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followers of Pythagoras. We might call / small leaves, which fill the office of an inthe practice of tracing the predominance of volucre. In the figure a, there is only one certain numbers, the arithmetic of botany. flower-stalk or peduncle represented above The seeds f, in each cell of the cap- the involucre, which is sometimes the case. sule, are few in number, and are attached Flowers small and yellow. Fruit large and to the inner angle of the cell, or at the seam pyramidal. Stamens united at the base. of our imaginary leaf. When young, they This plant, though rare in this country, is are enclosed within a fleshy coat, called an found scattered over various quarters of the arillus, e, which, opening at a chink, world; in the islands of Teneriffe, Isle of and contracting through the influence of France, Japan, Caribbees, Mexico, &c. heat, jerks the seed to a considerable dis- Oxalis Acetosella, wood-sorrel. This tance. The contraction of this lodgment plant grows very commonly in all our woods has a tendency to squeeze out the seed, and thickets. The leaves may be found, in but this tendency is checked by the edges winter, sheltered beneath the protection of of the orifice, which is a little too small to stumps and withered leaves; the flowers let it pass freely, till a slight shake affects appear betimes in the spring, and late in it, when the hinderance is suddenly over- summer; the capsules are found darting come, and the confined seed expelled with forth their little shining seeds on the slightest force, that it may sow itself at a convenient touch, by means of the arillus, or little interval from the parent herb. With what elastic case before described. It is customapparent ease doth Divine wisdom bring ary to speak of this plant as having no about its ends! The mode in which a stem, which, in our judgment, is not corgrain of wheat, or a pea, is urged to a dis- rect, for the little red leafy string, b, tance, by pressing it between the thumb now lying before us, is evidently a stem, and finger, is not more simple than the pro- though of a very humble description. The cess here described. A little shrub growing essential characteristic of a stem is the upon the pines or firs of California, fires a presence of leaves or leaf-buds, by which volley of seeds in the face of the collector, it is formed; as in fact all stems are merely by a similar contrivance, only, instead of the the collective depositories of the vessels arillus or peculiar coat, it has a berry. sent down to the root by the leaves. In When in that country, the writer took the wood-sorrel we find the base of the some pains to ascertain the nature of the leaf enlarged, and emitting from its bosom mechanism by which it was effected, and another leaf-bud, which, after proceeding intends giving a more particular account of a short distance, expands into a leaf, in it when he treats of the missleto and its re- form and nature like its parent. These lated plants.

leaves break off a little above their base, EXAMPLES.

and leave behind them a small scale to Oxalis.-Calyx five divisions, either free attest their former presence, as repreor united at the base, as in the English spe- sented in the engraving just referred to. To cies. Petals five, either free or slightly united adopt the common phraseology, and say at their base or claw. Stamens ten, filaments that the root is scaly, is to convey no inunited a short distance from the base, under formation that is certain and definite, for which condition, they are said to be mona- the question arises, What are these scales ? delphous, or forming one brotherhood. to which the right answer is, The remnants

O.calis Corniculata, yellow flowered of fallen leaves. The resemblance of this wood-sorrel, a. Berkenhout has the plant to trefoil

, whence it was called by credit of having first introduced this plant old botanists, trifolium acetosum, and the to the notice of botanists, to whom it acidity of its leaves, will easily distinguish had been communicated by Mr. Turner, it from all others. who found it near Exeter. It has since been gathered near Cuckfield, in Sussex, and in Scotland, near Stirling, by Dr. Buchanan. Root fibrous. Stems small, spread

widely on the ground, and often taking When I look at the sun, and call to root; round, reddish-coloured, and downy mind that it is a million of times the size Leaves alternate, often nearly opposite, di- of the earth, and ninety-five millions of vided into three leaflets, which are com- miles from us, it so oppresses my brain monly heart-shaped, and downy. Flower with thoughts of infinity, that I am glad stalks axillary, or proceeding from the bo- to turn off to something a little better som of the leaves ; erect, bearing an umbel suited to my weak understanding. It is of a few declining flowers with a pair of no use grappling with conceptions beyond


our power. My head can no more bear to that are committed to his charge. He who reflect on the magnitude of the sun than visits the fatherless and the widow in their mine eye can endure to gaze upon its affliction is sure to know it, and individuals brightest noon-day beams.

