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in prayer they grow willing evento die, and the alkaline, and the metallic. We shall go and be with Jesus. Are your sabbaths only attempt to describe a few of the salts days of prayer ? - Hambleton.
formed by some of the most important acids. When we consider the variety of combinations which the acids are capable of pro
ducing with the earths, alkalies, and metallic CHEMISTRY.No. XVII.
salts ; and that some of the acids will comSALTS. NO. 1.
bine with two bases, producing what are
denominated triple salts; it is evident that The acids have the property of combining there must be an immense number of this in different proportions with the earths, alka- class of bodies. It has been said, that lies, and metallic oxides. Some of the most there are more than two thousand. We corrosive acids, when combined with these cannot therefore be expected to do more bodies, form compounds that have no such than briefly describe some of the most reproperty; and hence, these acids were said markable
them. to be neutralized, and the compounds were The sales formed with sulphuric acid are termed neutral salts. The word neutral, called sulphates. This acid unites with all however, is now used only when the acid the earths and alkalies, except silica, and and the other body mutually saturate each with many of the metals. The sulphates other.
are remarkable for their bitter taste, and inThe salts are named after the acid and solubility in alcohol, by which substance the other body of which they are composed; they may be precipitated when in aqueous while the substance united with the acid is solution. They are generally incapable of called the base. When there is not a suf- decomposition by heat. Allusion has been ficient proportion of the base to saturate the already made to some of this class of salts, acid, the term super is employed: thus we say such as the sulphate of barytes or pondes the super sulphate of potash ; and if there rous spar; sulphate of soda, lime, alumina, be an excess of the base, the term sub is and others. prefixed, as sub-borate of soda. Acids whose The salts formed by the sulphurous acid names terminate in ic, form salts which end called sulphites, are distinguished by a disain ate; those which end in ous, form salts greeable smell, resembling the fumes arisending in ite : thus we have the sulphate ing from burning sulphur; and, when suband sulphite of soda.
jected to heat, sulphur may be obtained There was once much confusion in the from them; and they may be converted into science of chemistry, arising from the use sulphates by exposure to the air. of terms that did not describe in any de The muriatic salts are distinguished by gree the origin or nature of the substances the following properties : they are easily themselves. This circumstance induced a volatilized without decomposition, unalnumber of French chemists to unite and | tered by fire, and yield muriatic acid when form a new nomenclature, on an entirely united with sulphuric acid. The most imnew plan; and although it has many de- portant of these salts are the muriates of fects, it possesses many advantages over barytes, potash, soda, strontites, lime, gold, that formerly employed ; and especially silver, and iron. offers facilities to those who are studying Many of the salts that are formed with the science. The substance formerly called nitric acid are possessed of important progypsum or plaster of Paris, is now known perties : such as the capability of dissolving hy the name of sulphate of lime, being in water, and of crystallizing when in the act formed of sulphuric acid and lime; green of cooling. When heated to redness, they will copperas is now called sulphate of iron; ignite and explode with combustible bodies, salts of wormwood is carbonate of soda ; which may be proved by throwing a small saltpetre is the nitrate of potash. In the quantity of powdered charcoal on heated one case, there is no connexion between the nitric acid. The nitrates are decomposed name of the substance and its composition, by heat, and yield during the process in the other there is; and a person, with a oxygen gas. The principal of these salts very imperfect knowledge of chemistry, are the nitrate of potash, or saltpétre, found may be thus able to determine the compo- native in great abundance, particularly in sition of a substance.
the East Indies; the nitrate of barytes ; The salts have been sometimes classed, strontites ; magnesia ; silver; copper; and according to the nature of their bases, under lead. the three following divisions : the earthy, The phosphates are not decomposed by useful purpose.
heat; are soluble in nitric acid ; and partly | rich,” by leaving ten pounds behind so in sulphuric. They are capable of being him. fused into glass. These are the phosphates It is the case sometimes, and Old Humof barytes and strontites; the phosphate of phrey fears too often, that people of lime, which is the basis of bone; the phos- property persuade themselves, that in phate of soda, used in medicine ; and the leaving money to poor relatives and chaphosphates of iron, lead, and a few others. ritable institutions when they die, they The phosphites, formed from the phos- do all that can be reasonably required of phorus acid, are not employed for any them, and that indeed they deserve the
reputation of being considerate, kind, and charitable.
