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by a luxuriant growth of chickweed, the the characters of men and into the signs tracks of this animal during its nightly of the times, rapid decision, and unwanderings, when it frequently has to conquerable perseverance, He displayed cross and recross the intervening stream, in the counting-room some of the mental are plainly visible : in some places we have qualities which made Napoleon the irreseen these

open-water " marks among sistible victor in a hundred battle fields. the floating leaves of the thickly spread As a natural consequence, Mr. Cobb acweed so numerous as to suggest that a cumulated property with great rapidity ; general meeting had taken place the night and if he had chosen to devote himself before, in order to settle the affairs of the to the narrow work of amassing wealth, colony.

he might, perhaps, if he had lived, have The food of the water-rat consists of the become exceedingly rich. But he justly roots of various plants, seeds, &c., to regarded his talent for business as an which insects, slugs, &c.,are usually added. instrument which he ought to employ for

Among the hybernating mammalia of the glory of his Saviour. He felt it the British islands, we must reckon the to be his duty to use it in earning present animal; though the period of its money for the cause of God, on precisely repose is not very protracted; as we ob- the same principle that it is the duty of serve it late in autumn, and early in spring. the minister to devote his talents for preachIt is, perhaps, only during the prevalence ing to the service of the Lord Jesus. He of long and hard frosts that it becomes accordingly, in November, 1821, drew

up completely torpid. The same observation, and subscribed the following very remarkindeed, will apply to the bat, which we able document :have observed on the wing as late in the “By the grace of God, I will never be season as October, even when the air was worth more than 50,000 dollars. chilly, and which is again seen with the By the grace of God, I will give onefirst breath of spring.

fourth of the net profits of any business to In size, the water-rat equals the largest charitable and religious uses. of the common race; but the head is “ If I am ever worth 20,000 dollars, I of greater magnitude, and thicker in pro- will give one-half of my net profits; and portion, the muzzle being obtuse. The if I am ever worth 30,000 dollars, I will ears are rather small, and buried in the fur. give three-fourths; and the whole, after The body is stout, the toes are four before, 50,000 dollars. So help me God, or give and five behind, but unwebbed, though to a more faithful steward, and set me the animal swims and dives with great aside. Nov. 1821. N. R. Cobb." dexterity. The tail is shorter than the To this covenant he adhered with conbody, covered with hair, and somewhat scientious fidelity. He distributed the profits compressed, as is the case in so many of of his business with an increasing ratio, the aquatic rodentia, this peculiarity of from year to year, till he reached the form being at its maximum of develope- point which he had fixed as the limit of ment in the beaver. The fur is smooth, his property, and then he gave to the cause close, and glossy ; its colour of a dark of God all the money which he earned. brown above, and of a brownish white be- At one time, finding that his property had neath. The eyes are small and black. increased beyond 50,000 dollars, he at

M. once devoted the surplus, 7,500 dollars, as

a foundation for a professorship in the

Newton Theological Institution, to which, DEVOTION OF PROPERTY.

we may add, he gave on various occasions, MR. COBB, of America, died in May during his life, at least twice that sum. 1834, in his thirty-sixth year. He resolved So scrupulous was he in his adherence to at the commencement of his religious life, the covenant which he had made, that that he would serve the Saviour with all when peculiar circumstances required him his power, in that sphere which seemed to to retain in his hands more than 50,000 be particularly assigned to him. He had not dollars, he consulted judicious friends, an opportunity to acquire extensive learn- whether he might do so consistently with ing, and he could not serve the church, to the spirit of his pledge, provided that he any considerable extent, by his voice or by always held the surplus as really belong

But God endowed him with ing to the cause of God. very unusual talents for business. He Here is the secret of that wonderful had great activity, acute penetration into liberality which cheered so many hearts,

his pen.


and gave vigour to so many institutions | school hours, except during this recess. and plans of benevolence. It sprung While that word presents itself, for three from steady religious principles. It minutes only, the school is in a buzz; but was a fruit of the Holy Spirit. He when study returns, implicit obedience always felt that God had bestowed on follows. Several other words are prehim a rich blessing, in enabling him thus sented by the same arrangement, and the to serve his cause. On his death-bed he effect is admirable. Its advantages are said to a friend, in allusion to the reso- seen in the perfect order which reigns in lutions quoted above. “By the grace of the institute. God-nothing else—by the grace of God, I have been enabled, under the influence of these resolutions, to give away more than 40,000 dollars. How good the Lord MEDICAL PROPERTIES OF OXALIDEOUS has been to me!”

