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eat such without doing harm to the diges- gentlemen convicts, who are denominated tive organs. Bread, after being baked, specials, are usually sent to a depot at goes through a charge similar to the change Wellington, and I believe that at no time in newly brewed beer, or newly churned did the number of these exceed one hunbutter-milk-neither being healthy until dred. When I visited that place there were after the change. During the change in but forty, out of whom I had reason to bebread it sends off a large portion of carbon, lieve there were several who, at no period, or unhealthy gas, and imbibes a large por- had any title to be considered as gentle tion of oxygen, or healthy gas. Bread has, men; and, although there were amongst according to the computation of the phy- these several who had been officers in the sicians in London, one-fifth more nutri- army and navy, few, if any of them could ment in it when ripe, than it has when be said to have received a liberal educajust out of the oven. It not only has more tion, nutriment, but imparts a much greater de- But let us dismiss this last remark from gree of cheerfulness. He that eats old ripe our attention, and consider the forty, or bread will have a much greater flow of rather the highest number, one hundred, to animal spirits than he would if he were to be all men of education. Also, let us coneat unripe bread.
sider, that by some oversight, instead of one Bread, as before observed, discharges hundred, there were four times that amount. carbon and imbibes oxygen. One thing What proportion do four hundred eduin connexion with this thought should be cated men bear to the whole convict popuparticularly noticed by all housewives. It lation, 14,000 ?. The result, therefore, of is, to let the bread ripen where it can in-. these inquiries has led me to believe that hale the oxygen in a pure state. Bread the common convicts, generally, have obwill always taste of the air which surrounds tained less than the average education of it while ripening; hence it should ripen the lower class in their respective countries, where the air is pure. It should never and therefore, that a clear and direct mode ripen in the cellar, nor in a close cup presents itself of decreasing crime in any board, or in a bed-room. The noxious country, by increasing the education of the vapours of a cellar or a cupboard never lower classes. should enter into and form a part of the bread we eat. The writer of this article has often eaten bread of this kind, and has
MORALITY. felt strongly disposed to lecture the mistress MORALITY is not grace; because it doth of the house on the subject of keeping not change nature: if it did, many of the bread in a pure atmosphere. Every man heathen were as near to God as the best of and woman ought to know, that much of christians. Whatever may be done by the health and comfort depends upon the me- strength of nature, cannot alter it; for no thod of preparing their food. Bread should nature can change itself. Poison may be be light, well baked, and properly ripened. great within the skin, like a viper's. But before it is eaten.--Nat. Rep.
freedom from gross sins argues not a friendship for God. None were ever so great enemies to Christ as the Pharisees, to whom
Christ gave no other title than that of the (From a Correspondent of the British and Foreign devil's children, and charges them with School Society.]
hatred both of himself and Father, John The state of education amongst these viii. 44.—Charnock. people is extraordinary, for few of them, proportionally speaking, can either read or write. At my farm in Van Dieman's portable and more universally hated than
PRIDE.—There is no vice more insupLand, I had an English free overseer and five convict servants, none of whom could
pride. It is a kind of poison, which corwrite their names. From all my inquiries whatever merit he may otherwise possess,
rupts all the good qualities of a man; and on the subject, I am convinced that not this single fault is sufficient to render him one-half, perhaps a much smaller number,
odious and contemptible; so that by pleascan read or write. One would
that the Scotch, at least, would not be included ing himself too much, hé displeases every in this remark; but even they did not appear to me to form an exception.
JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London. Another circumstance will place this in-Price fd.each, or in Monthly Parts,
Numbers in a Cover, 3d. teresting subject in a clearer light. The W. Tyler, Printer, Bolt-court, Fleet-street.
EDUCATION OF CONVICTS.
The engraving before us represents a topmost rate the bran from the flour, which answers branch of the Jatropha manihot, bitter cas- to the grinding and holting to which wheat sada, or manioc, the root of which yields is subjected before it is fit to be made into that well-known article of diet, Tapioca. bread. As to the successive stages of It is a native of the Brazils, and has been mixing, fermenting, and kneading, there is long cultivated in the West Indies, for the no resemblance, and the course of preparasake of the bread that is prepared from it. tion ends at once with baking. A quantity In French Guiana also, the Cassada flour is of moisture sufficient to bring about a muin great request, and is made by toasting tual adhesion of the particles is still retained the grated root over the fire; in which state, by them, which, through the application of if kept from moisture, it will continue good heat, effects a perfect union, so that the for twenty years.
