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they will be chemically combined. A more force is found to operate. Affinity may lengthened and difficult process will be re- exist, but not sufficiently strong for comquisite to separate these two substances, bination. Many ingenious attempts have and exhibit them in their original forms. been made by chemists, to determine the

In order to combine any two or more precise degrees of intensity in which this substances, it is generally necessary (unless attractive power is to be found. In order heat be applied) that one of them should to obtain an extensive and thorough acbe a fluid. The reason of this is obvious, quaintance with the changes that take place if we consider, that before a union between in the properties of bodies, it is of the them can be effected, the force of cohesion greatest importance to learn the strength of must be overcome; and it is impossible, affinity between them. To assist in this by reducing a solid substance to the finest acquisition, tables of affinity have been powder, to produce a separation of the prepared by eminent chemists, which have ultimate atoms, or most minute particles, proved of extensive utility. The plan that compose it; and the attraction of co- adopted in these tables is, to place at the hesion is sufficient, in many instances, to head of a column the name of the subovercome the influence of the attraction of stance whose affinities are required ; and affinity.

below it, the names of the bodies that have In some cases of chemical union, the pe- an attraction for it, according to the culiar properties of the different substances power they possess. Thus, under the brought together are in a great degree pre- term acetous acid, or vinegar, there would served; in others, the most remarkable follow successively, barytes, potash, soda, effects are produced. Iron and tin are both strontites, lime, ammonia, magnesia, allumalleable and ductile metals; but when mina.

S. melted together, the compound body that is produced, is of a very brittle nature. By the mixture of different metals, changes are also produced in regard to weight, sound, Letter from Miss H. More to her sister, and colour. It is a striking consideration,

dated Hampton, 1782. and a surprising evidence of the wisdom and goodness of God, that some of the most “ The other morning the captain of one useful and necessary substances in nature, of Commodore Johnson's Dutch prizes are composed of elements which, combined break fasted at Sir Charles Middleton's, in different proportions, constitute bodies of and related the following little anecdote : the most formidable and destructive cha- -One day he went out of his own ship to

Water, so mild and agreeable in dine on board another : while he was there, its nature, and so essential to human ex- a storm arose, which, in a short time, istence and comfort, is composed of oxygen made an entire wreck of his own ship, to and hydrogen, or inflammableair : the com- which it was impossible for him to return. mon salt, so wholesome and used in so many He had left on board two little boys, one ways, is formed of two ingredients, either four, the other five years old, under the of which, if taken into the stomach alone, care of a poor black servant. The people would produce instant death : they are call- struggled to get out of the sinking ship ed sodium and chlorine. Can we not here into a large boat, and the poor black took most clearly discern the hand of an all-wise his two little children, tied them into a bag, Disposer, who, rich in goodness, directs and put in a little pot of sweetmeats for them, all the combinations of matter, for the and put them into the boat; the boat by convenience and well-being of his crea- this time was quite full; the black was tures ? Numberless instances might be stepping into it himself, but was told by adduced wherein the properties of com- the master there was no room for him, that pound bodies are entirely distinct from, either he or the children must perish, for and opposed to, the original simple bodies the weight of both would sink the boat. of which they are formed; but a very few The exalted, heroic negro did not hesitate a illustrations of this kind can be introduced moment. Very well,' said he, give into so brief and general an outline of my duty to my master, and tell him I beg chemistry.

pardon for all my faults. And then, guess The attraction of affinity never exists be the rest, plunged to the bottom, never to tween two bodies of the same kind. Iron rise again, till the sea shall give up her has no chemical attraction for iron, nor dead. I told it the other day to Lord mercury for mercury. There are also dif- Monboddo, who fairly burst into tears. ferent degrees of intensity in which this The greatest lady in this land wants me to


make an elegy of it, but it is above which is folded back upon the petal, gives poetry."

a remarkable character to many plants of This touching account of the devoted the umbelliferæ order. d. Is the filament, ness of a poor negro to his master, may re- and is one of those slender threads, which mind us of that passage in holy writ, support a little yellow head, called an anRom. v. 7, 8, in which the inspired ther, at e. The filament and anther togeapostle says, “ For scarcely for a righteous ther is called a stamen. g. Is the germen, man will one die; yet peradventure for a by which name the unripe fruit is always good man some would even dare to die. known among botanists. f. Is the style, a But God commendeth his love towards us, small stem in which the germen always in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ terminates. The tip of the style is called died for us." The nobleman, mentioned the stigma. above, burst into tears at the recital of this Fig. 2. The fruit of the same plant is touching anecdote; how few are duly sen- represented, just before it is ripe. In this, sible of the far surpassing love of God to- a. points to the fruit-stalk, b. to a division wards us rebellious sinners, in giving his of it, which leaves a single seed, and is only begotten Son Jesus Christ to die called a receptacle, c. is the seed, which is for us!

one half of the original germen.




