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His highnes the lord protector (Crom- one flower, and monogynia or one style, well) with the advice of his council, has the well-known plants of this order will encouraged and authorized the making afford him easy opportunities of doing it. thereof, in order to the preservation of the woods of the nation.” Coke is now Primula. Flowers generally in an umprincipally used in iron smelting; steam- blet, with an involucre. For a definition of engines also consume a vast quantity these terms, see UMBELLIFERÆ. annually, and by its substitution for coal Corolla, with a cylindrical or pipeas fuel in a steam-carriage, the nuisance shaped tube, and a spreading border. of smoke is prevented. Thus, coal now If we gently rend this tube, the five little yields gas for lighting, coke for heat, tar stamens are seen originating from the subfor many useful purposes, (as preserving stance of the corolla. The next object is a fences and outbuildings, and a liquor little ball or stigma placed upon the top of which is converted into sal ammoniac, an a delicate thread or style, and at the bottom important substance in chemistry, and of a small globular seed-vessel. useful application in certain branches of P. Vulgaris, common primrose. Leaves domestic economy, as the fermenting of toothed and wrinkled. The flower-stalk bread and biscuits. Sal Ammoniac is rises apparently from the root, whence it used by gingerbread bakers in large quanti- has been technically called a scape. Flowers ties; it ferments, or renders the mass light. are in the primrose commonly unconnected
with each other, yet a variety has been
found resembling the common primrose in BOTANY.-No. IX.
all respects, except that it had 'its flowers in an umblet, that is, having several blos
soms upon the same flower-stalk, which The flower, which is taken as the pat- blossoms proceeded from a single point in tern for all the other members of this order, that flowering stalk.
It would appear, is, perhaps, of all others, not even the rose therefore, that the common mode of proexcepted, the most familiar, namely, the ducing one solitary flower from the same primrose. The leading characters which peduncle or flower-stalk, was a deviation make up our notion of the primulaceæ are
from the regular way. derived from the regularity of the corolla, P. Elatior, oxlip.-Differs from the and the particular nature of the seed-vessel. primrose chiefly in having several flowers This seed-vessel generally appears like a growing in an umblet upon the same scape little ball, neatly rounded, and of a smooth or flower-stalk. Found in woods. and delicate texture. It is without parti- P. Vevis, cowslip.-The cowslip diftions, and the seeds are borne upon a cen
fers from the preceding species in having tral column. If the calyx or cup of a its corollas with a concave limb, instead of primrose be examined after the fall of the being flat. corolla, a round polished capsule will be P. Farinosa, bird's-eye.—Leaves smooth; seen in its centre; if a cut be then adroitly in which particular it differs from all the made round it, so as to divide the case, rest. Border of the corolla fiat. Blossoms without disturbing any thing it contains, a rose-coloured, in umblets.
In marshy little central column will be exposed to mountains. view, bearing a crowded knot of seeds. Hottonia.--Corolla cup-shaped, staThe curious reader will then have under his mens standing on the margin or edge of observation one of the distinguishing marks the tube of the corolla. of this family.
H. Palustris, water violet.— FlowerThe calyx is generally divided into five stalks in whorls, numerous, and of a fleshteeth, never down so far as to appear in colour. The leaves are toothed like a distinct leaves. Corolla regular, with five comb, and remain beneath the surface of equal tubes, bearing the stamens, each in the water. In ditches and ponds; flowera line with the clefts, that is, just opposite ing in June and July. to the middle of the teeth of the calyx. Lysimachia.-Corolla wheel-shaped, that Stamens uniformly five. Style single. is, without a tube, and having its divisions Stigma seldom divided ; sometimes in a flat and horizontal. Capsule globular, head or ball, as in the primrose. The pointed, with five or ten valves or folding stems of plants belonging to this order are pieces. always herbaceous. If the student is de- L. Vulgaris, yellow loose-strife.- An sirous of exemplifying what is meant by elegant ornament of watery places, where pentardria, or five stamens, when found in shade abounds, along the reedy banks of
streams. In these situations it is found
A. Tenella, bog pimpernell.—Leaves growing among the common Valerian and egg-shaped, or nearly round, rather sharp, the purple spiked willow-herb; but it is stem creeping. Flowers rose-colour, nearly not so common as they are. Stem is three bell-shaped. Found in boggy places, flowerfeet high, terminated by a beautiful cluster | ing in August and September. of yellow flowers. The leaves are lance- In a summer's walk into the fields, we shaped, and placed by fours in a whorl. may look for the poor man's weatherThe clusters of flowers rise from the bo glass in every cultivated piece, and recogsom of the leaves at the top; each partial nise it by the red dye of its flowers. If or lesser flower-stalk is furnished with a we come to a spot that is moist and grassy, little coloured leaf, which is usually called especially in the shade of a wood, we may a bracte, at its base. If the stamens be look about in expectation of finding the examined, they will be found to have their moneywort, known by its bright yellow filaments united at their base.