and families feel it when they dwell in I would willingly keep within compass, unity and affection. This is the sunshine and say in reference to God's creation, as I of the heart, and they who delight to do would ever wish to say in regard to the good to others, who act justly, kindly, hidden things of the Almighty, “Lord, charitably, generously, nobly, will be sure my heart is not haughty, nor mine eyes to find its influence in their bosoms. You lofty: neither do I exercise myself in great cannot take away trouble, nor give happimatters, or in things too high for me." ness to another, without feeling this sun

But I was about to speak of sunshine. shine. Oh how gloriously it arrays the heavens and But there is yet another kind of sunthe earth with brightness ! The scenes shine, which is not dependent on the beams are very beautiful that present themselves of the created sun, nor on the kindly to the eye in spring, when the trees put affections of the human heart. A sunshine forth their green leaves, and the birds war- that comes direct from One far more glorible the joy that they do not know how to ous than the sun in his noon-day brightkeep to themselves. And not less so in ness. It is known when it pleases God to summer, when the blossoms and flowers lift up the light of his countenance upon abound, and the woods are fully clothed. us. At times we feel it when reading the What can be more attractive than autumn, book of truth; the words come home to us, with its fruit and corn, and its trees with we see that the Lord is gracious, our souls coloured leaves! And who is there that magnify, and our spirits rejoice in God our will deny that the bare branches of winter's Saviour. We feel it too in the hour of oaks, and elms, and thorn bushes, when prayer and praise, when our heavenly Fasprinkled with snow, or sparkling with ther is pleased to bear witness with our hoar frost, are not lovely to look upon ? and spirit, that our petition is heard, and our yet to each and to all of these what a won- sacrifice of praise accepted. We know its drous additional beauty does sunshine influence when the messenger of grace to give!

guilty men proclaims from the pulpit the Look at sunshine on the snowy cloud; glad tidings of salvation. We acknowledge the clear blue sky, the green meadow its power when christian men, in christian spotted with crocuses, the hay-field when institutions, make plain to us the goodthe country people are at work there ; the ness of the Lord in the conversion of the waving corn, while the reapers cut it and heathen world. This is the sunshine of bind it into sheaves; the broad-breasted the soul. It is felt by the penitent when a mountain, or the sharp-pointed crag. Or, sense of forgiveness melts his heart, and Jook at it when glittering on the murmuring sets his tongue at liberty ; by the missionbrook, the weather-cock of the village ary, when he hears the idolater offer up his church, or the window panes of a cottage. praise to the Saviour of sinners; and by Oh it is a glorious thing! but this is only the aged servant of God, when, ripe for the the sunshine of the eye. The sun must harvest of eternal .glory, he breathes forth be visible, or we cannot enjoy it.

his spirit in the words, “ Now, Lord, letThere is another sunshine, and I hope test thou thy servant depart in peace, for that you are no stranger to it. It is not mine eyes have seen thy salvation.” confined to times and seasons, to the clear- The sunshine of the eye you have seen, ness of the atmosphere, and the state of the the sunshine of the heart you have doubtweather. It is not seen, but felt. It is less felt; but if you are yet a stranger to known by all who humbly, and honestly, the sunshine of the soul, seek it with all and diligently discharge their daily duties; diligence. The eye will become dim, the by those who forgive their enemies ; deal kindliest, the warmest affections of the their bread to the hungry; bring the poor, heart will subside, their brightest sunshine that are cast out, to their houses; and will be overshadowed ; but the sunshine of clothe the naked. It is felt by the mother an immortal soul, a glorified spirit, will be as she presses her smiling babe to her eternal

, according to the promise: bosom, and commends it to God; by the sun shall be no more thy light by day; father, when his children grow up in virtue, neither for brightness shall the moon give and remember their Creator in the days of light unto thee : but the Lord shall be their youth; and by the sunday-school unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God teacher, when he sees the scholars improve 'thy glory.”

