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inside contents were so out of keeping, that proper frame of mind, after running through according to my wonted custom, I sat me a whimsical puff on “Improved Periwigs ?" down to examine the subject a little more or turn with becoming gravity to the spiclosely.

ritual food provided by Fuller and Flavel, As Old Humphrey never willingly gives Boston and Baxter, from a paragraph writoffence, nor intentionally brings an unneces- ten in high commendation of “Pickled sary blush on the face of any one, so is he Gherkins, and Potted Yarmouth Bloaters ?" the more free in his observations. If he It may be that I am a little fancifulsees a friend wearing a lamb’s-wool stock many old people are so; but every thing ing on the wrong side; or, a stranger, who that I read affects me for some time after, has set his back against a whited wall, he and therefore it was that the strange mixcan no more help pointing out the defect, ture of advertisements on the outside of the than he can help warming his hands in magazine, disqualified me altogether from cold weather.

reading the inside with advantage. The magazine, as I said, was a religious Old Humphrey wanted to enter into the one, and I took it up with that sort of feel- marrow of the work; but he was so pesing which harmonized with what I expected tered with the strange medley of " Arto find in the work itself. The title of a tificial Teeth," and " Steam-cooking book is often, to a reader, what the tuning Kitchens ;” “ Quarto Bibles," and “ Buckof a violin is to a musician; it prepares him skin Breeches;

;" “ Fountain Pens,” “ Talto enter on his undertaking in a proper low Candles, “ Beaver Bonnets,” and manner. Unfortunately, the magazine had “ Sabbath Meditations ;” “ Irish Linens," six or eight leaves of advertisements at the “ Cheddar Cheese,” “Religious Tracts," beginning and ending, of so odd and mixed and "Cure for the Tic Douloureux;" “ S.a character, that the mind of Old Hum- da Water," “ Fire Escapes,” phrey, too often affected with trifles, was Classics,” and “Patent "Chror.ometers," sadly deranged by them. If, in going into that he was fain to shut up the book altoa place for Divine worship, you were to find gether, till the hodgepodges had subsided two buffoons standing in their motley dress, in his mind. arrayed in their cap and bells, it would A great deal more might be said on this perhaps unfit you for the service, just the subject; but, to confess the truth, Old same as these advertisements unfitted me Humphrey himself is often complained of for the profitable reading of the contents of as being sadly out of keeping; sadly inconthe magazine.

sistent. He is blamed, and with too much The leaves in their very colour were at reason, for letting the liveliness of his diswar with the tone of my mind; there was position peep through some of his most nothing sober about them: one was a deep serious remarks. He goes from a cheerful blue, another a fiery red, and a third a observation to a text of scripture too sudfrightful yellow; but the colour of the denly; and, therefore, knowing his own leaves was a trifle compared to their con- infirmity, he ought not to be severe on the

It was well enough to advertise infirmities of others. He will say no more, “Prayer Books and Homilies,” but what then, about the medley of advertisements had they to do with “Rowland's Kalydor,” on the covers of the magazine, than this, his “ Pearl Dentifrice,” or his “Macassar that he hopes what has already escaped Oil ?" To put into the same page “ His- him is not out of keeping with good nature tories from Scripture,” and “Old Hock, and christian affection, and it may suggest fine crusted Port, straw-coloured Sherry, to some whom it may concern, a useful and exquisitely sparkling Moselle," seemed hint on consistency. a little out of order. What affinity, what possible connexion could there be between “Watts's Psalms and Hymns,” and “Im

THANKFULNESS. perial Saxony Cloth, Canton drill Trowsers and Petersham Great Coats ?" These

Oh, be

thankful. I feel that I have things, to say the least of them, were sadly not said enough on that word of the out of keeping; they were not consistent. apostle's, “ I thank God ;”—and I cannot.

So long as human beings remain such Let your gratitude to Christ supply my poor infirm mortals as we are, so long will omissions. Were I to speak for hours, I it be necessary to pay some attention to could not fully show your cause for thankthose things that affect us. Who is there fulness. Be thankful through life for every who could read a pious commentary in a deliverance in conflict and temptation. Be

tents.

ye

CU

With what vermin else infest

thankful in death for such a Deliverer fromment on which the male plays, consists of the last enemy.

