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good conductors of electricity, insoluble | 400 feet in length. Its specific gravity is in water, and absorb oxygen. These ge- 103; it possesses great tenacity, melts at neral properties are possessed, in a vari- 1000° Fahrenheit, may be volatilized, comable degree, by the different metals; some bines with oxygen, and is the most brilliant of them being peculiarly malleable and of all the metals. It is generally alloyed ductile, while others are of a brittle nature. with copper before it is employed in the Some of them possess a powerful affinity manufactures, and its hardness is thus for oxygen, while others can absorb it only greatly increased. under peculiar circumstances.
IRON is the most useful and most abunThe metals are seldom found in a state dant of the metals, being found in all parts of purity, but are generally combined with of the world ; a circumstance which proves oxygen, sulphur, the acids, or with other the goodness of the Creator, in providing metals. When one metal is found mixed for the comfort and wants of man. It is of with another, the substance is called an al- a blueish-grey colour, is capable of receivloy; when with non-metallic bodies, an ing a brilliant polish, and, excepting tin, is
The process by which the metals are the lightest of all metals; its specific graextracted from their ores varies according vity being 73. It is melted at a high temto circumstances, and is known as washing, perature ; but when heated to redness, two smelting, or amalgamating.
pieces of iron may, by repeated hammerGold is the most valuable of all the ing, be perfectly united together. This metals, and is found most abundantly in process is called welding. Peru and Brazil, in South America; though Iron is brought into the market in three it is also obtained in Siberia, Hungary, states. When first extracted from the ore, some parts of Africa, and in other places. it is called cast-iron, and contains carbon This metal is rather more than nineteen and oxygen ; but by hammering, it may be times heavier than water; is the most duc- deprived of these substances, and is then tile of all the metals, and at the same time called wrought-iron. If bars of wroughtpossesses great tenacity, though not equal iron and of charcoal be laid one upon anin this respect to some other metals. Its other, and exposed for some time to a conmalleability is so great, that leaves of gold siderable temperature, the iron will absorb may be formed, having a thickness not a portion of carbon, and be converted into greater than 1-282,000th parts of an inch in steel; a substance which possesses some thickness. It may be melted at an intense distinct and important properties. Iron, heat, 3000° Fahrenheit; is not affected by when united with a certain proportion o exposure to the air, and has been preserved carbon, forms carbonate of iron, commonly at a high temperature in a furnace for some known by the name of plumbago, or blackmonths, without undergoing any percep- lead. When united with silica and alutible change; it may, in fact, be kept in a mina, it forms emery; and many useful fluid state for a great length of time, with substances are produced by its coinbinaout a decrease of weight, or the loss of any tions with oxygen, sulphur, and other of its properties. A very intense tempera- bodies. ture is required to volatilize it; but this Copper is an elastic, sonorous, ductile, effect has been produced.
and tenacious metal ; melts at the temperaGold will unite with oxygen, and it is ture of 1450° Fahrenheit; has a specific easily converted into an oxide when acted gravity of 8}; is malleable, and may be upon by a powerful voltaic battery. It will beaten into remarkably thin leaves; in which also unite with one or two of the acids, and state it is termed Dutch metal. When form salts. It may here be noticed, that combined with oxygen, it forms verdigris ; when an earth, alkali, or metal unites with and with sulphuric acid, Roman vitriol. an acid, it forms a substance called, in Brass, a useful and well-known alloy, conchemical language, a salt. Gold is less sists of copper and zinc ; three parts of the hard than an alloy of gold and copper, and former to two of the latter; bronze and bellthe ductility of the metal is destroyed by metal are composed of copper and tin. the admixture of either bismuth, antimony, Tin is found in various parts of Europe or lead: a proportion of one nineteen-hun- and America ; but that used in this country dredth part is sufficient to produce this re- is chiefly obtained from the mines of Cornsult.