“ The



gators of this idle fiction, yet the people of

Mexico tell it to their children and to Might I be permitted to advert to my strangers as a piece of authentic history. own experience, I should say, that I have we see from this example, that there is found nothing so salutary as to turn the

nothing, however gross it may appear to a mind immediately to the Saviour. “ Who

reasonable mind, which will not meet with soever calleth


the me of the Lord, acceptation in a land where the Bible is shall be saved. To pray immediately to seldom seen, and never read. L. Christ, to cast ourselves incessantly upon His power and grace as revealed in the gospel, appears to be the best antidote to every despondency. I have no doubt that

To the Editors of the Weekly Visitor. we are much wanting to ourselves in not having more direct dealings with the Sa

GENTLEMEN,—The inclosed extract from viour, or not addressing him now in the a newspaper published at the Cape of same spirit in which he was applied to for Good Hope, may not be unacceptable to the relief of bodily diseases. He is exalted some of the readers of your excellent little

work. at the right hand of God, for the purpose of dispensing pardon, peace, and eternal

The speech was made by the chief of the life, to all that humbly seek his aid ; and, Griquas, (one of the Hottentot tribes,) wonderful condescension ! he has declared, named Waterboer, at a subscription dinner “ be will in no wise cast out whosoever in Cape Town, to celebrate the event of the cometh unto him."-Robert Hall.

emancipation of the slaves belonging to the colony.

It may be satisfactory to add, that the first The story OF GUADALOUPE, OR THE of December, 1834, the day on which liberty

was proclaimed to the captive, passed withVIRGIN MARY, BY THAT NAME.

out the slightest disturbance in the town or The following legend is firmly believed by its vicinity, the only feeling expressed by

many in Mexico, where the people have the emancipated slaves, being that of thankbeen kept in papal darkness.

fulness “to his majesty the king of EngAs a peasant, called Juan Jiego, was land, and all the honoured gentlemen of travelling near Mexico, he was met by the the parliament,” for it is in these words Virgin, who bade him go to the bishop of that they expressed themselves. that city, and signify to him her wish that It is intended to erect, by subscription, a a church should be dedicated to her upon school room in Cape Town, to commemothe very spot where she stood. The pre- rate the day on which slavery became exlate, however, believing the tale to be a tinct in the colony of the Cape of Good forgery, dismissed the messenger with very Hope.

L. little ceremony. Some time afterwards, the man chanced to be passing by the same “On his health being proposed by the place, when the heavenly visitant again pre- chairman, sented herself, and asked why her wishes “WATERBOER rose and returned thanks had not been fulfilled. The poor man ex- for the honour done him! He spoke in the cused himself by saying that his story had Dutch language, and we have to express found no credence. Upon this she gave our deep regret that we can present to our him a roll of cloth, telling him if the bishop readers only a mere sketch of a speech, should still remain incredulous, to open the which all who understood the singularly folds of this testimonial. He obeyed, and, nervous, but highly figurative style in which in the presence of the unbelieving priest, he always expresses his thoughts when unrolled the cloth, which, in the season of roused or excited, as he evidently was on winter, disclosed a shower of full-blown this occasion, agree in describing as elo

quent and impressive in the highest degree. Our informant, who had seen the cloth, “ He began by saying, that he was unstated that there was nothing divine in able to express the gratitude and joy he felt its appearance, and that it is only worthy at the honour done to him in being invited the ordinary skill of the meanest housewife. to join such a company, on such an occaBut though the coarse, homely, and, if sion; and the great satisfaction he expewe may use the term on such an occasion, rienced in his heart, at having been so pro the unheavenly appearance of this memo- videntially brought to this town at the morial, seemed to inform against the propa- ment when liberty was to triumph openly, and her triumph was to be openly cele- he and his party had been treated since brated.