Cassava-cake, or cas- flour is removed, when thoroughly baked, sava-root, as it is otherwise called, is the in masses, which are called cassava-cakes. meal, or the grated, squeezed, and dried These cakes are sold in the markets, and root of the manioc, which, after having are universally esteemed as a most wholebeen pounded and passed through a sieve, some and nutritious kind of food. The is baked upon flat circular iron plates, Spaniards, when they first discovered the fixed in a stone. The process followed in West Indies, found cassava in general use preparing this meal is very similar to that among the natives, who called it cazabbi, pursued by us in reference to wheat. For and by whom it was preferred to every the massive root is first reduced by grating; other kind of bread, on account of the ease then pressed and dried, which correspond with which it was digested, the facility of to our reaping, drying, and threshing. its cultivation, and its prodigious increase. When dry, the root we see must be beaten If a person initiated in the principles of fine in a mortar, and then sifted, to sepa- systematic botany, and acquainted with the
active and most commonly deleterious pro- baking the pounded root. Vegetable poiperties of the euphorbiaceous family, should sons, from their subtile nature, are liable to turn from the wholesome food, just described, be completely dissipated by the action of to an examination of the living plant which heat. It would seem, in fact, as if their yields it, he would at first be struck at the activity and fatal prowess depended upon singular exception, and theory would look this liability to vanish at the approach of blank at the inroad thus unexpectedly fire. The leaves of the taro, a native of made upon the integrity and soundness of the South Sea Islands, are poisonous, being her arrangements. After inspecting the akin to our acrid hedge-plant, cookoo-pint, first, as represented by fig. 6, he might say, or “ lords and ladies ;" but, when dressed, “I perceive by the seed-vessel that this they form a most wholesome and nutritious shrub belongs to a poisonous family; how vegetable. Laurel leaves contain a poisoncomes it to pass that instead of a bane, it ous juice, yet we often see them substituted yields a blessing for the use and behoof of in sundry kinds of pastry for bay-leaves, man?" An inquisitive person would not, and then eaten without producing any ill however, be long at odds with his theory; consequence. For, while baking, the heat for he might learn, with a very little inquiry, dissipated the noxious principle, and left that, while growing, a most fatal poison had the harmless ones behind. circulated among this nutritious substance, The intermixture of good and evil is comand had only been separated by art and mon to all earthly things; it is the proper bupatience in the way described above. Such, siness of wisdom to separate them—to choose indeed, is the poisonous nature of the juice the one, and reject the other. If we had all that may be pressed out when the root is things ministered to us spontaneously withfresh, that it has been known to occasion out pains or danger, we should have neither death in a few minutes. By means of it art, science, nor mental sagacity: there the Indians destroyed many of their Spa- would be no practical difference between nish persecutors. A small quantity has a wise man and a fool. The most elebeen known to destroy dogs and cats, with gant and philosophic of the Latin poets, great agony, within the space of twenty-five when rehearsing some of those discourageminutes. Their stomach, when opened, ments which thwart the endeavours of the exhibited no traces of inflammation, nor were husbandman, ascribes their existence to the their bowels affected, or the blood coagu- appointment of Heaven, in order to sharpen lated : whence it appears that the poison the attention of man, lest a drowsy lethargy acted solely upon the nervous system ; an should overspread his powers, and a wanton idea confirmed by the effect which thirty-six dulness foil the active instruments of drops had afterwards, when administered thought. If a heathen could perceive to a criminal. For these had scarcely the benefit produced by pain and reached the stomach, when the poor crea- disappointment, why should we repine ture writhed and screamed in the greatest because the way to any kind of good is agonies of suffering; these were succeeded ofttimes puzzled with mazes, and beset with by convulsions, in which he expired, within difficulties? The presence of a pernicious the short period of six minutes. Three mixture in the root of the manioc calls for hours after death the body was opened, but the exercise of skill, labour, and patience, no alteration had been effected in the ap- which the thinking part of mankind agree pearance of the internal vessels, except the in esteeming very good things. stomach, which, without any marks of We shall conclude by giving a few partiinflammation, was shrunk to half its natural culars illustrative of its flowers and fruit. size. We infer, therefore, that the volatile The manioc bears two kinds of flower, one substance in which the fatal principle re- having the ten stamens, which are altersides, directs its activity solely towards the nately of different length, fig. a, the other a nervous web that is spread over the whole fruit composed of three distinct seed-vessels body, and, in a particular manner, over the 6, which constitute a peculiar characteristic coatings of the stomach; which, from its of the euphorbiaceous plants; we mean contracted size, plainly demonstrated the such as resemble the spurge or wart-wort, nature of that enemy which had wrought which are extremely common, and may be upon it after such a terrible sort. Those readily known by yielding a milky juice, who prepare the cassava-cake are aware of which our country people apply to their the pernicious qualities of this juice, and, as warts. The fruit of the spurge is composed we have seen, take the most effectual me of three grains, as the attentive reader may thods to expel it, by pressing, drying, and see with the slightest examination, which
OLD HUMPHREY ON DUELLING.