It is added :

But Mr. Cobb did not wait till he had AMONG the various reasons why we acquired 50,000 dollars before he began should call upon our souls to bless the to devote his money to religious uses. Most High, the Psalmist reckons that It was in 1821, while he was yet young, instance of his goodness in causing the and comparatively a poor man, recently herb to grow for the service of man, established in business, that he resolved Psalm civ. 14. By service, is generally to give one-fourth of the net proceeds implied that obedience which a vassal of his business to benevolent purposes. owes to his lord, a slave to his master. It was then uncertain what would be his From whence we are taught to consider success; but he felt it to be his duty to that there is no plant, whether it courts begin then, with the resolution to increase the solar beams in the open waste, or the proportion, if God should prosper affects the retired shade of the valley, him. There are many christians who which does not possess some property think that if they could accumulate a cer- which art or science might render subtain sum, they would then be generous. servient to the interests of man. Every They say that they must first make pro- advance we make in natural science seems vision for themselves and their families, calculated to give an additional impulse and then they will distribute their money to our curiosity, to encourage our reliberally. Mr. Cobb did not act thus. searches, and to bear out the assumption, He, from the beginning, gave a large pro- that amidst the varied array of vegetable portion of his income, and trusted in God existences, there is not one which, while that whatever should be necessary for it served to whet the intellectual acumen himself and his family, would be supplied. of man, would not, under proper manage

ment, minister to his health and comfort. There is something delightful in the thought, while we steal along our hedge

rows, and contemplate the various weeds The following description of a school which find shelter there, that all these clock given by the Philadelphia Intelli

were ordained to be our servants, and gencer, is indeed a curiosity :

that there is not one of them which will In the Ladies' Institute of this city, not be ready to render us some good conducted by the Rev. R. W. Cushman, office, whenever we shall know how to in Arch, near Seventh-street, there is a make a right use of it. Two of the vilest clock, which for the ingenious round of weeds in scent and aspect, of all the plants duty that it is made to perform, will com- that are indigenous to this country, have pare

with any curiosity of the present obtained a place in the “Materia Medica,” day. By an invention of Mr. Cushman, the hemlock and the henbane. A prepathis clock is made to ring a bell, calling ration from the former, under the name the scholars together in the morning, and of conium, comes to the aid of our little when they are assembled, it presents them ones, when they hold conflict with the with the word “study,' on the upper strangling paroxysms of the chincough, part of the dial. When the morning is and that too, after medical practice has half over, the bell strikes again, and the found all other reputed remedies unavailword “recess,” takes the place of “study.” ing. While the latter furnishes a tincture By a vote of the scholars, it was decided which is styled by practical chemists a that not a whisper should be made in the most elegant preparation, and figures not


less frequently than any other medicine the dry and sun-burnt soil from which it in the physician's prescription.

derives its support. The question that But let us not forget the object of this spontaneously introduced itself, was, “From paper, which is to make a few remarks whence is this moisture obtained, for the upon the medical uses of the oxalideous soil seems incapable of furnishing any thing plants and trees. We may take it for besides a barren support?" Though expegranted that none of our readers, after riment assures us that there is a certain the perusal of this article, and that on the portion of moisture in the most arid soil, oxalide, will be strangers to the wood yet, rated at its utmost, it could not furnish sorrel, if leisure should allow them an a supply adequate to the wants of such a opportunity of taking a turn in one of plant, did not assistance arrive from a difour woods or denser copses. The grate- ferent quarter. The hygrometer informs us ful acid taste of this little plant which that the atmosphere of a warm climate conold authors call lujula,would,on the first ac- tains more moisture in a state of vapour, quaintance suggest to an observant mind, than one lying nearer to the colder regions that some preparation of it, exhibited of the polar circles. To this source it seems with due reference to time and circum- to be partly indebted for that material from stance, might prove a useful medicine in which its grateful sap is elaborated. So febrile disorders. Such, indeed, it has that while many other plants discharge with been found, insomuch that while modern great rapidity the steaming vapour through dispensatories have displaced many plants their expanded pores, this

species of woodthat once held a high position in general sorrel is furnished with the power not only estimation, the wood-sorrel still retains of retaining what it has gotten, but of acits place. If the fresh leaves be put into a quiring a fresh supply through the channels mortar with moist sugar, and be pounded of communication just mentioned, from the till the mass be reduced to an even con- atmosphere that surrounds it. Nature,' ever sistence, a very cooling and delightful kind and watchful, we see, from this exconserve is produced, which may be used ample, withdraws a benefit with one hand, with great effect to allay the heat and to bestow it with the other. For the moisthirst of feverish excitements. A very