But what kindness and charity can
there be in leaving that behind them OLD HUMPHREY, ON THE ABUSE OF
which they cannot take with them? It
would do them no good to have it cram“ HE DIED WICKEDLY RICH,” said a med into their coffins. Whoever has good man in speaking of one who had riches, and neglects to do works of mercy left the world with great reputation; and during his lifetime, “dies wickedly rich," though the words were neither spoken to even if he leaves every farthing he has you nor to me, we may perhaps both in the world to charitable purposes. I do find something in them that may suit us. not know the chapter and verse in the I know not how it may be with you, but holy scriptures that particularly directs my money bags are not so many as to us to leave our property to do good after stand in my way, nor to occupy much of our death, but I know plenty of texts my reflection. If you are differently cir- that direct us to do deeds of kindness cumstanced, look about you, for the while we are alive. “ Pure religion and words, “ he died wickedly rich,” are well undefiled before God and the Father," worth your attention. I think it was is, not to leave money to the widow and John Wesley who said that if he died the fatherless when we can no longer keep worth more than ten or twenty pounds, it ourselves, but, while we are alive, to I forget which, he would give the world visit the fatherless and wido in their leave to call him a thief, or something affliction, and to keep ourselves unspotlike it; but I am afraid that, whether we ted from the world.” are churchmen or dissenters, the benevo- Now, do not mistake Old Humphrey. lence, the self-denial, the zeal, the perse- He honours the memory of that man, verance and devotedness of heart to God, who closes a life of kindness and chrisof that servant of Christ, are beyond tian charity by a benevolent bequest of what we even hope to attain : happy for his property, giving to christian instituus if we attain them in a degree. But tions liberally; neither neglecting those though the John Wesley standard of who have a reasonable claim on his self-denial be too exalted for men of remembrance, nor passing by his poorer meaner graces to attain to; though we relations, friends, and servants.
“ These may not be quite willing to go so far as things” we ought to do, if we possess the he did, in giving up all we possess, ex- means, and “not to leave the other uncept ten or twenty pounds, nor may it done.” “ Honour the Lord with thy be quite right for us, yet may it be substance, and with the first-fruits of worth a thought how far we are at all thine increase ;" and “Thou shalt not acting on his principle; how far we shall harden thine heart, nor shut up thy hand be quite clear of the charge, when the from thy poor brother," are cominands green sod is springing up over us, of that are to be obeyed in our lives, and having " died wickedly rich.”
not to be put off to our deaths. Old Humphrey is no meddler; he has But if it should happen that you are no wish to pry into your affairs; and not rich in money; nay, that you are whether you are worth twenty thousand absolutely, poor, do not think, on that pounds, or have only twenty groats in account, that there is no danger of your the world, he will neither think the better dying." wickedly rich.” One man may nor the worse of you on this account. be rich in money, another in leisure time, The question is not, What are you worth? a third in health and bodily strength, a but, How are you using it?One man fourth in talent, a fifth in influence, and may die worth thousands, clear from all so on. Now if you have either all or reproach; and another “die wickedly 'any of these kinds of riches, and do no
THE FOUNDATION OF HOPE.
good with them, you are in the same nurture and admonition of the Lord, and situation as the selfish miser who keeps i he retained to the end of life a lively and his gold uselessly locked up in his coffers. grateful sense of the benefit thus received.