will give him a correct notion of the fruit of risk of appearing before God in the characthe manioc. The milky juice is also found in ter of an unrepentant murderer, notwiththe manioc. In fig. 1, there appear to be standing the tremendous text, “ Murderers six grains, but this is occasioned by each shall have their part in the lake which burngrain being halved. The size of the ma- eth with fire and brimstone." nioc is something between a tree and a Duelling is an ungodly practice that a shrub. The leaves are divided into five or heathen might be ashamed of, and Old seven narrow leaflets, as represented in our Humphrey must be excused if he tries to figure.
brand it on the forehead.
A lawless libertine leads a young female astray from virtue into the paths of sin,
shame, remorse, beggary, and despair, and There are some things so weak and so offers to make reparation by blowing out wicked, so bad and so base, that it is the brains of her brother or her father. hardly possible to speak of them with tem- This is duelling. per. Among these may be mentioned the A free-living gentleman quarrels over the practice of duelling. If there be one cus- bottle with his most intimate, his dearest tom tolerated by the world that savours of friend; hasty words are spoken by both, folly, crime, cruelty, and insanity, more than but neither will acknowledge his error. another, it is the custom of duelling. These intimate acquaintances, these dear
You may think this rather an odd sub- friends, meet to give each other satisfaction ject for me to speak upon. It is not a very by sending a bullet through each other's likely thing that Old Humphrey will ever hearts. This is duelling. fight a duel, and I trust it is quite as un- Is duelling consistent with justice ? No! likely that any of his friends will; but for all for justice requires that the guilty should that, as the words of an old man are some- be punished, and the injured be recomtimes weighty, and as they may possibly pensed; but in duelling the offender, the reach the ears of some who are interested systematic duellist is the most likely to in the subject, so a word or two about escape, on account of his superior skill in duelling may not be useless.
such matters, while the injured party loses The custom of duelling consists in this his life. that persons, for some real or supposed in- Is duelling consistent with mercy ? jury, meet each other with deadly weapons, Mercy! No! The duellist is savagely with the deliberate intention of taking each merciless; for he spares neither foes nor other's lives. Sometimes the weapons used friends. The offence may have been a are swords, but more commonly pistols, trifle; but it can only be atoned for with loaded with ball; the parties usually stand blood. But if duelling have neither mercy a dozen paces from each other, and fire nor justice on its side, is it consistent with once, or several times, till their friends, courage ? Courage! No! for true couacting the part of seconds, consider the rage takes no unmanly advantage of anaffair honourably disposed of.
other, whereas the duellist, who can "split Duels, for the most part, are confined to a hair,” as the phrase is, with his bullet, the higher classes, to those who, having had is not ashamed (though he surely ought a superior education, are supposed to be to be) to fight with one who never before wiser and better behaved than other people; pulled a trigger. to those, in short, whose duty it is to set an
“ Well,” say you,
“ but it is consistent example worthy of imitation. And yet I with the laws of honour.” The laws of greatly question if there be many customs honour! say rather the laws of sin and more absurd and inhuman among the igno- Satan; for all the honourables and right rant Hindoos, the untutored Indians, and honourables that ever yet made the laws wild Caffres, of savage life. Absurd and of honour their creed, cannot blot out the inhuman, however, as it is, there are plenty handwriting of the Holy One that is of people who make for it every apology in against them :
“ Thou shalt do no mur.
der:" for duelling, do with it what you “ It certainly is a bad custom,” say they, may, and disguise it as you will, is nothing “ but we hardly know, if it were done away more nor less than deliberate murder. with, how gentlemen would be able to pro
No man in the world knows better than tect themselves from insult."
