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XXXV.

VISION.

received from them, were looked on as the corrected the various refrangibility of the first-fruits which they were to offer to the rays. It was now observed, that this Lord, Num. xviii. 21–24. God assigned truth also must have been known to them for their habitations, forty-eight cities, the Maker of the eye; for upon its basis with fields, pastures, and gardens, Num. is that instrument, far more perfect than

Of these, thirteen were given to the the achromatic glass of Dollond, framed. priests ; six of which were cities of refuge, These things are truths in both physics and Josh. xx. 7-9; xxi.19, 20, &c. While the theology; they are truths taught us by the Levites were actually employed in the self-same process of investigation, and resttemple, they were subsisted out of the pro- ing upon the self-same kind of evidence. visions in store there, and out of the daily When we extend our inquiries, and obofferings there made; and if any Levite serve the varieties of this perfect instruquitted the place of his abode, to serve the ment, we mark the adaptation of changes temple, even out of the time of his half- to the diversity of circumstances; and the yearly or weekly waiting, he was received truths thus learned are in like manner comthere, kept and provided for, in like man- mon to physical and theological science ; ner as his other brethren, who were regu- that is, to natural history, or comparative larly in waiting, Deut. xviii. 6—8. anatomy, and natural theology.

That beautiful instrument, so artistly contrived, that the most ingenious workman

could not imagine an improvement of it, It is a truth of physics, in the strictest becomes still more interesting and more sense of the word, that vision is performed wonderful, when we find that its conformaby the eye refracting light, and making it tion is varied with the different necessities converge to a focus upon the retina ; and of each animal. If the animal prowls by that the peculiar combination of its lenses, night, we see the opening of the pupil and and the different materials they are com- the power of concentration in the eye inposed of, correct the indistinctness which creased. If an amphibious animal has would otherwise arise from the different re- occasionally to dive into the water, with frangibility of light; in other words, make the change of the medium through which the eye an achromatic instrument. But if the rays pass, there is an accommodation this is not also a truth in natural theology, it in the condition of the humours, and the is a position from which, by the shortest eye partakes of the eye both of the quadpossible process of reasoning, we arrive at ruped and the fish. a theological truth ; namely, that the in- So, having contempiated the apparatus strument so successfully performing a given for protection in the human eye, we find service by means of this curious structure, that in the lower animals, who want both must have been formed with a knowledge the accessory means of cleaning the eye, of the properties of light. The position and the ingenuity to accomplish it by other from which so easy a step brings us to this modes than the eye-lids, an additional eyedoctrine of natural theology was gained by lid, a new apparatus, is provided for this strict induction. Upon the same evidence purpose. which all natural science rests on, reposes Again, in fishes, whose eye is washed by the knowledge that the eye is an optical the element in which they move, all the instrument : this is a truth common to both exterior apparatus is unnecessary, and is physics and theology. Before the days of dismissed ; but in the crab, and especially Sir Isaac Newton, men knew that they saw in that species which lies in mud, the very by means of the eye, and that the eye was peculiar and horny prominent eye which constructed upon optical principles; but every body must have observed, would be the reason of its peculiar conformation quite obscured were it not for a particular they knew not, because they were ignor- provision. There is a little brush of hair ant of the different refrangibility of light. above the eye, against which the eye is ocWhen his discoveries taught this truth, it casionally raised to wipe off what may adwas found to have been acted upon, and here to it. The form of the eye, the particonsequently known, by the Being who cular mode in which it is moved, and, we created the eye. Still, our knowledge was may say, the coarseness of the instrument imperfect; and it was reserved for Mr. compared with the parts of the same organ Dollond to discover another law of nature, in the higher class of animals, make the the different dispersive powers of different mechanism of eyelids and of lachrymal substances, which enabled him to com- glands unsuitable. The mechanism used pound an object-glass that more effectually for this purpose is discovered by observation and reasoning ; that it is contrived for common in ours, and I was interested in this purpose is equally a discovery of ob- a new course of observation, servation and reasoning. Both propositions It might be expected in this case, as are strictly propositions of physical science. in every similar one, that many fruitful