wall. It has a bright white colour, a strong SILVER is white and sonorous metal, and unpleasant taste; gives out a peculiar and is found, in greater or less abundance, odour when rubbed, and has a specific in almost all countries, and is so ductile gravity of 71. It is sufficiently malleable that one grain may be drawn into a wire to be beaten into leaves one thousandth of
an inch in thickness, is very flexible in its when I thought them necessary in modenature, and is distinguished from all other rate quantities, for fear of the habit. I bemetals by the singular cracking noise which | lieve that the use of stimulants by women, is produced when it is bent. It melts at i especially of the lower classes, first given 410°Fahrenheit, and is serviceable forthe ma- medicinally, has a great tendency to bring nufacture of many domestic utensils, though about habits of drinking. I call the habiit is more commonly used to coat iron and tual use of these diffusible stimuli, whether copper articles. It alloys with other me spirituous, ethereal, or opiate, with the extals; but its most useful compound is with ception of ammonia, medical dram-drinklead, forming pewter.
ing; and although the occasional use of the diffusible stimuli be indispensable in medicine, yet if it degenerate into a habit, it
inevitably leads on to that result which DR. FARRE, in answers to his examin- now engages the attention of the committee. ation by the Parliamentary Committee, The cholera was not only more fatal to stated that he has been forty-one years in drunkards generally, but fewer recovered medical practice, in different parts of the under treatment by the diffusible stimuworld. He now practises in London. lants of alcohol and opium than by a milder
Undoubtedly, says he, the gin-shop may and more discreet treatment. be considered as the source of great destruc- Having been asked whether the addition tion and demoralization to the poor. I of water merely, effects any change in the view the gin-shop in every new neighbour property of distilled spirit, he replied- It hood with very great pain. The gin-shop, does not. Diluted spirit destroys as effecrising like a palace, absorbs the wealth, tually, though more slowly, than the undiand the health, and the life of the labouring luted spirit; but there is an idea among classes. I call them whited sepulchres, drinkers that dilution renders it more safe, full of rottenness and dead men's bones. and I will give an illustration from a drinker: The following are the doctor's opinions on
-The chairman of the most notorious the medical use of alcohol :
drinking-club that, perhaps, ever existed in In regulating the heart, the physician London, was a ruddy old man at eightymust be able to force the circulation; and four. His knuckles were radiant with gout, this forcing is done by diffusible stimulants, and his face was glowing with the acina of which alcohol is one. The average rosacea of intemperance, venting itself at quantity of fermented liquor (not distilled his protuberant and fiery red nose, which, spirit) measuring it by wine, that medical though of a prodigious size, and perpetumen recommend when it is needed, is two ally distilling, was not quite so enormous glasses daily. I remember, says he, a pa- a nose as the one described by Sennert, tient, who was so recommended, telling me which “impeded vision and required lophe found himself searching for the largest ping.” He acknowledged that he had reglasses in the house. I say two wine- formed for thirty years of his life; and you glasses of wine ; which quantity warms the may judge what the habit had been by the stomach into a gentle digestion, but is not reform ; for his allowance consisted of one felt in the way of excitement in the brain. pint of brandy a-day, and six glasses of I believe alcohol is wholly unnecessary to Madeira after dinner; and he maintained persons in health, and that in all cases it that it could not possibly injure him, beshould be viewed as a medicine. The best cause he always diluted it to the strength medical rule that ever was given for the of white wine. This man was called by use of alcohol, in the form of wine, is given venders of liquor a decoy, one of the devil's by Paul, when he says, “Use a little wine decoys; and emphatically so called. I was for thy stomach's sake.” This does not curious to inquire how many of his companecessarily mean the daily use of a little nions (for it was a notorious club) were wine : the individual for whom it was pre- living. There was not one living; he had scribed was full of infirmity, and he might buried three sets of them. He presented require it daily. I am not speaking of the an example of that constitution which bears healthy man; the healthy man requires high stimulation : and woe be to him who only water, unless his exertion be inordi- attempts to compeer with such an one ! nate. I think the habitual use of spirits, in Being asked whether the stimulus proany degree, pernicious. They should be duced by the use of spirits adds any strength used only as a medicine. I never prescribe to the body, Dr. Farre replied-As a forcing them but as medicine ; and I have been power, it gives, during the state of exoften prevented from prescribing them, I citement, increased power; during the state