flower; and if we approach a stream of L. Nummularia, moneywort.-- Leaves water, there are hopes of meeting with the somewhat heart-shaped. This pretty un- water-violet, which we distinguish by its affected plant is found among the grass flesh-coloured blossoms, and its leaves, and other herbage in moist meadows, and which are cut like the teeth of a comb. is readily distinguished by its pale green If we are successful in finding the last, leaves, creeping stem, and its solitary we may return home with our gains, exaflowers, which are of a bright yellow. mine each blossom carefully by itself, and
Anagallis.- Corolla wheel-shaped, that then compare it with the rest ; and we is, without any tube, as in the primrose, shall then have reason to admire that and having its segments flat and directed wisdom which has joined so many as from a centre like the spokes of a wheel. plants together by so many points of The essential characteristic, in conjunction mutual agreement, that at first sight with the wheel-shaped corolla, is in the seemed not to have the slightest relationseed-vessel, which parts horizontally, so ship to each other. By such a walk rethat one half resembles the lid, the other creation will be obtained for the body, the bottom of a box. In this way it is relief to the mind, and a portion of solid opened for the discharge of the seeds, botanical knowledge for the understandwhich, before they are ripe, adhere to a ing: and, what makes this knowledge central column, as described in our gene- valuable, we are enabled by it to trace, ral outline of this order.
with greater certainty and comprehensiveA. Arvensis, pimpernell, or poor man's ness, the wisdom and beneficence of that weather-glass. This pretty little plant gracious Being who bestows appropriate is extremely common in corn-fields, flow favours on each little plant, yet links them ering from May to September; it may be together into families by many harmonious distinguished by its smooth, egg-shaped tokens of relationship, thus reminding us leaves, and small scarlet flowers, with a while we ought to be thankful for our pepurple centre. If the under sides of the culiar gifts, we are nevertheless brethren, leaves be examined, a number of minute and should neither quarrel with nor env. impressed dots will be discovered. It each other. has obtained the name of poor man's weather-glass from the disposition which the
OMNIPOTENCE AND LOVE OF GOD, AS blossoms exhibit to close up at the approach of rain. In cloudy weather, we have often seen the blossoms shut, which The omnipotence of God, which Job may be explained by recollecting that the was instructed to discover in natural creaexpansion of a blossom is owing to the tion, we may see yet more distinctly in the stimulus of heat; if then the effect of this manifestations of the gospel. What but stimulus be counteracted by the presence omnipotence can break the hard heart, of moisture, it will close, supposing that and turn the lion into the lamb ? What its elasticity has not been destroyed. but that can lead you, so weak a creature, There is a variety of the pimpernell with through hosts of spiritual foes, conquering blue flowers, found also in corn-fields. This and to conquer? What inferior power is, by Sir James Smith, made a distinct spe- could have originally established the church cies, under the name of A. Cærulea, and of Christ amid such fierce opposition ? distinguished from the former not only in What else has preserved it till this day, its blue flowers, but in the upright nature so that the gates of hell have never yet of the stem, and its toothed corolla. prevailed against it? In every accession,
DISPLAYED IN THE GOSPEL.