ture that is exhaled by the burning sun, is grateful drink may be readily prepared lodged in the atmosphere, and in a form by boiling the fresh leaves in milk, which so auspicious, that we have often seen the has been found to answer the purpose of most succulent plants growing in the most allaying thirst in feverish disorders, better arid soil. So it fares with man. God often than the conserve just described. From withdraws some advantage, that he may this plant may be obtained that acid which give us its equivalent in a shape better is commonly known by the name of the suited to our wants and capacities. When “ essential salt of lemons.” On the con- we apply the term nature to that beautiful tinent this salt is prepared in the follow- system of secondary causes, which are in ing manner: the juice of the fresh plant unceasing operation before us, we do it in is allowed to subside after being slightly compliance with the customary phraseheated, and then clarified by the addition ology, but desire never to do it without of water, in which a small portion of fine feelings of humble reverence for the great clay is suspended. This clarified juice Cause of all causes, by whose all-powerful is next boiled till a pellicle forms on its word all the creation was at first formed, surface, and then put aside for a month and is still governed. to crystallize.

The line which separates between the A plant of this genus, oxalis, distinguished medicinal and the nutritious properties of by its fleshy stem and leaves, is very common plants, is often so fine and evanescent, that we near Conception, in Chili, where the juicy hardly know where to fix it. Hence, we herbage has often quenched the writer's shall be forgiven, if, on these occasions, we thirst, when thegushing spring and melodious sometimes mention qualities that do not streamlet were not to be found. But we are enter into any healing process. A species of not only indebted to this plant for timely oxalis sometimes cultivated in the gardens refreshment, but also for some useful refleca of the curious, has a root which yields tions upon the kind compensating arrange

, tubers like those of the potato. These tuments of nature. For the reader should bers, when dressed, are of a delicate white be informed that nothing, among the aver

ness, and possess a bland and excellent ages of common occurrence, could present savour. The stems of the same plant may a greater contrast than the succulent cha- be employed in the same way as those of racter of this plant, when compared with the rhubarb. At one of the periodical levees

of a celebrated botanist, some fanciful | clusters are succeeded by five-cornered, kinds of pastry composed of these stems, oblong apples, about the size of one's finwere set before the company; but as the ger. The averrhoa carambola which we writer's engagements called him away, be- saw growing in China, is a middling-sized fore this botanical repast was served up, he tree, with a spreading tuft of branches at cannot give his personal testimony to the the top. The leaves are winged with about excellence of their flavour.

four pairs of leaflets. The flowers are vaTo this order or family of plants, belongs riegated, with purple and white, and are the Arallan, a shrub found by the writer borne in clusters. The apple is about the of this, in the romantic village of Jalisco, size of a hen's egg, with a yellow rind. about sixty miles from San Blas, in Mexico. The fruit of both these trees is replete with In aspect it resembles our common white- a pleasing acid juice, and, when eaten with thorn. The flowers and the leaves, as hap- proper reference to time and quantity, allays pens in our elm and ash, appear at differ- those fervours which heat and labour exent seasons. These flowers present them- cite, and which are, in torrid climes, the selves in little clusters, and contain within frequent forerunners of more serious distheir neatly finished corolla, ten stamens, orders. The sensible characteristic of the which are, alternately, one longer and one oxalideous family, is the presence of oxalic shorter. The number ten, in addition to acid, and it is interesting to observe, that the circumstance of their alternating length, when we cannot find it in the stem, we may forms, as we have hinted in our paper, expect to meet with it in the fruit. L. No. 6, one of the leading characteristics of the oxalideous family. It was the practice of the writer and his companions, when

THE UNWELCOME PASSENGER. employed by government on a scientific Some years ago, in travelling one evenexpedition, to ask all the residents we meting towards London, I happened to be near any spot which had afforded some the only passenger inside the mail. There curious plant, the history of its uses and are seasons when we would not willingly properties. In conformity with this cus- travel without company, but, being at the tom, we questioned the Alcaide of Jalisco time in a reflective mood, I hoped that about the qualities of the arallan, who, in no one would disturb me. For some miles the presence of many by-standers, assured I had my wish, but suddenly the mail us that the fruit was an excellent stomachic. stopped near the gate of a farm-house, and This fruit, with which we subsequently be a man of an unusual size soon clambered came acquainted, is about the size of a up the steps into the coach. From the Siberian crab, and, when ripe, of a yellow- glance I had of him, assisted by the bright ish green colour. It possesses a pleasant lamp on that side the mail-coach, I conacid taste, with a peculiar aromatic flavour. cluded, at once, that he was some honest In this aromatic flavour, the stomachic farmer, who would talk of nothing the powers seem to reside; and from experi- whole of the way but turnips, clover-seed, ments tried upon ourselves, we can add barley, pigs, sheep, and cattle. our individual voucher in testimony to its To defend myself as well as I could good effects. It is remarkable, that while from so unwelcome a trespass on my reacid fruits are apt to disagree with the sto- flections, I affected to be sleepy, and leaned machs of sedentary persons, the arallan back quite in the corner of the mail; but may be eaten to excess without producing my fellow-traveller was not to be so easily any untoward consequence, save the neces- defrauded of a friendly chat, and began at sary feeling of repletion, which we expe- once, just as I had anticipated, to speak of rience when a long fast has been followed the effect of the late rain on the turnips. by a hearty meal. The arallan appears to