“ If ever,” says he, “any child, such as I was, between the tenth and fifteenth year of
my age, enjoyed line upon line, and preThe late Rev. Joseph Hughes, in refer- cept upon precept, I did; and was it in vain? ring to his sister's death, in a letter to his I trust not altogether in vain. My soul recousin, says,—“It is not a maxim with me joiceth and is glad at the remembrance of that every one who dieth, is saved;' but it. The word distilled as the dew, and in the present instance, I can no more dropped as the rain. Bless the Lord, O doubt of my sister's happiness than I can my soul; as long as I live I will bless the of Abraham's. But you, my dear cousin, Lord; I will praise my God while I have place this hope upon a false ground, when my being! Had it been only the restraint you speak of her blameless life as the sure that it laid upon me, whereby I was kept foundation : many (humanly speaking) of from the common sins of other children and a blameless life have found themselves mi- youth, such as cursing and swearing, and serably deficient (I believe) when entered sabbath-breaking, I was bound to be very into the world of spirits : and suppose this thankful; so that it prevailed, through grace, blamelessness to be connected with internal effectually to bring me to God, how much universal holiness, still that holiness is not
am I indebted to him! what shall I the ground of salvation,—it is only the evi- render to him !" dence of being interested in it. Christ is Mr. Gilpin gives a pleasing picture of the way and the hope of sinners; "his the attention given by Mrs. Gilpin to the blood, not our merit, cleanseth from sin education of his excellent son, especially Be persuaded of this, and remember that in the earlier stages of the work. * by the deeds of the law no flesh shall be was skilled in all the proper methods of justified.' By grace alone we are saved, dealing with his gentle spirit, and could through faith, and that not of ourselves : elevate his yielding thoughts to God by it is the gift of God.' Trusting in our own
the most familiar representations. She honesty, benevolence, and acts of piety, is knew all the direct approaches to his treason against God, as it calls in question heart, and was constantly watching the the veracity and authority of him who has most favourable opportunities for making affirmed that Christ is the propitiation, and serious impressions on his mind. By her that his is the only name given by which intimate acquaintance with the holy scripwe can be saved. My dear sister would tures, she was prepared to entertain him have willingly renounced all idea of merit;
with narratives of the most interesting she would have been shocked at the thought; kind; while, by her piety, she was enshe would have owned herself a poor help- abled to turn that entertainment to some less sinner, and given God all the glory of profitable purpose. Methinks I see him, her salvation."
at this moment, sitting in his little chair by the side of his tender guardian, and listening to her instructions with a face full of eager attention. Many a time
have I seen her so occupied, while I have Facts often carry more force than argu- silently solicited a blessing upon their ments. Bishop Hall, speaking in tender happy employment. Such were our joint and affectionate terms of his mother, says, labours, to raise our willing child, step by “ How often have I blessed the memory of step, towards the fountain-head of blessthose divine passages of experimental divi- edness ; and our efforts were crowned nity, which I have heard from her mouth! with more than ordinary success. What day did she pass without being much We are not warranted to conclude, that engaged in private devotion? Never have early religious instruction is all lost, even any lips read to me such feeling lectures of when it seems so. The precious seed piety as hers. In a word, her life and often lies long hid under ground, but death were saint-like.”
