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tannin; the peculiar vegetable principle by the neighbourhood of Paris, and elsewhere, which the gelatine of skins is converted into are combinations of lime and sulphuric leather, and to which the acid is allied in a acid. The fuor spar of Derbyshire is manner hitherto unexplained."-Brayley. composed of lime and fluoric acid; and

OXALIC ACID emits an aromatic smell, ig- there are masses of common salt both in nites when heated, and precipitates the the eastern and western hemisphere, which oxides of iron.

contain such immense quantities of muBenzoic Acid is obtained from a resin riatic acid as would render every attempt called benzoin, in the form of a white pow- to calculate the amount abortive." der. It has an aromatic smell, an acrid “ The large masses of celestine and ponand bitter taste, and is soluble in boiling derous spars in different parts of the earth, water. According to Mr. Hatchett, it may contain an incalculable quantity of the sulbe obtained by dissolving benzoin, balsam phuric acid ; and the crysolite of Greenland of Tolu, and balsam of Peru in sulphuric is a compound of the bases of alumina, acid. During digestion, a beautifully crys- soda, and fluoric acid ; silica, which postallized white benzoic acid is sublimed. sesses many of the properties of an acid, This process is recommended by Dr. abounds in the form of gravel, and also in Thompson.

that of solid rocks, in every quarter of the Succinic Acid is obtained from amber, globe; and several of the valuable minerals, and is, in itself, useless in the arts, though, together with those called precious stones, when combined with ammonia, it has the are combinations of the different earths with property of separating peroxide of iron the chromic, or the phosphoric acid, not 10 from its solutions.

mention the annual changes which the veCAMPHORIC Acid is derived from cam- getable kingdom undergoes by the formation phor, by means of nitric acid; and by the and subsequent decomposition of the vegesameagent subericacid is obtained from cork. table acids.

Luccic Acid is obtained from white lac, “Many of these bodies are formed by a substance brought from the East Indies; the action of vegetable life, such as the and

mallic and citric acids ; some are formed SEBACCIC Acid from animal fat or tallow. principally by chemical changes effected

Prussic or HYDROCYANIC ACID is a spontaneously on dead vegetable matter; as, compound of hydrogen, nitrogen, and car- for instance, the acetic; and others, as the bon, and is a deadly poison.

sulphuric, occur in the mineral kingdom, Uric Acid is procured, in a crystalline and are also formed artificially, in great form, from urine; and the

abundance." AMNIOTIC Acid from the amnios of the

SCRIPTURE EXPLANATIONS, NO. XXVIII. Many other acids have, during the last

“Turn again our captivity, O Lord, as the streams been added to the list we have

in the south."-Psalm cxxvi. 4. given, and chemical investigations are con- In the East the rivers in the dry seastantly increasing their number. We have sons are little more than fleeting streams, already more than seventy well determined and sometimes they are entirely evaporated acids.

by the powerful action of the sun's rays. This class of bodies is so important in The rainy season comes, and the beds, forchemistry, that we may be permitted to saken of the ancient river, begin to receive quote the opinion of an eminent and well- their annual tribute from the fruitful clouds, known writer upon the subject. “ The and the mountain-torrent, rolling in its acuses of the acids are so many, and so im- customed channel, causes the streams to portant, that it is impossible to enumerate return again, changing the sandy waste into them. They are indispensable to various the majestic river, raising the sower's hopes, arts and manufactures; they are employed replenishing this parched land with the for culinary purposes, and for medicine; long-desired verdure, and man and beast they act an important part in the great la- again rejoice in the earth's abundance. boratory of nature; they produce that nu- Thus prayed the pious Psalmist

“ Turn merous class of bodies called salts, and again our captivity, O Lord, as the streams form a great proportion of the mountainous in the south :” that as the inhabitants of districts of the globe.

these sultry regions rejoice in the return of “ The vast masses of limestone, chalk, the reviving streams, so we, restored to our and marble, which are found in every part beloved country and temple, may rejoice of the world, are combinations of lime and in the long-expected deliverance.-W. carbonic acid. The mountains of gypsum in Brown.

COW.

few years,

BOTANY.-No. X.