Be thankful, throughout strong nervures, or rough strings in the wingeternity, to God, through Jesus Christ our cases, by the friction of which against each Lord Hambleton.

other, a sound is produced and communicated to the membranes stretched between them, the same way that the finger pro

duces vibrations on a tambourine, which INSECTS. No. XXXVIII.

are diffused over its surface. Hearing.

The male tree-hopper, cicada, has

rious instrument of sound. He is fur(Continued from page 141.)

nished with a pair of drums, one on each It seems fair to suppose, from the variety side, consisting of two large plates, oval or of sounds produced by insects, that they circular in some, and triangular in other spe are intended as signals to their companions, cies, fixed to the trunk between the belly who must, of course, possess the organs of and the hind legs. When this exterior hearing. The address of the poet to the membrane is raised, a cavity is brought cricket, one of the creatures remarkable into view, a part of which seems to open for such sounds, is very pleasing :- into the belly, and another part to be

covered with a second membrane, much Little inmate, full of mirth, Chirping on my kitchen hearth,

more delicate than the exterior one, tensely Wheresoe'er be thine abode,

stretched, and irridescent, and in the midAlways harbinger of good, Pay me for thy warm retreat,

dle there is a horny plate, placed horizonWith a song more soft and sweet;

tally along the bottom. All this, however, In return thou shalt receive,

seems only a secondary portion of the inSuch a strain as I can give.

strument; for the sound is in the first inThus thy praise shall be express'd,

stance produced by a bundle of muscular Inoffensive welcome guest ! While the rat is on the scout,

strings, which are attached at one extremity And the mouse with curious snout, to another membrane in the interior, obEvery dish, and spoil the best;

viously the true drum ; for when Reaumur Frisking thus before the fire,

pulled the strings, and let them go again, Thou hast all thy heart's desire.

the sound was produced, even after the
Though in voice and shape they be insect had been a long while dead. These
Form'd as if akin to thee,
Thou surpassest, happier far,

muscles, indeed, are so attached to the Happiest grasshoppers that are;

under concave surface of the drum, that Theirs is but a summer's song,

when they pull it downwards, and let it Thine endures the winter long, Unimpair'd, and shrill, and clear,

jerk quickly back again, a vibration is Melody throughout the year.

produced; the sound issues through an The celebrated naturalists, Linnæus and opening contrived on purpose, like the Bonnet, were disposed to consider insects opening in our own larynx, or the sound

hole in a violin. as deaf; but the knowledge of Shakspeare was more accurate when he made Mami- with the ancients, who often kept them in

Some grasshoppers were great favourites

cages for the sake of their song. They were I will tell it softly,

supposed to be perfectly harmless, and to Yon crickets shall not hear it.

live on dew. One poet calls the grassAs soon as it becomes dark, the chirping hopper “ the nightingale of the nymphs;" of crickets increases, and they come run- and another styles it “the sweet prophet ning forth, often in great numbers, from of the summer.” So attached were the the size of a flea to that of their full sta- Athenians to some of these insects, that ture. We speak now the hearth-cricket, they fastened golden images of them in (acheta domestica ;) both this and the their hair ; addressed them in the most enheld-cricket (acheta campestris) are some- dearing terms; and from this we may gatimes kept for their music; and the learned ther that their notes were sweet. Indeed, Scaliger took so great a fancy to their song, the sound of them and of the harp were that he was accustomed to keep them in a called by one and the same name. А box in his study. It is said, that in some grasshopper sitting on a harp was the parts of Africa they are kept and fed in a usual emblem of music, which was thus kind of iron oven, and sold to the natives, explained :—Two rival musicians, Ennowho like their chirp, and think it is a good mus and Ariston, were contending upon soporific.

that instrument, when a grasshopper flying The female cricket is mute. The instru-to the former, and sitting on his harp

lius say,

THE BRITISH EMPIRE.

CHANCE.

supplied the place of a broken string, and secured to him the victory!

