, did guests, telling them that all things are now you ever examine it? If not, allow me to ready. Much, indeed, was to be done in assist you in doing it.

making ready this feast : perhaps, reader, The parable was originally spoken to the you never thought of this. But the law Jews, the people to whom our Saviour was which sinners had broken must be fulprincipally sent; among whom he exercised filled ; reparation must be made to injured his public ministry, and to whom the first justice, by a complete and adequate atonegospel invitation was given; though, unhap- ment for sin; the head of the serpent pily, they set light by them, despised must be bruised; the world, sin, and death, their own mercies, and so counted them- overcome; an everlasting righteousness selves unworthy of eternal life. Let it brought in, and remission of sins and eternot be so with us; let us take warning, nal life procured in a way consistent with and profit by their example!

all the Divine perfections. But how should The parable implies, as all our Lord's all this be effected? What insurmountteaching while on earth did, that all the able difficulties lay in the way


providposterity of Adam are by nature in a | ing this feast! Neither men nor angels guilty, lost, or fallen state; and so the could give the least assistance in this pregospel is the rich provision of the God of paration. Infinite wisdom, however, conall grace for their relief, that they may trived it, and boundless love and grace not perish in their sins.

carried it into full effect. To make all Now, in this beautiful parable, God the things ready, the eternal Word became inFather is represented as the King, whose carnate, and, in the form of a servant, was grace and love are the original spring of obedient to the will of his heavenly Father all. Jesus Christ is the Son, who is the in the room of the guilty : the Iloly One Bridegroom of his church. The servants and the Just was made a curse, endured are the prophets; John the Baptist, and the death of the cross, and that for the the apostles; some of whom are sent be- sake of sinners: he died, and rose again fore, others after, the feast is prepared. from the dead, for their justification. Oh, The guests invited are, first, the Jews at what a feasti how costly to the Father ! Jerusalem, then those who were scattered how costly to the Son! Angels had never abroad; and lastly us, perishing gentiles. such a feast prepared for them! In this The feast itself is the blessings of the feast nothing is wanting to render it coneverlasting gospel.

plete, nothing left for us to provide, noThe things provided for this feast, or thing unprepared, nothing left for the marriage supper, are set forth under the guests to pay, except gratitude and praise metaphors of

oxen and fatlings,” con- to the munificent Donor. Every thing formably to the language of the prophets. becoming his infinite bounty, and every See Prov. ix. 2; Isa. xxv. 6; and chap. thing suited to our wants; all are prolv. 1, 2. Thus the provisions of the gos- vided ready to our hands.

“He spared pel are represented by the choicest and not his own Son, and with Him he freely inost delicious dainties, marrow and fat- gives us all things." All is absolutely

Here God hath provided, both for free, “without money and without price," himself and sinners, a sumptuous enter- Isa. lv. 1. But, reader, the invitation tainment, at which they may feast toge- demands a speedy compliance ; you are


among the number invited; beware how in nearly all parts of the world, though not you slight the invitation ; remember that in its pure state, for it is usually in combiall things are ready and waiting for your nation with carbonic acid, with which it acceptance. Every moment's delay is forms carbonate of lime. Marble, chalk, dangerous, and throws contempt upon the and limestone, are carbonates of lime, and feast and its provider ! “ Hear, and your differ very little the one from the other in soul shall live;" “ Believe on the Lord their composition. Either of these three Jesus Christ, and you shall be saved." substances, when exposed for some time to

a white heat, will part with its carbonic acid, and the remaining substance is lime,

usually called quick lime. When thus preCHEMISTRY. No. IX.

pared, lime is of a white colour, of modeEARTHS.-NO. 2.

rate hardness, easily powdered, and remarkTHE BERYL, a green, transparent stone, able for its burning, as well as somewhat yields, when analyzed, a soft, white powder, bitter taste. Its specific gravity is 34. It which is one of the elementary earths. It has the effect of changing the blue colour of is in itself destitute of taste and smell, and vegetables into green, and is incapable of adheres to the tongue; properties by which fusion. it may be known. From the sweet taste

Lime is of frequent service in the arts, and which it imparts to the acids, with which greatly adds to the number of conveniences it will combine, it has been termed glucina. by which we are surrounded. It is an imThis earth will neither harden nor contract portant ingredient in the cements that are by the application of heat. Considering used in building. Lime is also much used the source from which it is derived, it is

as a manure, on account of its property of not likely to be obtained in sufficient abun- hastening the putrefaction of all animal and dance to be of much utility.