to that church, by the true conversion to mind and forces reflection. You know I God of another sinner, there is a fresh mean sanctified sorrow, for there is a sorrow manifestation of the almighty power of which leaves the soul (just as soap and God. Man loves sin so dearly, hates nitre leave the Ethiopian) in the condition holiness so heartily, and is so chained down in which it found it. to the world and vanity, that Omnipotence alone can effectually turn him to God, and holiness, and truth “ We are his work
We are convinced, by the history of manship, created in Christ Jesus, unto good works,” Eph. ii
. 10. And what a ages, and the present state of countries delightful view of the goodness, mercy, God in the world, that the Sun of Righteous
where they are without hope and without and compassion of God have we exhibited in the gospel of Jesus Christ ! Job benumbed faculties of mankind. We know
ness alone could resuscitate the torpid and was sent to learn something of the beauty that from Revelation mind has derived its and glory of God, from the peacock strength, science its utility, and the arts spreading his rainbow-wings to the sun.
their refinement. From the Bible the asYou may learn the same lesson far better in the mild lustre, the holy beauty, the and the geologist borrowed his clue and so
tronomer has moralized his demonstrations, lovely harmony of the Divine perfec- lutions. Nay, it is from heaven the poet and lions, as seen in Him, who is the brightness the orator have received models of their of his Father's glory, and the express image of his person, Heb. i. 3. I said respective arts, and all that is sublime, veindeed, I retract not the assertion--that human genius have been durable only as
nerable, or pathetic in the production of the eye of faith may read, "God is in: they embodied the spirit and genius of finitely holy !” in the cross of Christ; those perfect prototypes. yet sure I am, that the eye of gratitude may read, if tears permit, “God is love !" as that sentiment shines forth, in charac
KNOWLEDGE OF SIN.— When any perters of grace, from the same cross. Was it son comes practically to know how great not love,-christians, let me appeal to your a thing it is for an apostate sinner to best feelings-was it not pity, mercy, love, obtain a remission of sins, and an inheunparalleled, for God, against whom you ritance among them that are sanctified, had so sinned, to give his well-beloved endless objections, through the power of Son to suffer, bleed, and die, for such as unbelief, will arise unto his disquietment. you; the Just for the unjust, the sinless for Wherefore that which is principally suited the sinful, the pure, holy, obedient child to give him rest, peace, and satisfaction, Jesus for the impure, polluted, disobedient and without which nothing else can do rebel?_Hambleton.
so, is the due consideration of, and the acting faith upon that infinite effect of
Divine wisdom and goodness in the conAFFLICTION.
stitution of the person of Christ. This,
at first view, will reduce the mind unto The late Rev. Joseph Hughes remarked, that conclusion, " If thou canst believe,
My short residence in London was ren- all things are possible.” For what end dered very pleasant by the cordiality of my friends. No human enjoyments, however, are
cannot be effected hereby? what end unmixed: while others might, in the kindness in it? Is any thing too hard for God ?
cannot be accomplished that was designed of their hearts, congratulate my felicity, a mul- Did God ever do any thing like this, or titude of anxieties poured in upon my mind make
use of any such means for from expected and unexpected quarters ; end whatever Against this no objec
any and, if they did not quite overwhelm me, tion can arise. On this consideration of they at least prevented me froin suffering him, faith apprehends Christ to be, as that which was joyous in my lot to lift indeed he is, the power of God and the me up above measure. This is the pe- wisdom of God unto the salvation of culiar way in which affliction (the little I them that do believe, and therein doth it have encountered) has operated for my find rest with peace, Mic. vi. 6–8; Dan, good. It has always been sent seasonably, xi. 24.–Owen. just when my vain heart was singing a requiem to its cares, and in danger of re
JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London. moving from religion to as great a distance Price
fd. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Five as it is from distress. Sorrow humbles the
Numbers in a Cover, 3d.
IN No. xlix. we gave a drawing of the tember. On that day, the high priest, High Priest in his robes : the above after he had washed not only his hands and sketch exhibits him in a white dress. his feet, as usual in common sacrifices, but The cap of the above figure resembles the his whole body, dressed himself in plain Phrygian bonnet; and the golden plate in linen like the other priests, wearing neither the left hand is flat. The censer in the his purple robe, nor the ephod, nor the right hand is taken from medals supposed pectoral, because he was to expiate his to be ancient Hebrew, though the best own, together with the people's sins. He judges dispute their authority; for only first offered a bullock and a ram for his those which have Samaritan descriptions own sins, and the sins of his house; afteron them are reputed authentic, and on such wards he received from the princes of the medals this censer has not yet been found. people two goats as a sin-offering, and a
The great day of expiation was the ram for a burnt-offering, to be offered in tenth of Tizri, which answers to our Sep-) the name of the whole nation
HINDOÓ IDEAS OF ECLIPSES.