he came to Cape Town; but more espe“He greatly rejoiced in the new spirit cially was he grateful for the ready, and which he found gradually making ground considerate, and honourable manner in against old prejudices, and the old, selfish, which his excellency, the governor, had and oppressive state of things; and he con- attended to the important objects which sidered it the greatest honour of his life to he had submitted to him, and had been be one of the present company, whom he pleased to grant all those means, and all considered as the representatives of all those that assistance, by which the peace and in the colony, who were the friends of free- security of the frontier of this colony, dom, and of justice, and of the improve- and of the opposite district, would be prement and happiness of their fellow-men, of served, and the welfare of his people, and all classes and colours. The spirit they of the adjacent tribes, promoted. These manifested, was a spirit which he loved ; are new days. Great things are already a spirit which was rapidly diffusing itself effected, and the time is not far distant in this colony; a spirit that carried with when the spirit and influence which have it the germ of improvement, and happi- so long separated and degraded the difness, wherever it obtained. Formerly, ferent classes of men in this colony, and he said, in this land we were covered with which is now struggling in vain for life, darkness, involved in a dark cloud. The shall die, and be buried for ever! Provi. English came. The missionaries went forth. dence has raised up men suited to the The cloud began to melt and dissolve. The times; men, able to conduct the vast imlight shone upon us. But light alone will provements now in progress; men, who, not give life. The heat, the genial warmth in order to save all classes of the colony, of benevolence and charity, and universal have devoted their all to the great work. love, these revive, invigorate, cheer! May God give them success, and happiKnowledge with goodness, with religion, ness to all!” makes men to live, and opens up all our During this address, of which the above nature to view! I foresee the diffusion, gives but a faint outline, Waterboer was said he, of this living, this life-giving spirit repeatedly interrupted by bursts of hearty of the English. It is a fire that can applause and sympathy. His action, voice, not be confined amid the dry materials of and emphasis, were so well managed, that the field or the forest. It will spread from many who but imperfectly understood his sea to sea. It will reach to the ends of the words, were able fully to enter into his earth. Men say that England is far to the feelings, and to follow the course of his west. But England, I say, is also far to mind. He has for ever vindicated the the east. We are in the midst of England. much-traduced name of Hottentot. He We are every where surrounded by her sat down amidst rapturous applause. sons. May her spirit be in us. May we be worthy of her name! My mouth is too small, my tongue is too small to express what I think on this subject; to speak my

PUBLIC WORSHIP. gratitude ! Could I but convey what I feel

If a man is grateful to his benefactor, in my heart, I would sit down happy. he will tell him so; if no acknowledgments They had done him, he said, and all the are made, and no outward signs of grachiefs of the frontier, whom he was proud titude manifest themselves, he will be to represent on that occasion, the honour chargeable with ingratitude. But, if exto make mention of their names, and to pressing our gratitude and praise from wish them prosperity. He rejoiced to time to time in words, is, by the Deity, inform them, that, through the liberality required of us as a duty; if it is beneficial and just policy of the British govern- to ourselves; and if, as an example, it has ment, he and the other frontier chiefs good effects on our fellow-men; no arwere about to enter into a new relation- gument can be necessary to prove the ship with the colony. Mutual interests propriety of the practice of public worship. had indeed always secured mutual under- | _Dr. Beattie. standing ; but now they were about to enter into an acknowledged and definite relation. And here he could not avoid JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London. making mention, and he did so with pe- Price £d. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Five culiar feelings of pleasure and gratitude,

Numbers in a Cover, 3d. of the kind and fatherly manner in which W. TYLER, Printer, Ivy Lane, St. Paul's.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic][subsumed]


in the banks of rivers, ponds, ditches, &c (Arvicola amphibia.)

These burrows are always of a considerable Of the smaller mammalia which are abun-extent, and have generally two or more dant in our island and on the adjacent con- outlets. Their entrance is usually close to tinent, few are less known, as it respects the water's edge, so that, during floods, it their habits and manners, than the water- is often below the surface; as, however, rat, (arvicola amphibia.) Indeed, this little the gallery rises while it proceeds, the animal is by most regarded as a variety of snug little chamber to which it leads is that destructive pest, which abounds in seldom flooded. In this asylum the female barns, stables, out-houses, and which mul- brings forth and rears her young, having tiplies even in our towns and cities, intrud- previously prepared a nest of fine grass ing into our dwellings, and undermining and vegetable fibres. the walls and floors. The common rat Nocturnal in its habits, it is only as (mus decamanus) often, it is true, takes up evening closes in that the water-rat emerges its abode along the sides of drains, &c., from its retreat, to seek for food, and near houses in the country, but it is not gambol on the grassy bank. Those who aquatic in its habits, at least it seldom are accustomed to trace the woods and takes voluntarily to the water. From this lawns, and living streams, at eve," have voracious animal the water-rat is truly dis- often surprised the water-rat thus busied tinct, it belongs even to a separate genus, among the tangled herbage, or been them(arvicola. Lacep.) possessing decidedly selves startled by the sudden plunge into differential characters.

the water, made by the animal scared at The water-rat is never found far from their approach. the water. It dwells in burrows made In stagnant marshy water, mantled over



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