BOTANY.-No. II. 1.


We begin with this order, since it is the most natural of all orders, and subjects for study are always at hand both in the garden and in the fields. When we say natural, we mean, that the botanist in casting the different genera which compose it into one group or family, has exactly followed the course or dictates of nature; for she has united them by a great many points of affinity and resemblance; whether we contemplate them with the eye of the passing

observer, or subject them to the severer (Percedanum Officinale-Hog's Fennel.)

scrutiny of a systematic investigation.

We shall now explain the general accep.

tation of the most important terms, and WORDS.

then illustrate their application by reference There are a few terms which constantly to the order before us. The cuts we give recur in describing the parts of a flower, will help to make our explanation intellithat it will be useful for the convenience of gible. the reader to explain, before we begin to Umbel.-When several flowering stalks treat of those orders or families under radiating or proceeding like rays from the which it has been found desirable to place same point of the stem, form a surface all plants which have a certain well-defined more or less even. If we understand the relationship to each other. We recommend term even, as denoting an unbroken superour readers to obtain a clear knowledge of ficies, it is applicable whether the surface these terms, that they may be prepared to thus formed be convex, concave, or level; enter on the study, and may comprehend for the surface of a ball and cup may be our future references. A little pains at first said to be even, though the former is conwill save much future trouble.

vex and the latter concave. In the above representation of the perce

Lesser umbel, or umblet : umbellula. danum officinale, or hog's fennel, a plant When one of the flowering stalks branches very common in salt marshes, the prin- | into other lesser flowering stalks, which cipal parts of a flower are pointed out by radiate from a common point.

In the anthe small letters.

gelica the lesser umbels are globular. Figure 1, a. is the peduncle or fruit- Involucre, involucrum. - Leaves that stalk, upon which the flower is supported. are seated about the point from which the 6. The petal or coloured leaf, forming a flowering stalks originate, compose the part of the corolla, or most conspicuous involucrum, and are sometimes called inportion of a flower. c. Is named the lap- volucral leaves. The reader will remempet, into which each of these petals is ber, that a branch always grows from the lengthened. This small tongue, or lappet, bosom or axil of a leaf, which is, in fact,

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its parent, so that we may always say we had at hand at the moment of writing of a stem, where is the leaf that gave this. it birth? Hence we might expect to find as many leaves below the centre from which the rays of the umbel diverge as there are rays, but this is seldom the case, these leaves being subject to great variation in number, as well as form. Involucral leaves of the wild carrot, or bird's nest, are branched like a feather.

Involucret, involucellum. The leaves (Æthusia Cynapium-Fool's Parsley.) that accompany the lesser or partial umbel. a. Ridge. 6. Vallecula. c. Vitta. In the fool's parsley, the involucrum is

d. Albumen of the Seed. wanting ; and the leaves of the involucel

Corolla. That circle which is formed by lum, by hanging down, afford an obvious the coloured leaves of a flower, is termed mark for discriminating this plant. a corolla, little crown or coronet. In the

Fruit-bearer, carpophorum. - What is umbelliferous plants, these leaves are ungenerally called a receptacle among bo- connected, and are called petals. These tanists. This term may be applied to petals are in many genera turned up in whatever immediately supports the fruit. a small pointed lappet or tongue, as seen In umbelliferous plants, it generally splits in the bastard stone-parsley. Their numinto two slender threads, each of them ber in this order is uniformly five: the bearing a seed. In fact, this carpophorum stamen rises between, or, in other terms, is composed of two others, which if they alternates with the petals, and consists of do not part and show themselves distincta filament, or slender thread, which is as the fruit ripens, a groove may be surmounted by a little head, called an seen running, up and down in the line anther, which consists of two cells, that of separation.