LABIATE.

| regarded as a disagreeable weed, a cup

that bears all the obvious marks of the This most natural order of plants is most finished workmanship, and which composed of such as are of universal re- consequently furnishes a pleasing and accognition; for every reader is acquainted curate character for distinction. with the dead-nettle, mint, sage, and rose- Stachys.—This genus is chiefly distinmary. Happily for distinction they are guished from its kindred genera by the pocoupled together by a general character, sition of the stamens after the anthers just as obvious, when properly stated, as

have shed their pollen. At first we see the plants themselves are familiar. This them upright; but after their office of scatcharacter is founded in the dispositions of tering that fine powder is accomplished, the blossoms, which are placed in a whorl they seem as if averse to each other; for or little circle just above a pair of oppo- one pair is leaning towards one side, site leaves. This order was established, and the other pair towards the other under a different name, by our country- side. The stachys sylvatica, or hedge allman Ray, who was followed by Linnæus. heal, is common by hedges, and differs in The herbage is usually aromatic, as in the its appearance from the purple dead-nettle rosemary and horehound; often bitter, but by being more erect and taller than the always harmless. The corolla is gene- latter. The size of the stem with its foliage rally two lipped, and always irregular. gradually tapers to a point at the top. If The stamens are four in number, placed in walking forth with a friend, conversaunder the upper lip; one pair longer than tion should flag for want of interest, we the other. Another easy mark of distinc-might at any time in summer pluck up the tion is found in the uniform presence of stachys, and point out the mutually averted four seeds at the bottom of the cup or position of the stamens. Many reflections calyx, which does not fall off, but stays to upon the wisdom of God in creating, his accommodate the seeds with a lodging till goodness in diffusing instruction in every they are ripe; at which period they are corner of his vast dominions, would sponblack. This remark, in reference to the taneously arise, and lead us to fresh reseeds, may be verified by looking at the membrance of Him who has so kindly cominon white or dead-nettle. The stem made and garnished all things for our use, is always square, and the branches invaria- improvement, and delight. bly opposite to each other.

Mentha Serpyllum, mother of thyme.

-Its scent, which resembles the garden Lamium — Upper lip of the corolla thyme, will always denote this plant, gracefully arched; the lower lip divided which may be found upon the elevated into two lobes, with a small tooth on each parts of heaths, and in mountainous places. side.

The essential and distinguishing character L. Album, white archangel, or the com- of the thymus is found in the calyx, which mon white nettle. It has been called dead is two-lipped, and has its mouth filled with nettle, because it is not provided with those fine hairs. If at any time we meet with a sharp envenomed prickles, with which the plant in travelling that resembles the mint stinging nettle is furnished, and to which in smell and general appearance, we apply it bears a very great resemblance. to the calyx for a touchstone or criterion:

L. Purpureum, red archangel. - Dif- if one lobe points upward and the other fers from the last in having the tips of the down, and if withal we see a barrier of leaves blunt, and the flowers of a decp white hairs defending the entrance, we red or purple colour; common on all hedge put it down as belonging to the genus banks.

thymus, without further question. The Ballota.There is but one species of wild basil, found in corn-fields, the field this genus, the B. Nigra, or stinking hore- and the mountain calamint belong to this hound. This is nearly as common as the genus. The two last are sometimes met red dead-nettle, and is very apt to be con- with on the road side, and may be known founded with it, and with the all-heal, by their aromatic smell, and the presence which we shall presently describe. It of the criterion just described. may, however, be distinguished from them Glecoma Hederacea, ground ivy.—An by its dull forbidding appearance and un- extremely well-known plant, with round pleasant smell; but very accurately by the or kidney-shaped leaf, a blue flower, on presence of ten well-marked lines upon all our ditch banks. If we pluck the the calyx. This part of the flower is worth flower of this strong-scented weed, and examination ; for we see in what is always look at the stamens, we perceive that each

EXAMPLES

NEW ZEALAND,

pair of anthers are so placed that they | up in a patient observation, and the habit compose a picture of St. Andrew's cross. of recording the results of it upon paper :