Old Humphrey how hard it is to subdue And so, because gentlemen find it diffi- a hasty temper; and if he were very secult to put up with insults from their fel- vere on this failing in another, he would low-creatures, they think it well to run the thereby condemn himself; but in duelling
there is time to cool, and this reveals the oppressor. There is a wide difference bedarkest part of the picture.
tween such a one,and the systematic, coldIt is after retiring for a night's rest; blooded duellist: but the words are not the after the evening and morning prayer has words of a man which say, “ Vengeance is been, or ought to have been put up to the mine ; I will repay, saith the Lord.” “No Father of mercies, that this merciless deed murderer hath eternal life abiding in him.” is committed. You may tell me, if you “ It is a fearful thing,” says one, to will, that duellists never pray; but if injure the image of the Almighty, however you do, I shall not think the better of base may be the metal it is stamped upon.” thein on that account. They have much Whatever may be our wrongs, they will not to pray for; and one of their prayers be righted by taking another's life, or rushshould be,“ Deliver me from blood- ing with bloody hands into the presence of guiltiness, O God!”
the Eternal. Let the following text of Old Humphrey does not like to deal scripture be engraved on the heart of every out hard words; he had rather praise than man, and then no one will dare to be a blame; much rather would he treat of duellist—" If ye forgive men their trespeace and mercy than of discord and vio- passes, your heavenly Father will also lence; but he has no soft words for duels forgive you : but if ye forgive not men and duellers.
their trespasses, neither will your Father Talk of robbers! Old
Humphrey forgive your trespasses.” would willingly, if he could make the words tingle in the ears of the most gentlemanly
CHEMISTRY.-No. XVI. duellist that ever sent a bullet through the bosom of a friend :
TARTARIC Acid is obtained from a subThe sturdiest villains, who are wont to stray
stance known in commerce as the cream of The public roads and pillage all their prey, tartar, which is the bitartiate of potash. At thoughts of murder tremble with affright, And perpetrate the cursed deed by night;
It has a very acid taste, and dissolves But thou! more fell, and fiercer far than they, freely in water, and is known to be present Canst rob and murder in the face of day.
in wines, and in a great variety of vegetaIs there any robbery like robbing a wife bles and fruits. Calico-printers use it to of a husband? or a family of children of a discharge false prints. father? The duellist is a robber! Is there CITRIC Acid was first detected by Scheele any murder like the murder of an offender, in the juice of lemons. It crystallizes in for a word ? The duellist is a premedi- rhomboidal prisms, has a very acid taste, tated murderer.
and is soluble in water. It is useful in the I was once at an inn, where a military arts and in medicine. officer, who had taken more wine than he Mallic Acid is extracted from the juice ought to have taken, was quarrelling with of apples. It has been sometimes used to all around him. He was a duellist, and separate alumina from magnesia, and has the first opportunity that occurred, he gave the property of decomposing the muriate of a challenge. Not a word would he hear gold, and of precipitating silver and merof delay; the duel was to take place on the cury from their solutions in nitric acid. spot; his servant was despatched for pistols, Mucous Acid is obtained by nitric acid and a brother-officer sent for to act as his from gum arabic, and consists of carbon 33. second.
33 ; oxygen 61-73; and hydrogen 4:94. With some difficulty this madman was GALLIC ACID is abstracted from nutpersuaded to put off the duel; and if he galls,oak bark,and other astringent vegetable had been held under the pump for ten substances.
“ To obtain gallic acid, prominutes or so, it might have been of some cure a strong aqueous infusion of nut-galls, service to his proud and peppery spirit. and lay it aside where it can remain a con
Now do not suppose Old Humphrey is siderable time undisturbed, and exposed to ignorant that there are insults difficult to the air, in an open vessel. At length, the bear ; injuries that wring the very heart- Auid will be covered with mould, and when strings of a man, wherein all that is in him this happens, the mouldy part is to be recries out with a mighty voice against his moved, when small yellow crystals will be oppressor. I know this, and I believe found attached to the sides of the vessel. that many a virtuous-minded man has been These are the gallic acid ; and the crystals goaded, by the maddening influence of in-are to be purified by dissolving them in justice, to fight a duel, persuading himself alcohol, and evaporating the clear alcoholic that, because the law could not redress his solution to dryness. As it occurs in nawrongs, he was justified in pursuing his ture, this acid is always associated with