The same remarks apply to every part causes of evil would come into action; but of the animal body. The use to which it was pleasing to find a corrective and each member is subservient, and the man- antagonist power brought universally and ner in which it is enabled so to perform its successfully to act against them. Espe. functions as to serve that appointed use, is cially there is one feature in the state of learned by an induction of the strictest this community that is peculiar and hakind. But it is impossible to deny, that zardous. There are not less than 4,000 what induction thus teaches forms the young women attached to the mills, who great bulk of all natural theology. The have been drawn here by the hope of question which the theologian always puts reward, abstracted from all the safeguards upon each discovery of a purpose mani- of their families, and transferred sud. festly accomplished is this: “Suppose Idenly from the utmost retirement to prohad this operation to perform by mecha- miscuous society. They are mostly the nical means, and were acquainted with the daughters of farmers, and have laudable laws regulating the action of matter, should intentions in coming. The family has I attempt it in any other way than I here every thing but ready money, and this is see practised ?" If the answer is in the a method of getting it. Many of them negative, the consequence is irresistible are well educated: they might teach at that some Power, capable of acting with schools; but they prefer this employ, as design, and possessing the supposed know- it gives them better remuneration. Others ledge, employed the means which we see thirst for education ; they come for six used. But this negative answer is the re- months, and then disappear; and again sult of reasoning founded upon induction, they come, and again they disappear. In and rests upon the same evidence whereon the one instance they are procuring the the doctrines of all physical science are dis- costs of education, and in the other educovered and believed. And the inference cation itself. They bring with them a to which that negative answer so inevitably sense of independence and rectitude, and leads, is a truth in natural theology; for it this disposes them to adopt means which is only another way of asserting that design contribute greatly to their preservation. and knowledge are evinced in the works Instances of sad defection and vice will and functions of nature.—Lord Brougham. of course occur, but they are remarkably

“ few and far between." The steady girls who work in a mill, band together

as a sort of a club, ard keep up a sense Lowell is situated at the confluence of honour through the establishment. If of the Concord and Merrimack rivers. any one is suspected of bad conduct, she It is one of the largest manufacturing is reprimanded and suspended; and if towns in the whole Union, and supplies bad conduct is proved against her, she is one of the most remarkable instances of reported to the managing party, and a rapidity in growth. Twenty years ago petition is presented for her removal. this spot was a wilderness. Then a In an unquestionable case, they would small factory was built, which cost only leave the mill if the prayer of the petition 3,000 dollars. There are now more than

was refused. twenty large mills, five stories high, with In many cases, where the evils are thus 3,000 looms and 8,500 spindles, upwards escaped, great good arises to the indi. of 5,000 operatives, and a capital exceed-vidual. Placed in new circumstances, ing six millions and a half of dollars. where they are called to act for themThe total population is 13,000.

The selves for the first tine, great energy, water-power is very fine, and skilfully and sometimes great elevation of moral applied by means of reservoirs and canals; character, is elicited. The means of it is capable of working fifty more mills. religion, too, are supplied to them witn The advantage to the comfort and ap- greater advantage. Many are brought pearance of the town in the possession of under its influence, and those who are, this power is very great, as it allows a are furnished with opportunities for benevast business to go forward without the volent and religious services, which they nuisance of universal smoke. This class could not have had in their original and of objects is rare in this country, though isolated circumstances. There are of

AN AMERICAN MANUFACTURING TOWN.