springs up at last. One of the most Philip Henry, usually called, on ac- touching passages in the confessions of count of the spirituality of his mind and the celebrated Augustine, is that in the amiableness of his conduct, the “hea- which he speaks of the tender solicitude venly Henry," was, in his earliest years, of his devout mother, and owns the intrained up by his fond parents in the Auence which her prayers and tears had,
in checking his licentious course, and can have such deep and settled considerachanging his views and pursuits. The tions as these :—Though I can see nothing late venerable John Newton, in the nar- but confusions, and little hopes of their rative of his eventful life, expresses the amendment, yet I have that which is out of most ardent regard for his revered mother. the reach of all these ; that which is inShe made it her chief business and plea- finitely more valuable to me than the best sure to instruct her only child in the ele- which the world can give; that which I ments of religious knowledge. She stored can please and comfort myself in, notwithhis memory with whole chapters of scrip- standing all these worldly distractions and ture, with catechisms and hymus, and left fears ; namely, the assurance of my peace no means untried to impress upon his with the great God of heaven and earth. mind the truths of christianity This The worst that I can suffer by these discomexcellent parent he lost when he was but posures, and the most I can fear from them seven years old. Plunged into a wicked is but death ; and that will not only put a world, his youth and mature years were period to the things I suffer or can fear in given up to almost every kiud of vice this life, but will let me into the actual posand profligacy; yet he acknowledges, session of my hopes, even such a state of that after he was reclaimed by the grace glory and happiness as never can be ended of God, the instructions given in his or shaken. Such a hope, and such an childhood vividly recurred to his recol- assurance as this, will keep the soul above lection, and were of considerable use to water, and in a state of peace and tranhim. Gilbert West was at one time quillity, in all the tempests and shipwrecks warped into the labyrinth of infidelity. that can befall either this inferior world or But he did not feel at ease in his unbelief. any person in it.—Sir M. Hale. The lingering impressions of reverence, made by maternal tuition, could never be quite effaced. In a letter to Dr. Doddridge, he says, “ I cannot help noticing,
FAITA.-Our faith, or act of believing, on this occasion, your remarks on the cannot be a matter of justification, for advantage of an early education in the be reckoned in the place of perfect righ
that is an imperfect thing, and so cannot principles of religion, because I have myself happily experienced it; since I owe
teousness: for it must be a righteousness to the early care of a most excellent perfectly perfect that justifies, as it was a woman, my mother, that bent and bias to sin perfectly sinful that condemned. This religion, which, with the co-operating righteousness also must be our own in a grace of God, hath at length brought me way of right, (as Adam's sin also was,) back to those paths of peace from which though performed in the person of I might have otherwise been in danger of another: Christ and Adam being paral. deviating for ever. The parallel betwixt
lels in their headship, the imputation of me and colonel Gardiner was, in this in one's guiltiness and the other's righteousstance, too striking not to affect me spective seeds. And this was a main end
ness are righteously applied to their reexceedingly."
of God's putting those he would justify into Christ : that he being made sin and
a curse for them, they might be made the Use all diligence to gain such a trea
righteousness of God in him; and so sure as lies above the reach of the storms i. 24-26.-Cole.
might be just in justifying then, Rom. of this world; a kingdom that cannot be shaken; namely, our peace with God in Christ, the pardon of our sins, and a well
God's PRESENCE.—A sense of God's pregrounded hope and assurance of eternal life. These are the things that lie out of and fears in the worst and most dreadful
sence in love is sufficient to rebuke all anxiety yun-shot, and will render the greatest condition, Psalm xxiii. 4, Hab. iii. 17, 18. troubles that can befall this lower world,
-Owen or us in it, not only tolerable, but small and inconsiderable; when, in the midst of all the concussions of the world, in
JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London. the midst of losses of goods or estate, Price ld. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Five in the midst of storms, and confusions,
Numbers in a Cover, 3d. and disasters, and calamities, a
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THE THAR, OR BUBALINE ANTELOPE. the researches of Mr. Hodgson in Nepal AMONG that extensive group of ruminant have brought to light (among other valuanimals, the antelopes, which are so widely able additions to science) a species entirely distributed throughout the central latitudes new to naturalists, and of no ordinary of the old world, there are several whose interest. To this species he has given the habitat is limited to the elevated alpine re- name of bubaline antelope (antilope bubagions, where they experience a temperature lina. Hodgson) and has transmitted a dereduced to that of the more northern portions tailed account of it to the ZoologicalSociety, of the globe: Expressly adapted to the lo- which is published in their proceedings for calities assigned them, these antelopes, 1832. though strong, active, and resolute, have Approximating in its general form and little of the grace, fire, and elastic tread characters to the goat tribe, as it does also which characterize the gazelle or spring-bok in its manners, which dispose it to soliof the plains of Africa, or the common ante- tude, and to mountainous situations, it is, lope (A. cervicapra) of the plains of India. as Mr. Hodgson observes, entirely devoid of the mountain antelopes thus discrimi- of the usual elegance of the genus to which nated from their more elegant congeners, it belongs. “ It is a large, coarse, heavy