To all he said, I replied yes, or no, as be a new species of the Averrhoa, hitherto the case required, and hoped that he would unknown to European botanists. Of this soon relapse into silence, but in this I was genus two species have been long known quite mistaken. Finding it impossible to as natives of India and Cochin China. evade his conversation, I tried to submit These are the averrhoa bilimbi, and the with a good grace, and endure patiently averrhoa carambola. The averrhoa bi- what I could not avoid. But here it will limbi rises to the height of about eight feet, be well honestly to confess that I thought with a few reclining branches ; the leaves very little of the farmer, and plumed myare winged, with about ten pairs of leaf- self highly on my superior knowledge. In lets. The clusters of purple flowers ad- short, I felt, in talking to my companion, here closely to the trunk of the tree. These like a man who confers a favour by his


condescension. Such is the weakness, the be taught those hymns which set forth the folly, the pride, and the vanity of the praises of the gods ; and in the third place, human heart !

that they should also commit to memory After speaking of the produce of the the elogies or laudatory songs which reground, of cattle, and of the high prices of hearsed the virtues of good men. The some things, and the low prices of others, scope and drift of laws are to make us my companion ran into other topics, and render to every man his own, as Cicero so completely astonished me by the extent teaches us in his book, “ De Legibus." of his practical information, that I began By learning the laws, therefore, the Cretan to wonder wherever and however he had youth were enabled to understand what contrived to pick up so much knowledge. they owed to others, which corresponds to

He spoke of the value of human labour our duty towards our neighbour, as taught as compared to machinery,' of the popula- in holy scripture. The hymns dedicated to tion and resources of the country, of its the gods recited their wonderful achievemines, its manufactures, and its commerce, ments, particularly in showing kindness to of the poor laws, of capital, and of the in- man. The example of these idolaters give fluence of paper money. In short, he got us a hint to teach our little ones to chant so far beyond me, that I felt like a school- the marvellous acts of Jehovah, and the boy in the presence of his master. Yes, tender mercy of our gracious Redeemer ; the very man whom I had estimated so low while the acts of his holy apostles should as to think myself greatly his superior, was be inscribed upon the memories of all as a giant, and I as a dwarf.

christian children, that they may learn beOn inquiring, I ascertained that he was times to imitate their zeal and patience. a man largely interested in mines, that the

L. workmen employed by him amounted to several thousands, that the advantage of his practical knowledge was sought by his

DEATH BEDS. Majesty's ministers, and that at the time when he travelled with me, he was on his way with calculations of an important nature to the first lord of the treasury, the MIRABEAU, like all the leading names of prime minister of England.

France for the last century, was an infidel; I felt little in my own eyes. O it does it was the melancholy fashion of the time, us good, when puffed up with an undue and considered essential to the reputation of notion of our own importance, to meet with all who pretended to philosophy. There a reprimand like this.

It was

a rap was but little in the religion of the land to on the knuckles that I shall not soon for- rebuke the evil spirit; and its name was get, nor do I think that from that time to Legion. His last effort, when his speech this I have ever undervalued a man on ac- failed him, was to write on his tablets, count of his appearance. What my com- “Death is but a sleep," and to request panion thought of me I cannot tell, but I some opium to extinguish his life and his know well what I thought of myself. It pains together." was altogether a humiliating affair, and Still, even in this fatal insensibility to all taught me to prize more highly than I did that constitutes the true greatness of the dybefore, the injunction of holy writ, “Be ing mind, and to those illustrious hopes and not wise in your own conceit.” L. feelings which, to the christian, throw their

light across the grave, the sinking man of genius showed some of that brilliant buoyancy which had once given him such dis

tinction among his countrymen. “Take The Cretans commanded that the sons away,” said he, “from my sight all those of freemen should learn their laws with funeral-looking things: why should man be some kind of melody, in order that their surrounded by the grave before his time? souls might be won by music, and they Give me flowers-mlet me have essences might receive the laws into their memories arrange my dress—let me have music, and with greater ease.

Another end contem- close my eyes in harmony." plated by the legislators was, that if they But this passed away with the return of did any of those things which were prohi- pain, and he once more asked eagerly for bited by law, they might not found their opium to end his struggle. The physician, plea upon ignorance. They ordained, in to quiet his mind, gave him some water in the second place, that the children should a cup, telling him it was opium; he swal


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