open lengthwise, and discharge the pollen, Calyx, or perianth.-When small leaves, consisting of minute transparent bags, filled by growing from the same point, com- with a yellow fertilizing dust. In this pose a cup for containing the corolla, or in order the number of stamens in each ternal leaves of a flower, they are called flower is five. The pistil, a small centre stem, the calyx. In reference to the calyx, these is composed of a style or shaft, crowned leaves are termed sepala. They are often by a stigma, which is generally glutinous, joined by their edges, and form a kind of for the detention of the pollen. The tube. Among the umbelliferous plants, base of the pistil is the germen, or rudithe student must look for the calyx in ments or first beginnings of the fruit. In those curious little ridges which in most the umbelliferæ, we have two styles, one to genera are to be found upon the outside of each division of the germen. Stylopodium the seed-vessel. For, by one of those — They are seen to rise through a flat piece countless instances of transformation which of fleshy substance that rests upon take place in the constituent parts of a of the germen, which gradually dries up as flower, the divisions of the calyx are the fruit ripens. changed into a covering for the seed. The Seed. The seed presents itself as the form and elevation of these ridges, and twin half of the fruit, disengaged when the nature of the little valleys, (valleculæ,) ripe, and hanging upon the thread-shaped constitute characters, or the establishment supporter, by its upper end. In this posiof generic distinctions. In the hemlock tion it is ready to obey the slightest imthese ridges are high, and have their edges pulse of the air, and only waits for a gust notched in the cow-parsnip the pair of of wind to convey it to a distant spot. By ridges forming the lips of the seam or such a simple contrivance has the God of suture where the two divisions of the fruit nature provided for diffusing of the seed, mericarpium, unite, are expanded into a and multiplying of each particular species. border: in the chervil or sheep's parsley, Albumen.—The substance of the seed is they nearly disappear, and nothing but a fleshy, or rather horny, when ripe, which, smooth surface presents itself.

because it furnishes material for the supVitta.-Under the ridges, or beneath the port of the plant in the first stages of gerlittle valleys, are found small canals which mination, or early growth, is called albusecrete a gum-resin. They are repre- men. The albunien in general may be desented in a transverse section of the fool's fined to be that peculiar substance within parsley, which was the only recent plant the covering of the seed, which, when

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under a distinct form, invests the em-, We might represent a peltate, or targetbryo, and contains food for its nourishment shaped leaf, by balancing a penny upon the in the dawn of vegetation.

top of a pencil, though not exactly, for the Embryo.-In the upper part of the leaf-stalk is not always in the centre of albumen may be seen, by the help of a the expanded part. It is found by the side magnifier, the minute embryo, having the of streams and ditches. lower part divided into two lobes, which Heracleum.-Fruit elliptical, or oval, are called cotyledons. These are nearly flattened, scored by the ridges, which are equal, and are changed by germination thread-shaped. Vittæ four on the back of into seed leaves, or that pair which first the fruit in the little valleys : two in the makes its appearance in vegetation. The seam : pair of ridges at each seam, attenupper, or undivided part, is termed radicle, uated into a border. or little root, because in germinating it is H. Sphondylium.— Cow.parsnip : frelengthened into a root.

quent by hedge banks, and is gathered in the spring for rabbits.

Conium.--- Fruit, nearly globular, with 0

five notched edges on each side.

C. Maculatum. The hemlock may be known by its stem being much branched and spotted. Chorophyllum.-Involucret bent back,

Petals with the lappel bent inwards, so as to resemble a heart. Fruit;

oblong, smooth. The last is the mark by B

which the genus may be distinguished. (Conium Maculatum-Hemlock.)

Seed bent inwards. Fig. 1.-a. Receptacle. 6. Pericarpium. C. Sylvestre. Stem smooth, scored, C. Embryo.

ioints rather swoln. Fig. 2.-a. Ridge. Fig. 3.-a. Radicle. b. Cotyledons.

Cow-weed Chervil.-Grows in the hedges. The above cuts of the hemlock represent for rabbits, sheep's parsley.

Called among those who gather it as fodder

L. the parts just described.

The leaves of plants belonging to this order, are generally divided and sub-divided into leaflets. They are said to be pinnate, or winged, when ranged in pairs of oppo- AFTER a sermon in aid of the Sunday site leaflets along the leaf-stalk; as in the schools at Leeds, a soldier was observed to wild parsnip. If these divisions do not reach to the leaf-stalk, or midrib, the leaves put a guinea into one of the plates. So

large a sum from one in his circumstances are said to be pinnatifid; as in the cow

excited the attention of the collector, who parsnip. If the leaflets are collected toge took it for granted that it was a mistake, ther in triplets, the leaves are said to be and that a guinea was given where proternate. In the bupleurum rotundifolium, bably a shilling, or even a smaller sum, or thoroughwax, the stem seems to grow

was intended. through the leaves, which are, in this case,

Under this impression he called the said to be perfoliate. In budding, the man, and told him of the supposed misleaves are rolled back upon themselves, take. and seem to burst from their sheath like