vegetable substances, and of maintaining a Yitria is an earth that enters into the moisture sufficient to produce and preserve composition of two minerals, the gadolinite the growth of plants. "To the bleacher, the and the yttro-tantalite, both of which are tanner, and other manufacturers, it is an found in Sweden. When separated from important substance. its combinations, it is a white powder, and Lime is not unfrequently combined with is remarkable from the circumstance that its sulphuric acid, forming sulphate of lime or specific gravity, which is nearly 5, is greater gypsum. When united with fluoric acid, than any other earth.

a fuate of lime, or fluor spar, is produced ; BARYTES is obtained from a mineral for when with phosphoric acid, a phosphate of merly called ponderous spar, in which it lime, a constituent ingredient in the comexists in combination with sulphuric acid. position of animal bones. Marble is a It is distinguished by its greyish white co- mixture of carbonate of lime and clay. Sir lour, porosity, and pungent taste. Its spe- Humphrey Davy succeeded in decomposing cific gravity is 4. When exposed to the this earth, as well as some others, and obatmosphere, it attracts the vapour which tained its metallic base, to which he gave may exist in it, swells, emits heat, and the name of calcium. falls into a white powder in the same man- MAGNESIA, as found in nature, is always ner as lime.

From the strong affinity it united with some acid. Epsom salts is a possesses for sulphuric acid, their union sulphate of magnesia, that is to say, magis always maintained with great tenacity: nesia combined with sulphuric acid. When It is employed by chemists as a chemical pure, it is a soft white substance, with little test; it imparts a yellow tinge to flame, taste or smell, and is unaffected by the most forms a good water-colour, and is a deadly intense heat.' It is extensively employed poison.

in medicine; and when calcined, that is, STRONTITES greatly resembles barytes in deprived of its moisture by heat, it is an many of its properties, is of a greyish white antidote to the poisonous effects of the micolour, and possesses an alkaline taste, but neral acids. It has also the useful property gives a purple colour to flame. It is ob- of purifying putrid waters. tained from a mineral found in a lead-mine at Strontian, in Wales, and, in its combinasion with sulphuric acid, is by no means

Neither strontites nor barytes is soluble in water, and in this respect they In a letter to Mrs. H. More, at that time differ from all the other earths.


in London, dated Aug. 18, 1795, one of Lime is an earth very abundantly found her sisters says :



“ I took my letter yesterday, to finish it eminent christian first taught salvation in at Cheddar; but alas ! hurry, grief, and Cheddar !' He was very tender in his adagitation, render it almost impossible for dress to the children, and concluded with a me to write a word; however, I will en- suitable prayer. deavour to convey to you, that we have just “ When we drew near to the grave, and deposited the remains of our excellent Mrs. the last solemn rite was performed, every Baber, to mingle with her kindred dust. body threw in their nosegays. I was alWho else has ever been so attended or fol- most choked. If you could for a moment lowed to the grave? Of the hundreds who doubt my account, I would add, that the attended, all had some token of mourning undertaker from Bristol wept like a child, in their dress. All the black gowns in the and confessed, that without payment, it was village were to be seen, and those who had worth going a hundred miles to see such a none, had, some broad, some little bits of sight. Here were no violent expressions of narrow black ribbon, such as their few grief, for the deceased had taught them how pence could provide. The house, the gar- to select suitable texts for such occasions, den, the place before the door, was full. and when to apply the promises of scripBut how shall I describe it ?-not one single ture. I think almost tears enough were voice or step was heard—their very silence shed to lay the dust. We returned, and was dreadful; but it was not the least af- when we joined the children in the great fecting part to see their poor little ragged room, and missed her lively, sprightly figure pocket handkerchiefs, not half sufficient to and movements, every heart sank.” H. dry their tears. Some had none; and those tears that did not fall to.the ground, they wiped off with some part of their dress. When the procession moved off, Mr. Boak, The effects arising from combinations (the minister,) who was so good as to come amongst workmen are almost always injuto the very house, walked before the corpse, rious to the parties themselves. There are with his hat-band and gown on; then the numerous instances in which the public body; then her sister, and myself, as chief-'suffer by increased price at the moment, but mourners; then the gentry, two and two; are ultimately gainers from the permanent next, the children, near two hundred; then reduction which results; whilst, on the all the parish in the same order; and though other hand, the improvements which are the stones were rugged, you did not hear a often made in machinery in consequence of single footstep. When we came to the “a strike amongst the workmen,” most outer gate of the churchyard, where all the frequently do injury, of greater or less durpeople used to pay their duty to her by ation, to that particular class which gave bows and courtesies, we were obliged to halt, rise to them. As the injury to the men and for Mr. Boak to go in and put his surplice to their families is almost always more seon, to receive the corpse with the usual rious than that which affects their employers, texts. This was almost too much for every it is of the utmost importance to the comone, and Mr. Boak's voice was nearly lost fort and happiness of the former class, that when he came to, 'I know that my Re- they should themselves entertain sound deemer liveth ;' he could scarcely utter it; views upon this question. For this purbut to feel it was much better. On our pose a few illustrations of the principle here entrance into the church, the little remain- maintained, will probably have greater ing light we had left, discovered to us that weight than any reasoning of a more geit was almost full. How we were to be neral nature, though drawn from admitted disposed of, I could not tell. I took my principles of political economy. There is a old seat with the children close by her process in the manufacture of gun-barrels, place. Mr. Boak gave us a discourse of for making what, in the language of the thirty-five minutes, entirely on the subject. trade, are called skelps. The skelp is a His text was from St. John. “Where I piece or bar of iron, about three feet long, am, there shall also my servant be.” He and four inches wide, but thicker and said, he chose it because it was the last she broader at one end than at the other. The made use of to him; he added, she looked barrel of a musket is formed by forging out round her, and observed, it was comfort- such pieces to the proper dimensions, and able to have kind friends, but much better then folding or bending them into a cylinto have God with one! The sermon was drical form, until the edges overlap, so that affecting and bold, and he said, with energy they can be welded together. in his voice, and firmness in his look This About twenty years ago, the workmen