Teucrium Scorodonia, woof-sage.- for one of the very best precepts for imThe resemblance which the leaves of this provement in all studies is, -Write down plant bear to the common sage, will readily what you think. point it out among its wild companions. In the neighbourhood of London, especially about Hampstead-heath and Caen- THE PROGRESS OF CHRISTIANITY IN wood, it may be found in the greatest abundance. Homer tells us that the nurse The Rev. W. Yate says, that in New of Ulysses recognised her master, after an Zealand the door is now thrown wide absence of twenty years, by a mole that open for the admission of christian misgrew upon the hero's great toe. It is the sionaries, so that they might go east, west, object of the botanist to look for marks north, and south, through the length and equally unerring and satisfactory. Now breadth of the land. There was scarcely in the wood-sage we find the upper lip as an individual who was not ready to receiv completely abstracted as if it had been cut instruction by means of the schools, and by off with a pair of scissors. This circum- means of a preached gospel, if there were stance leads us directly to the genus teu- missionaries to provide them such instruccrium, of which the generic character is tion. The natives had come down in great the absence of one upper lip.

numbers, earnestly praying that they might Betonica Officinales, wood betony.-In receive instruction, and that, to use their every wood we find the wood betony. Its own mode of expression, their hearts might small purple flowers, weak stem, and be so “ bothered with the love of Christ," scolloped leaves will serve to recall its that they might no longer be able to act as name to our recollection, whenever our they had done. A chapel was built, schools footsteps are directed through the open were formed, and about ninety men and ing glades and pathways of a sequestered women had been brought under the inwood. Among the foregoing examples, Auence of christian society. The people though few in comparison of the number to the southward had long been in the habit growing wild in this country, the inquisi- of fighting with the Bay-of-Islanders; they tive reader will find materials for study had made great depredations upon

the

peoand comparison. The square stem, the ple; they had destroyed numbers of their leaves coupled in pairs, the curious two-tribes; and the enmity seemed to be inlipped blossoms, (corolla) the four sta- creasing. They had told the missionaries, mens, paired in two friendly couples, of that if any of them from the Bay-of-Islands unequal length, are points of resemblance attempted to go down and live there, they as general among the labiata, or two-lip- should not remain there long, for that they ped plants, as they are obvious and easy would drive them away, or destroy them. of recognition. e therefore commend But God had enabled the missionaries to the study of this very natural assemblage interfere with success. Three thousand of of vegetable creation to the particular at the Bay-of-Islanders had been prevented tention of our readers. If any one should by their means from engaging in the work say, “ I have but a little time to spare for of destruction. Some persons were sent recreation, I cannot afford to lose myself down at the risk of their lives, to request the among the ever-doubling mazes of botani- missionaries to give the same instructions to cal disquisition,” the answer is, that this them, which they had given to their counis by no means necessary; for as the trymen. Formerly, the missionaries had science is divided into wards or families, not been allowed to land at that place; but which we call orders, a person may take on the present occasion, they were met by his choice, and study one division apart fifteen hundred natives; and when they from all the rest. Nor is an apparatus of landed, the chiefs said it was their intentechnicalities necessary ; ten or a dozen tion to make some speeches. They called well-defined terms will effe do the first upon an old chief, who spoke for business, when the object is single, that nearly an hour, and who said, “ The misis, when one order only is studied. Should sionaries, he was sure, were come to that choice lead one to either the umbellifera place to blunt the points of their spears or labiata, a never-exhausted source of to snap their clubs asunder-to draw the remark and ingenious deduction would be bullets out of their muskets—to bury their found. All that is requisite is summed bayonets in the ground—to bring this tribe and that tribe together-and to make them | pointed confession ; for he says, 'Confess all to live in peace.” A loud shout then your faults one to another.'" Then if I burst from the whole assembly, “We will should confess to you, sir,” answered the have them! We will have them! And hawker,“ you should also confess to me; then this tribe and that tribe shall live in for the verse says,

one to another."" peace, and we shall no longer kill each other as we have been accustomed to do." This gave the brethren great joy, for it convinced them that the Lord was at work BENEFITS OF THE ALLOTMENT SYSTEM. among that people, though they had not

In the evidence before a parliamentary been aware of it. The people were very committee, it was stated by Mr. Monk, to anxious for an answer. The missionaries

show the beneficial effects of allotments of told them that when they were about to en- land to labouring people, and the ease with gage in any work, it was always their cus- which their bad habits may be amended, torn to seek guidance and direction from that formerly his cottages were in bad order; God. “Well, then," they said, “ seek their pavements and windows broken :guidance and direction from God now.”