of collapse, diminished power in an ex- | diluting the liquor ; thus rendering it less treme degree. In illustration of a similar destructive. I recollect another large ginquestion respecting the uselessness, and shop, where, on being called to attend, I worse than uselessness, of spirituous liquor questioned the publican on the same for persons in health, he related the follow-point, and he told me that the Home Seing anecdote :-I recollect being consulted cretary was only reconciled to the point, by a commander of a British merchant- on his assuring him it was little better man, who was carried into Algiers. The than strong grog; but the truth is, that Dey immediately stripped him naked, and the strong grog suffices for destruction, if chained him to another British prisoner; enough of it be taken, and that enough he placed him on the public works from is taken, we have too many melancholy four in the morning till four in the after- proofs. noon; he then was turned into a cell with With respect to the extension of good his naked companion till four in the morn- fellowship to domestic life, perhaps heads ing, and there were placed by his side a of families are not aware of the mischief pitcher of water and a loaf of black bread. which they inconsiderately do, when, in I asked him if he could eat it. He said, the warmth of their feeling, they persuade “Oh, yes; it was very sweet indeed." their wives and their children to be parWhat did it consist of? It was made of takers of their cups. I remember being the black wheat of Africa and the vegetable called to a female, in the last stage of locust; but it was appetite that gave it disorganization of body and demoralizasweetness. Now, it is remarkable, that this tion of mind, and she was within a few man was a prisoner for nine months, while days of inevitable death. After I had he was fed on one pound of bread and examined the case, and had acknowledged pitcher of water per day, and had to per- that nothing could be done, the husband form hard work under such a tyrant; and took me on one side and said, “ Sir, I reto my question, “ Did you enjoy health ?" gret to acknowledge that I am the uninhis reply was,
“ Perfect health ; I had not tentional cause of this woman's death.” a day's illness. I was as lean as I could He added, “ When I married her, she be, but I was perfectly well.” When he was was as lovely and innocent a young, woset at liberty, and he had returned to British man as I ever beheld ; but having been fare, then he had to consult me as a phy- accustomed to a sea-life, and to take my sician.
grog with impunity, I persuaded her to On the subject of temptations to drunk drink with me. Two years elapsed beenness, the doctor said--Drunkenness is fore I succeeded, but afterwards I could the result of habit; the unhappy individual never get her to leave it off.” is beguiled into it, and it becomes a vicious
Now, that unhappy woman perished, propensity, by the law of habit. If I were not because she loved the liquor, but beto illustrate to you how men are entrapped cause the habit of taking it was estainto drunkenness, I would take dealers in blished. The law of over-stimulants is fermented liquors, publicans, brewers, and this, that the circulation falls off in a distillers’ servants, and travellers. These greater proportion than it was forced ; men become drunkards in the way of then comes the collapse, or the depressed their business without intending it. It feeling, from the abstraction of the alis a part of their occupation to sell their cohol, and then the desire for renewing liquors, &c.; and therefore they take it the dose : but the further law of stimuby way of inducement. I have pretty lants is, that the dose must be increased uniformly found that the habit has arisen to produce the desired excitement, and from their occupation, rather than from thus a fatal habit is established, by which a vicious propensity; and they have been structures essential to life are disorganundone before they were aware of it. Iized; but long before the beautiful strucremember asking the head of a large gin- ture of the body is disorganized, the mind shop, what was the inducement to drink is demoralized, and the love of truth deamong the poor ?" He said, “ Good fellowship;" and I asked him if he was cruel enough to give them proof-spirits ?