“My brethren,” remarks bishop Heber, At Surinam, the music of one species is in a discourse delivered in India, “it still supposed to resenible so much the has pleased the Almighty to give that sound of a harp, or lyre, that there they great, valiant, and understanding nation are called harpers.

to which we ourselves belong, an empire in which the sun never sets, a commerce by which the remotest nations of the earth

are become our allies, our tributaries, I “ It happened so," said an infidel, upon had almost said our neighbours, and by hearing the relation of a circumstance si- means (when regarded as human means, milar to the following:

and distinct from his own mysterious proviA pious young man, in consequence of a dence) so inadequate, as to excite ouralarm series of misfortunes, was reduced to great as well as wonder, the sovereignty over poverty and distress, but his confidence in these wide and populous heathen lands. God was unshaken. A few weeks since, But is it for our sakes that he has given he entered the room where I was, pale and

us these good gifts, and wrought these pennyless ; it was then about ten o'clock : great marvels in our favour? Are we not he told a friend of mine, who was standing rather set up on high in the earth, that we by my side, that he had had no breakfast may show forth the light by which we are that morning, and looking up, with tears in guided, and be the honoured instruments his eyes, said, “ I left a piece of bread at of diffusing these blessings which we ourhome, about the size of my two fingers, for selves enjoy throughout every land, and in my wife ; and her dear little infant is dying every distant isle which our winged vesof want;” but, said he, with a smile upon sels visit ? If we value, then, (as who does his wan countenance, “ I know the Lord not value?) our renown among mankind; will provide; I am sure he will.” “You if we exult (as who can help exulting ?) will take some dinner with me to-day,

" in the privileges which Providence has said Mr. R. ; he, of course, assented, and conferred on the British nation ; if we are while he was sitting at dinner, a letter was thankful (and God forbid that we should delivered, directed to Mr. H.' He opened be otherwise) for the means of usefulness it, and found 10s. inclosed, and was also in our power; and if we love (as who does informed that if he called that day week at not love?) our native land, its greatness 0- street, he should receive another and prosperity, let us see that we, each of 10s. With a countenance deeply impressed us in our station, are promoting to the best with emotion, the starting tears of gratitude of our power, by example, by exertion, by flowed freely down his cheeks; and turning liberality, by the practice of every christo Mr. R., he said, “Did I not tell you tian virtue, the extension of God's truth the Lord would provide ?

among men, and the honour of that holy That morning the distressed Mr. H. had name whereby we are called. There have called upon a person, from whom he re

been realms as famous as our own, and ceived no relief, but to whom he related in relation to the then extent and riches the situation in which he was placed. of the civilized world) as powerful and Shortly after he had left, a humane gentle as wealthy, of which the traveller sees man called upon this person, from whom nothing now but ruins in the midst of he received an account of the distressed a wilderness, or where the mariner only circumstances of Mr. H. “O, if I had finds a rock for fishers to spread their nets been here,” he replied, “I would have upon. Nineveh once reigned over the given him 10s." You will find him at east; but where is Nineveh now? Tyre Mr. R.'s,” said the person who had related had once the commerce ; but what is bethe facts of the case to him; he then im- come of Tyre ? But if the repentance of mediately sent off a note with the sum Nineveh had been persevered in, her towns inclosed.

would have stood to this day. Had the Let the infidel say, this was “all chance,” daughter of Tyre brought her gifts to the “ that it happened so;" but let him know, temple of God, she would have continued that although the rain descends upon the a queen for ever.evil and the good, upon the just and upon the unjust, yet God bestows special favours Price fd. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Five

JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London, upon those that love and serve him.

Numbers in a Cover, 3d.
A. G.

W. TYLER, Printer, 4, Ivy Lane, St. Paul's,

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic][ocr errors][merged small]

ON TORTOISES. No. II.

and clumsy; the feet appearing merely as (Concluded from page 210.)

the abrupt terminations of them, and to be

recognised as such only from the circumIn our preceding paper we entered into a

stance of being provided with short toes, few details on the general characters of the (five before, four behind,) armed with stout tortoises, as they constitute an order dis- nails. The skin of the limbs and neck is tinguished by striking peculiarities of form course, hard, and intersected by numerous and structure. We shall now proceed to fissures. Their food consists of vegetable explain the more important of those differ- matter. Their actions are slow, and their ences which form the grounds of their pace an awkward crawl. Many are disseparation into subordinate groups. We tinguished by the beauty and regular dismay premise by observing that they may tribution of the colours with which their be divided into land tortoises, fresh-water shell is adorned. Some have the anterior tortoises, marine tortoises or turtles, and part of the plastron moveable by means of soft tortoises.

a hinge, stretching across, so that when The land tortoises, of which the Greek they retract their head and arms, they can tortoise, (testudo Græca,) and the gigantic close the aperture, and shut themselves in. Indian tortoise, (testudo Indica,) are ex- Such form the genus pyxis. In another amples, are distinguished by the solidity of genus, kinixys, the posterior part of the their osseous investment, and the arched carapace is moveable. form of the carapace, which is united by The land tortoises are most, if not all, nearly the whole of its lateral margins to hibernating in their habits; at least they the plastron. The limbs are short, thick, pass a portion of the year in a state of

VOL. III.