“I had them all paved, and the windows He told them that it was the intention of the brethren to hold a service, and after glazed. I told the cottagers that I did not that to explain their views and intentions of paper, and things stuffed in, or broken

like shabby, broken windows, with patches as to the requests the chiefs had made. He gave out a hymn, and, with five or six and that I disliked Irish filth, and all

pavements, which they could not clean boys whom he had taken with him, raised Irish habits of living. I engaged, after the a tune : to his great astonishment, he found that the majority of the people not only cottages were thoroughỉy repaired, to pay knew the words of the hymn, but joined in twenty shillings a-year for keeping them in the tune to which it was sung. When he repair. I undertook to make the repairs began to read the church service, his as

myself, and deduct the expense from this tonishment increased to find that they united wanted, they were to have the whole them

twenty shillings; but if no repairs were in the confession, and in the various re- selves.' This course, I find, formed habits sponses, with all their hearts and voices. of care; and their cottages are now so well The circumstance which had led to that taken care of, that very little deduction is which so astonished him was afterwards explained. A boy, a sort of slave, who annually made from the one pound. They had lived with him, and who had been re

now abstain from chopping wood carelessly deemed with two or three blankets, had

on their pavement; and as I give them two gone among them while on a visit to his score of fagots towards their fuel, I save relations, and had taken with him his my hedges and fences; and the cost of all prayer and hymn books; and with the

this to me is not more than the keep of little knowledge he had obtained, had es

one fat coach horse. Many persons accuse tablished a sort of school, where he taught

the poor of ingratitude, but I find them the those who went to sing the tunes he had most grateful people alive for these little

attentions." learned, and to join in various portions of the service of the church.

A SINFUL LIFE.He that lives in sin and

expects happiness hereafter, is like him that ROMISH CONFESSION IN FRANCE. soweth cockle, and thinks to fill his barn A Romish country curate was disputing

with wheat or barley, Luke vi. 44; Gal. with a bible and tract hawker, concerning

vi. 7, 8.- Bunyan. that excellent tract, “The Blind Man and

A CONTRAST.—Better to be a lost sheep the Soldier," and observed, “ Your books

than a goat or swine.-Marshal. are very good, but they say nothing about the sacraments.” “ Why, sir, this book is only about a soldier's conversion; and therefore cannot mention every thing.”

JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London. if he were converted, he would have gone Price ft. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Five to confession, and received the sacraments :

Numbers in a Cover, 3d. this is a protestant book. God has ap- W. TYLER, Printer, Bolt-court, Fleet-street.

66 But

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The striking resemblance between the dress were only common Levites. God chose tne of a Levite, as shown in our engraving, Levites instead of the first-born of all Israel, drawn from the best authorities, and the for the service of the tabernacle and temple, modern oriental dresses, must be obvious to Num. iii. 6, &c. They served the priests in every reader. It is admitted that the Le- the ministrations of the temple, and brought vites wore no particular habit till the time to them wood, water, and other things neof king Agrippa, whose innovation in this cessary for the sacrifices. They sang and respect is censured by Josephus. It ap- played on instruments in the temple, &c., pears their official dress was a simple robe. they studied the law, and were the ordinary The trumpet which this figure is blowing, judges of the country ; but subordinate to is intended, we suppose, to represent the the priests. God provided for the subsistram's horn of holy writ.

ence of the Levites, by giving them the The Levites were descendants of Levi, tithe of corn, fruit, and cattle; but they by Gershom, Kohath, and Merari, excepting paid to the priests the tenth of the tithes ; the family of Aaron; for the children of and as the Levites possessed no estates Moses had no part in the priesthood, and in the land, the tithes which the priest

VOL, JII,

L L

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