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employed at a very extensive factory in forging sisted in folding a bar of iron, about a foot skelps out of bar-iron, “struck" for an ad- long, into the form of a cylinder, with the vance of wages; and as their demands were edges a little overlapping. It was then very exorbitant, they were not immediately placed in a furnace, and being taken out complied with. In the mean time, the when raised to a melting heat, a triblet, or superintendent of the establishment directed cylinder of iron, was placed in it, and the his attention to the subject, and it occurred whole was passed quickly through a pair to him, that if the circumference of the of rollers. The effect of this was, that the rollers, between which the bar of iron was welding was performed in a single heating, rolled, were to be made equal to the length and the remainder of the elongation recesof a skelp, and if the groove in which the sary for extending the skelps to the length iron was compressed, instead of being of the of the musket-barrel, was performed in a same width and depth throughout, were cut similar, but a lower temperature. The workgradually deeper and deeper, from some men who had combined, were, of course, point in the rollers, until it returned to the no longer wanted, and instead of benefiting same point, then the bar-iron passing be- themselves by their combination, they were tween such rollers would have a corres- reduced permanently, by this improvement ponding form, that is, gradually increasing in the art, to a much lower rate of wages : in thickness from one end to the other. for as the process of welding gun-barrels by On making the trial, it was found to suc- hand required peculiar skill and considerceed perfectly; and a great reduction of hu- able experience, they had hitherto been in man labour was effected by the process; the habit of earning much higher wages and the workmen who had acquired a pe- than other workmen of the same class. culiar skill in forging the skelps, ceased to On the other hand, the new method was derive any advantage from their dexterity. far less injurious to the texture of the

It is somewhat singular that another and iron, which was now exposed only once, a still more remarkable instance of the ef- instead of three or four times, to the weldfect of combinations among workmen should ing heat; so that the public derived adhave occurred but a few years since in the vantage from the superiority, as well as same trade. The process of welding the from the economy of the process. skelps, so as to convert them into gun-bar- The same process has been extended rels, required much skill, and after the ter- to all other kinds of iron tubes, which has mination of the war, the demand for mus- so reduced their price, that the employkets having greatly diminished, the number ment of them has become very general. of persons employed in making them was They are now, consequently, to be found very much reduced. This circumstance in the shops of all our larger ironmonrendered combination more easy; and upon gers, of various length and diameter, with one occasion, when a contract had been en- screws cut at each end, and are in contered into for a considerable supply to be stant use for the conveyance of gas for delivered on a fixed day, the men all struck lighting, or of water for warming our for such an advance of wages as would have houses. caused the completion of the contract to be In the above instances cited by Mr. attended with a very heavy loss. In this Babbage, in his book on “The Economy difficulty, the contractors resorted to a mode of Machinery and Manufactures,” we see of welding the gun-barrel, for which a pa- that of three parties, the public, the mastent had been taken out by one of their ters, and the workmen, two were matenumber some years prior to this event. rially advantaged by the effect of combinaThe plan had not then succeeded so well tion, to the loss of the third. If the unas to come into general use, in consequence toward results of combinations be felt of the cheapness of the usual mode of weld- most where they can be least endured, ing by hand-labour, combined with some surely it is the interest of