derrhan (a kind of weapon) in his hand,
cut off his head; but it was now too The Rev. C. B. Lepoult, of Benares, late. Rah, having drunk Amrit, was im
mortal ; and now, being enraged at the sun On December 26, 1833, there was an and moon, as the principal causes of his eclipse of the moon. Thousands of people misfortune, he haunts them through the came, from all directions, to Benares, to sky; and whenever he can get them, he bathe in the Ganges, and to give alms to will lay hold of then Sometimes he can the brahmins. My boys also asked for get only a part of the moon, and then a liberty; which, being assured that none partial eclipse takes place; but sometimes, would come to school, I was obliged to coming just in front of the moon, he swalgive. The next day I went to school; and lows her up, and then a total eclipse is having heard them read a chapter, the caused. When he happens to get the moon boys begged permission to ask a question.
so between his teeth as to be able to swal“Well,” I said, “ what is it Ş”. low her up, the people in the moon, while
“ An explanation,” replied they, “ of she is passing through his terrible mouth the true causes of an eclipse.”
and neck, have very much to suffer, as may “ You should know them," I said. be imagined. But if the people on earth, “ Yes,” they answered, we know two;
at the time of an eclipse, bathe in the yours and ours; but which is the true one, Ganges, especially at Ben
es, and give we do not know."
alms to the brahmins, (this probably being I asked them, “ What do you suppose the most meritorious,) they not only obtain them to be?"
thereby remission of all their sins, but also They answered, “You know that the obtain very effectual means of alleviating brahmins and our shasters say, that Rah the really pitiful state of the poor people in swallows the moon up.”
This story, unreasonable as it “ And do you really believe that?" I may appear to us, is most heartily beasked.
lieved by thousands, even of the pundits. Some were silent; others said, “ No:" The day after this, the teacher of the and once more repeated their question hindoo class, a man who is convinced of what I thought the true causes might be. the truth of christianity, and most gladly I began to explain them; and showed, by would avow and confess Christ had he not an experiment, how an eclipse comes to
so much to hazard, put the same question pass. They all admitted that my explan- to me respecting the cause of an eclipse. ation of what caused an eclipse was much I asked his opinion; and he repeated the more reasonable than theirs, and were very story, I have just related. I told him sorry to be so deceived by their brahmins plainly that he was mistaken ; and exand shasters. The story of Rah's swal- plained to him the true causes. He, having lowing the moon, alluded to by the boys, heard my explanation, replied, “ Then are was repeated to me by a brahmin, and is
our shasters mistaken in this point ?” as follows:—When Vishnu churned the I said, “ Yes; and not only in this, but sea, fourteen Ratan (previous things) came
altogether.” out; one of them was Madera, (wine) an
He was silent for a while ; and then other Amrit (immortality.) Vishnu being repeated an old question, namel desirous to give the Madera to the Rake is the state of a man who sees the beauties shas, (demons,) and Amrit to the Deotas, and suitableness of christianity; who be(gods) caused the Deotas to sit on one
lieves in one God, but is not entirely conside, and Rakshas on the other; and having vinced that there is only one way of obdistributed the Madera among the Rakshas, taining salvation ? I showed him that it and made them drunken, he began to give was easy for a sincere mind to ascertain the Amrit to the Deotas. One Raksha, this point, it being plainly revealed in the however, whose name was Rah, having per- holy Scriptures ; and added, that many ceived what Vishnu was going to do, took alleged, as the cause of their unbelief, their the form of a Deota rpon him, and sat
not being fully convinced; while it was, among them. Vishnu, mistaking him for in fact, nothing but either a fear of man or a Deota, gave hirn Amrit. But Chander the love of sin, both being inconsistent mah, (moon,) and Surgj, (sun,) seeing what with a believer in Christ. With this man Vishnu was doing, cried out,
I had many an interesting conversation. I Vishnu ! what are you doing ? this is a hope that the Lord will continue the work Raksha.” Hearing this, Vishnu at once
which He has, I humbly trust, begun in knew him; and having his chakkar mo