[graphic]

sa facas por the re; de peccato ofisle all the materials the com posedos, comes the indistinctness would otherwise arise from the Beat frangibility of light; in other words, make the ge an achromatic instrument. But it this is not also a truth in matural theology, it is a position from which, by the shorteste possible process of reasoning, we arrive at i theological truth; namely, that the instrument so successfully performing a given service by means of this curious structure, must have been formed with a knowledge of the properties of light. The position from which so easy a step brings us to this doctrine of natural theology was gained by strict induction. Upon the same evidence which all natural science rests on, reposes the knowledge that the eye is an optical instrument: this is a truth common to both physics and theology. Before the days of Se leae Newton, men knew that they saw by means of the eye, and that the eye was constructed upon optical principles; but the use of its peculiar conformation

bew set, because they were ignor-
he different reangibility of light.

his discoveries taught this truth, it
and to have been acted upon, and

kas, by the Being who sheye Sil, our knowledge was st: an exrre for Mr.

amether we of matur, mene powers of different Niss Eac nang tiectually

n and reasoning ; that it is contrived for common in ours, and I was interested 3 purpose is equally a discovery of ob- a new course of observation vation and reasoning. Both propositions It might be expected in this case, as strictly propositions of physical science. in every similar one, that many fruitfel The same remarks apply to every part causes of evil would come into action; bet the animal body. The use to which it was pleasing to find a corrective and ch member is subservient, and the man- antagonist power brought universally and r in which it is enabled so to perform its successfully to act against them. Espe actions as to serve that appointed use, is cially there is one feature in the state of rned by an induction of the strictest this community that is peculiar and haad. But it is impossible to deny, that zardous. There are not less than 4,000

at induction thus teaches forms the young women attached to the mills, who eat bulk of all natural theology. The have been drawn here by the hope of estion which the theologian always puts reward, abstracted from all the safeguards bon each discovery of a purpose mani- of their families, and transferred sud. stly accomplished' is this: "Suppose Idenly from the utmost retirement to prod this operation to perform by mecha- miscuous society. They are mostly the cal means, and were acquainted with the daughters of farmers, and have laudable ws regulating the action of matter, should intentions in coming. The family has attempt it in any other way than I here every thing but ready money, and this is 2 practised ?" If the answer is in the a method of getting it. Many of them gative, the consequence is irresistible are well educated: they might teach at at some Power, capable of acting with schools; but they prefer this employ, as sign, and possessing the supposed know- it gives them better remuneration. Others Ige, employed the means which we see thirst for education; they come for sis ed. But this negative answer is the re- months, and then disappear; and again

It of reasoning founded upon induction, they come, and again they disappear. In ad rests upon the same evidence whereon the one instance they are procuring the e doctrines of all physical science are dis- costs of education, and in the other eduvered and believed. And the inference cation itself. They bring with them a which that negative answer so inevitably sense of independence and rectitude, and eads, is a truth in natural theology; for it this disposes them to adopt means which s only another way of asserting that design contribute greatly to their preservation. nd knowledge are evinced in the works Instances of sad defection and vice will nd functions of nature.—Lord Brougham. of course occur, but they are remarkably

“ few and far between.” The steady

girls who work in a mill, band together AN AMERICAN MANUFACTURING TOWN.

as a sort of a club, ard keep up a sense Lowell is situated at the confluence of honour through the establishment. If of the Concord and Merrimack rivers. any one is suspected of bad conduct, she It is one of the largest manufacturing is reprimanded and suspended; and if towns in the whole Union, and supplies bad conduct is proved against her, she is one of the most remarkable instances of reported to the managing party, and a rapidity in growth. Twenty years ago petition is presented for her removal. this spot was a wilderness. Then a In an unquestionable case, they would small factory was built, which cost only leave the mill if the prayer of the petition 3,000 dollars. There are now more than was refused. twenty large mills, five stories high, with In many cases, where the evils are thus 3,000 looms and 8,500 spindles, upwards escaped, great good arises to the indiof 5,000 operatives, and a capital exceed-vidual. Placed in new circumstances, ing six millions and a half of dollars. where they are called to act for them

The total population is 13,000. The selves for the first time, great energy, water-power is very fine, and skilfully and som s great elevation of moral applied by means of reservoirs and canals; char cited. The means of it is capable of working fifty more mills. reli The advantage to the comfort and ap-gr

supplied to them wita

Many are brought pearance of the town in

ssion of u this power is very gre vast business to go fo

opportunities for bene

ut the nuisance of universal

services, which they

class of objects is rare in thi

in their original and ough

nees. There are of

[graphic]

eome.