DD

lethargy; having previously dug a hole in which and the true skull, inclosing the brain, the ground for their reception,

there intervenes an enormous space filled The fresh-water tortoises are distin- by muscles, to which this osseous envelope guished from the land tortoises by their may be considered as a sort of carapace. Hattened form, from the carapace being Hence the skull of the turtle appears much less arched, and less stout, its osseous stra- larger than it is in reality ; the brain being tum being in general comparatively thin. very small, and its true osseous covering in In addition we may observe, that the toes proportion. It is to this group that two of are thoroughly developed, terminated by this most interesting order belong; one the long nails, and united by intervening webs, celebrated green turtle, (chelonia mydas or enabling them to swim with great facility. viridis ;) the other, the tortoise-sheli turtle Among the fresh water tortoises, or emydes, (chelonia imbricata.) are a group having the plastron so di- The green turtle is well known; it vided by a transverse hinge, as to be abounds in the regions of the torrid zone, capable, after drawing in the head, limbs, and is gregarious in its habits, feeding on and tail, of shutting themselves completely sea-weed and other marine vegetables. Its up; hence they are termed box-tortoises. eggs, which are deposited in the sand, are In another group, on the contrary, the tail as highly esteemed as its flesh. This is so long, and the limbs so voluminous, as species often attains to the weight of five to render it impossible for them to be with- or six hundred pounds; so that to lift and drawn beneath the buckler. Of this group, secure one, by tying it to a clump of wood the chelydra serpentina is an example. It on shore, four men are not unfrequently is a large tortoise of rapacious habits, inha- necessary. It obtains the name of green biting the rivers of the warmer parts of the turtle, from the colour of its fat. American continent, and living upon fish, The chelonia imbricata is little inferior small aquatic mammalia, reptiles, and even in size to the common or green turtle, and birds. Indeed, as it respects the food of is found in nearly the same latitudes. Vathe emydes, or fresh water tortoises in ge- lued for the sake of its scales, which conneral, we immediately notice a departure stitute the costly “tortoise-shell,” it is from the vegetable diet of their terres- taken in great numbers on the island of trial relatives. With increased activity, and Ascension; a place which appears to be a consequently an increased facility of pro- sort of annual rendezvous for thousands, curing food, we find the emydes all carni- which traverse leagues of the ocean in order vorous; their prey consisting of insects and to deposit their eggs on its shores. The their larvæ, small fishes, reptiles, &c. men employed in this business, watch their Many, as the emys picta, emys pulchella, opportunity (when multitudes, under cover &c, are remarkable for their varied and of night, have ventured from the water to beautiful colours. Two species, or per- the beach) to run in among them, and haps varieties of one species, (emys orbicu- turn each victim upon its back, in which laris,) are found over the whole of the position it is utterly unable to move : when south of Europe, and as far north as à sufficient number are thus made prisoners, Prussia. They are gregarious in their they are collected and shipped. habits, and feed on frogs, fish, &c. ; their Our last group contains the soft torflesh is highly esteemed as nutritive and toises, so called because a soft skin, in delicate food.

place of scales or horn, envelopes their The marine tortoises or turtles next de- carapace and plastron. They are aquatic mand our notice. In these we also observe in their habits, frequenting fresh waters, a depressed form of carapace, which is too and, like the emydes, have the feet limited to protect either the head or limbs, webbed; but three toes only on each foot while the plastron is still more circum- are furnished with nails. Both the carascribed, and irregular in figure. The feet pace and plastron are flat, and very limited; no longer retain any claim to that term, but a great portion being simply cartilage instead are moulded into true paddles, in accord- of bone. The nose is elongated, and the ance with the completely aquatic habits of tail is short. Of this group (trionyx) the their possessors. On land the turtle shuffles species are limited in number, but widely along like a seal : in the sea it is an active distributed. They are found in Java, in swimmer. The skull in this group of tor- the Ganges of India, in the Euphrates, in toises offers too remarkable a peculiarity to the Nile, in the rivers of Carolina, Guiana, be passed by. It is vaulted over by a sort and other hot parts of America. They of helmet, dense and solid, formed by a attain to large dimensions, and are feroproduction of the bones of the face, between 'cious in their habits and manners ; seizing

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