THE QUACK DOCTOR. “Oh, no," he said, “ we should burn their insides out; we make it comfortable for If you do not know what a quack docthem.” Thus, even the publicans show tor is, it does not signify, nor would it, ina mercy, perhaps a fraudulent mercy, in deed, be of any evil consequence if you
never should know all the days of your life; I third is afflicted with inward inflammabut as there is some danger that, at one tion, and I should be foolish enough to lime or other, you may fall into the attempt to cure them all by giving them a hands of quack doctors, if you remain in glass of wine. Now, the wine in the first ignorance of them, so I will, as well as I case, might cheer up the fainting spirits of can, explain, what a quack doctor is, that the sinking person, but it would not be at you may be aware of your danger, and all likely to relieve the rheumatism of the guard against him.
second; and as to the third, afflicted with A quack doctor, then, is one who under- inflammation, it might occasion his death. takes, generally to cure diseases in a way Would you honor me for my knowledge that no other person can, by some parti- and kindness, or despise me for my ignorcular medicine known only to himself. He ance and cruelty ? but I need not ask : you prints handbills, and puts puffing accounts would set me down as a man that ought to in the newspapers about the many and be avoided. Mind, then, that
avoid a wonderful cures he has performed, and quack doctor. thus deceives people, easy of belief, by his The impudence of quack doctors is vaiu boasting, persuading them that he is unbearable. One professes to cure almost astonishingly learned and clever, while at all the diseases that the body is liable to the same time he is often miserably igno- by a few bottles of a medicine that, in rant and unskilful.
many cases, will do neither good nor harm; If there be one mark plainer than ano- while another boastingly undertakes to do ther by which you may discover a quack the same thing with a box of pills. This doctor from a talented physician or skilful impudence and folly might be laughed at, surgeon it is this, that he often undertakes if it did not do so much mischief as it to cure diseases, totally different from each does; but when a quack doctor persuades other, by the same means. Now this is so a poor afflicted being to depend on his barefaced an imposture, that one would uselesss, if not injurious stuff, instead of wonder where people could be found so applying to a skilful professor of medicine simple as not to see through the cheat; or surgery, he is triling with the life, and yet so it is, such silly people are found, sacrificing the happiness of a fellow-creaand that in great abundance. As it is my ture. And here I would just notice that wish that you may not act so unwise a part almost all the tinctures, elixirs, balms, and as these people do, I will endeavour to other wonderful quack medicines you read make it quite plain to you, how very weak about, contain a large quantity of spirits or and wicked it is to undertake to cure op- alcohol. Look back to Dr. Farre's evidence, posite complaints with the same remedy. which is on the pages before this article, and
Suppose three boys wanted to do three be assured that every word he there' says things. One to warm his hands, another about spirits is applicable to these poisonto fly his kite, and a third to quench his ous compounds. thirst, and I advised them by all means, to If ever you should be afflicted with disget a good fire as soon as they could, that ease, at any period of your life, never go they might all do what they wanted to do. to a quack doctor : avoid him as you Now you may see, with half an eye, that would plague, pestilence, and famine. "Go though the good fire might do capitally to to one whose days have been devoted to warm the hands of the one, it would not the acquirement of knowledge and skill as enable the other to fly his kite, nor the a doctor; let him have your money, and third to quench his thirst. Or, suppose with God's blessing on his assistance, you that, instead of a good fire, I recommended may hope for a cure. Nay, if them all to use a ball of packstring; why no money to give, do not be down-hearted they would be no better off than before : for on that account, for though quack doctors though one might certainly fly his kite with are not fond of giving their advice for the packstring, the others could neither warm nothing, many wise and kind-hearted surtheir hands with it, nor quench their thirst. geons and physicians do so continually. Should I not, then, think you, deserve to I hate quack doctors, or rather I hate be censured for folly, instead of being praised their ilty practices; for I hold it a fearfor wisdom ? and so ought every quack doc- ful thing to tamper with the afflicted tor in the land to be censured, who under- bodies of human beings. We are fearfully takes to cure opposite diseases with the and wonderfully made, and he who presame remedy.
tends to understand, and to relieve diseases Let us suppose, again, that three persons when he knows that he is ignorant of them; are unwell. One is faint with want and yea, when he knows that he is living on the weariness, a second has the rheumatism, a very life-blood of his fellow-creatures, has
a dreadful account to give of his sinful
LOVE OF GOD.