this number of young women, for in-breaking, gaming, and lewdness. They stance, about 1,000 who are united to visit, examine, and confer confidentially christian churches, and about the same for this purpose, and adopt such means number who are in regular attendance as their discretion may suggest. The leta ou religious means.

tures are made to assist this object. It is, however, generally admitted, that They labour with much advantage in the whatever may be the advantages, these sabbath-schools, as they have thus many occupations mostly disqualify them for of the younger girls under their care. In the quiet duties and cares of domestic all these schools there are no less than life. In fact, this must, in a measure, be 2,500 children, and 1,500 of them are face the effect, for there is nothing to exercise tory girls.Reed and Matheson. the domestic virtues; and it is likely that many may gain a taste for society, and appearance, and independent action,

SABBATH DAYS SHOULD BE PRAYER which they may not afterwards over

DAYS. The dress, indeed, of the whole body, when not employed in the mill, was That sabbath is misemployed, which remarkable. It was not amiss, usually, is not a day of prayer; and by prayer in itself; but it was above their state and I do not mean the mere formality and occupation. One was surprised to see semblance of prayer, but the breathing taem appear in silks, with scarfs, veils, forth of the heart in supplications to God, and parasols.

in the name of our Mediator and Advocate The care which is shown to their wel- Jesus Christ. On, if you would sanctify fare and safety by the heads of the fac- your sabbaths, you must make them days of tories, is also very worthy of praise. serious, earnest prayer. Itis the Spirit's work Boarding houses are built for them by to sanetify: but the Spirit, though given the corporations, or companies. Persons freely, is yet to be sought and cherished by of good character are put into them, and fervent prayer in the name of Christ. Behold the rate of payment is determined for here the secret of many a sabbath profathem. These housekeepers are tenants- nation! Prayer was neglected : hence, the at-will; rules are laid down for their Holy Spirit was withheld; hence, conscience conduct, and transgression is followed by became callous; the soul's enemy found expulsion. They give and receive cer- access to the heart; pleasure tempted ; gain tificates of character with the young allured ; sin solicited; you had no strength

to resist ; you yielded ; God was forgotten, The community at large are alive to his house neglected, his day dishonoured, the possible evils of their situation, and and sin committed. Behold also here the watch and labour to counteract them. secret of sabbath sanctification! Why Because temperance here has to encoun- do some steadily yet cheerfully resist temptter strong temptation, it has taken a mostations to sabbath-breaking? Are they decided form. There is not only the not “men of like passions with others ?"** usual Temperance Society; in addition Why do they find, in the holy day, a deto it is “The Total Abstinence Society," light which grows with their growth, and whose pledge extends to wine, cordials, strengthens with their strength? The secret and strong beer. This, too, is the fa- uniformly is, that they are men of prayer: vourite society ; it has 1,900 members. they pray in theirclosets, in their families, and I do not now judge the principle on in the house of God: they will go home which it acts; of course its influence must presently to pray over what they have heard : be great in promoting the sobriety of the they find much to supplicate for themselves, town. There is also a considerable con- their relatives, their ministers, their country, federation here, under the denomination the whole church of Christ on earth. They of “The Lyceum.” It is a society often, on the sabbath, remember the bes for moral and literary purposes. There nighted heathen and the unbelieving Jew, are reading-rooms, books, and weekly and pray God to bring them also into the lectures, to meet the one branch; and fold of Christ. In prayer they confess sin; for the preservation of the public morals, in prayer they implore mercy; in prayer there are five committees appointed, each they exercise faith; in prayer they commune composed of not less than five members. with God, as children with their father; in Their duty is to take cognizance of five prayer they fight against Satan; in prayer vices,-intemperance, profanity, sabbath. I they gather strength to live to Christ's glory,

women.

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