The soldier mildly but firmly said, that the unrolling of a spring. The stem is ge- he had committed no mistake, that he had nerally hollow and herbaceous.

come with the intention of giving the

guinea, that it was the result of the saving Hydrocotyle, umbel simple.-Involucre of many weeks, and that it was given with three or four leaves; petals without in pursuance of a resolution which he had a notch or lappel : seeds nearly round and made under very particular circumstances. flattened : ridges thread-shaped : without This statement excited still more the atvittæ or gum, bearing canals.

tention of the collector; and, at his reH. Vulgaris, March penny wort.—This quest, the soldier went, after the service plant may be distinguished by the form of was concluded, to the restry-room, where its leaf, which is peltate, or have its expan- he related the following account of himsion roundish, and so placed upon the leaf- self :stalk that its surface is nearly horizontal. He had been in the early part of his



life, educated at a sunday school; where, declination, or noontide altitude. Now, a among other religious instruction which he denser atmosphere in the day-time diminreceived, he was taught most of the collects ishes the heat of the sun experienced at used in the book of common prayer. the earth's surface, by hindering the apSome time after leaving school, he entered pulse, or access, of all the rays which are the army as a private soldier: and here his sent towards us ; a clouded sky, at night, course of life became so much altered, and stops the radiating, or passing off, of the he mixed so much with, and adopted the heat, by interposing a barrier of vapour in habits of men who had no religious feeling, a state of condensation, between the earth that he soon lost all that he once possessed. and the surrounding space. The same In this way he went on for several years ; condition of the air which operated in dehis early impressions of religion becoming pressing the highest temperature registered more and more .faint, until at last they by day, had the effect of checking that dewere nearly worn out. In the progress of pression at night. We therefore find the his service he was engaged in one of the same cause, an increase in the density great battles in which our army had met of the vapour, producing opposite effects the enemy, and was most severely wounded; under different circumstances, and yet the shock deprived him at first of all sens- with one precise object, namely, that of ation ; but, when that returned, he found circumscribing the extent of the thermohimself stretched on the field, so severely metrical range. We see how order is wounded as to be unable to move. The provided for and secured in the midst of thought of death now came upon him, and apparent disorder ; how in the midst of brought with it the trembling recollection inclemencies of change, a tender regard is of the life which he had led, and of his manifested for animal and vegetable naunfitness to appear in the presence of God. tures. The more severe and rigorous the He tried to pray; but so long had prayer scrutiny is to which we subject the operabeen neglected, that he could not remem- tions of creative intelligence, with a fuller ber any that he had ever said. At last he soul and greater comprehensiveness of brought to mind one of those collects which meaning do we say, “ He hath done all he had committed to memory when a boy things well.” And when we make ourat the sunday school : it was an humble selves acquainted with the laws which supplication to the Lord for mercy: he direct and control all those changes that repeated it with earnestness and fervour, the course of nature exhibits, we see in the and found his mind more at ease. As- methods by which they are brought about, sistance soon after came, and he was that God, in his workmanship, doth often removed from the field. He recovered, hang the greatest weights upon the smallest and, from that hour, became an altered wires. In the arts and manufactures, we

In gratitude to God for the mercy always see the greatest effects produced by which he had found, he resolved to give the simplest causes; and were we, in our the first guinea that he could save out of daily callings, and in the ever-recurring pay, at the first sermon which he should turns of social duty, always to make a hear preached in aid of sunday schools.- singleness of means the ruling principle of T. S. Grimshawe.

our plans and endeavours, we should be more serviceable to our friends, and more

comfortable with ourselves, and altogether DIFFERENCE OF TEMPERATURE. sustain, with a better grace and propriety,

A correspondent of the “ Times,” for the character of good citizens and conOctober 22, 1834, communicated a copy sistent christians. of his Register of Thermometrical Heights for fourteen days, from which it appeared, that on the 6th of October, the highest temperature was 76°, the lowest 59°; but In the island of Teneriffe, the writer, on the 19th, the highest point to which the for the first time in his experience, met thermometer reached was 56°, while 52° with a community among spiders.. The was the lowest to which it descended in species alluded to were of the diadem the night. It is worthy of remark, that kind; the web common to several indiwhile the heat in the shade, by day, had viduals was multifarious and extensive, declined 20°, that in the night had fallen interspersed with small canopies of exonly 70. The cause of this was the alter- quisite texture, under each of which a ation from a clear to a clouded atmosphere, spider was seen watching. By what aradded to what is due to the sun's change in 'rangement animals so fierce and unsocia



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