every prudent other difficulties with which the patentee artisan to think twice before he indirectly had to contend. But the stimulus produced furnishes the means of injuring his own by the combination of workmen, induced circumstances. him to make new trials, which were attended with so much success, that he was enabled to introduce such a facility in welding gun-barrels by rollers, and such The terms by which the idea of preachperfection in the work itself, that, in all ing the gospel is impressed and accomprobability, very few will in future be panied in the New Testament, imply that welded by hand-labour. The process con- it is the promulgation of law, the issuing of



a man

an edict, or the publication of some notice severing student of the holy scriptures. which it concerns all men to know. Let The same Jehovah who gave his servants the man who spends the six days in busi- the wisdom to indite this revelation of ness, and the seventh in the pursuit of himself, will grant him the wisdom to unpleasure, ask himself if he can spare a mo- derstand it. And though the sneers of ment for the consideration of any thing the scoffer may appear too keen to be beyond this life, whether he ever gave him- | borne, the opposition of circumstances self any trouble in attempting to understand too strong and peculiar to be overcome; its purport, or to find out the person to and what is worse than all, though the heart whom it applies. In the extenuation of is always too cowardly and faithless to be many sins a man might perhaps be allowed trusted—yet if we make resort unto God, to plead the acknowledged infirmity of by reading and prayer, he will by his Spirit human nature, the influence of bad cus- fortify the heart with inward strength, toms, the deficiency or wrong bias of his remove impediments that appeared insureducation; but what pretext, what excuse, mountable, and soften asperities which, with the slightest colour of plausibility, will when viewed from a distance, seemed inhe be able to allege at the bar of Divine supportable. justice, for having slighted, with an air of self-satisfied pride, contumely, or indifference, a gracious message from the King of heaven, delivered to us by his own Son, who, to seal his exceeding great love, took INFANTS on whom, in fact, nature has put upon him our nature, and became “ no constraint, and whom she has indeed inof sorrows and acquainted with grief,” and spired with that kind of restlessness which died the accursed death of the cross ? creates an abhorrence to quiet and restraint,

Fellow-sinner, suffer the word of exhort- are so bound up by their nurses, almost ation from one who, in looking back upon similar to the mode observed in China, the devious turns and windings of a thorny that they have not the proper use of their life, is often visited with the most afflicting limbs. To me it appears perfectly obsentiments of regret, of remorse, but who vious that the great desire implanted in sorrows for nothing so much as for the all young animals to run, bound, and habit of thinking that God was too much frisk, has not been given in vain, by the taken up in managing the vast machine of great Creator of all instincts; and that the the universe, or too justly offended, to lis- free, muscular movements of the infant, ten with compassion to the prayers, or to unquestionably give ease and Alexibility, if feel interest in the concernments of one not strength, to the exertions of the man, who had so often neglected his precepts, and perhaps such motions convey to him and set at nought all his reproofs." It the first ideas of existence.

That they pleased God to bring him within sight of must be a source of much valuable knowthose awful regions where brooding dark- ledge cannot be doubted; and thus an abness for ever abides, and there to give him surd custom, which is merely adopted to a pledge of his love by conducting him in save idle nurses a little trouble, tends to safety back again. Since that time he has impoverish both the minds and bodies of a made trial of God's faithfulness, and has whole generation. This leads me to think found, amidst the conflicts of this life, that that the peculiar strength, proportion, and it may be trusted, and that every day shows agility I have often had occasion to observe the benefit of reliance on his promises, and in the East, particularly among the Turks, devotedness to his service.

is in a peculiar degree to be attributed to If a young man would avoid those evil the looseness of dress which is adopted courses wherein many are wont to lay up from the moment of their existence. It such a stock of bitterness for old age; if contributes much to the rapidity of growth, he would escape from the snares of some and no attempt is made, like as in other nawho seek to gratify their selfish or malig- tions, to screw or dandify the body into any nant propensities, by the embarrassments state, with the absurd idea of improving the of unpractised youth ; if he would see the shape, thus obstructing the grand organs plots and schemes of those overthrown of life: on the contrary, they study that who are contriving to oppose his advance- these shall be under no kind of restriction, ment in life or reputation, let him call but have the fullest play; and it may be upon God, and seek to know him, and added as a fact, that it rarely occurs that a Jesus Christ, whom he hath sent. Let Turk is afflicted with corns. The habits him be a diligent, a thoughtful, and a per- they wear do not fetter any one part of the

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