The great God could have enjoyed the But though it be, as I said before, a glory of his justice in the everlasting pufearful thing to tamper and trifle with men's nishment of unthankful man, and yet had bodies, it is a still more fearful thing to glorious creatures enough, the blessed tamper and trifle with their souls! And, angels, to have been the everlasting parthere are thousands who set up as spi- takers and admirers of his goodness; and ritual quack doctors in the world, ever if there had been yet an absolute necessity ready to persuade people to take their for visible intellectual creatures, to be the advice instead of that of the faithful mi- participants of his goodness and the active nisters of Christ, who plainly point out instruments of his glory, the same power the diseases of our souls, and the proper that created men at first, could have creremedies for our sins.
ated a new generation of men that might Every one who lives in the world have supplied the defection of our first is liable to some particular bodily disease, parents and their descendants. What, then, more than to another, and it is the very is the origin of all his goodness to poor same with the soul; we each of us have a sinful man, to purchase such a worthless besetting sin. These spiritual quacks often creature at such an invaluable price as the try to make people believe that the disease blood of the Son of God? Nothing but of sin is not so general, or not so dangerous | love; free undeserved love; love that loved as it really is. Some of these quacks are before it was sought; that loved when it very ignorant, and others, very designing ; was rejected: “The Lord did not set his be then upon your guard, “for they lie in love upon you, nor choose you, because ye wait to deceive.” Sooner or later they were more in number than any people; will be found out in their evil practices. but because the Lord loved you,” Deut.
It is enough to sink us to the dust, to vii. 7. He loved you, because he loved know that we are all affected with the le- you. As Almighty God could not define prosy of sin ; but it is enough to raise us up himself by anything but himself, “I am with joy, to be assured that there is a great that I am,” Exod. iii. 14, so he can rePhysician, who cures all who apply to him. solve his love into no other motive than his He has a fountain open for all uncleanness; love: he loved you because he loved you. he heals every disease, and bids the bones And here is the spring, the fountain of this that are broken to rejoice. These things strange and unheard-of goodness of God in he does without fee or reward, without Christ; nothing but the free love of God; money, and without price.
“ God so loved the world, that he gave This great Physician is the Redeemer his only begotten Son," &c., John ïïi. 16. of the world, even our Lord and Saviour “ Herein is love, not that we loved God, Jesus Christ. He died for our sins, and but that he loved us, and sent his Son to rose again for our justification, and now be a propitiation for our sins,” John iv, 10. sits on the right hand of God, “ able to And that very same love that was in the save them to the uttermost that come unto Father to send, was in the Son to come, God by him.” I cannot tell you half and to die for us. It was he that loved the wondrous cures he perfor by his and washed us with his own blood; washed almighty power : not only
“ the blind us because he loved us. When we lay, receive their sight, and the lame walk; like Ezekiel's wretched infant, polluted in the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear;' our blood, Ezek. xvi.5,6, when no eye pitied but the very “dead are raised ;” and those us, then this love of God passed by us, and who once looked forward to eternal death, said unto us, Live; yea, said unto us, when he makes partakers of everlasting life. we were in our blood, Live. And when Have nothing to do with the quack doc- that life was not to be acquired for us but tors of the soul any more than with those of by the death of the eternal Son of God, then the body. The soul is of too great a value to to purchase that life for us he sold his own; be trusted in their hands. Go to the great and to wash us from the pollutions of our Physician, as you have need of his assist- blood, freely spent and shed his own. This ance, for“ all have sinned and come short the love of Christ, which passeth of the glory of God.” “If we say we knowledge,” Eph. iii. 19.-Sir M. Hale. have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us
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