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animal, with bristly thin-set hair, not unlike ever been seen in Europe, nor does any that of the buffalo. The body is short and perfect skin exist in any European museum : thick, the chest deep, the neck short and and, in fact, until introduced to notice by straight, the head coarse and spiritless, Mr. Hodgson, no naturalist was previously though not remarkably large; the eye poor, aware of its existence.

M. the limbs, for an antelope, thick and short, and the hoofs short and compact.” “ It is seldom found in herds, however small; and the full-grown males usually

The earliest roads, properly speaking, live entirely alone, except during the breed in Britain were those made by the Romans; ing season. Of all the deers or antelopes and nothing is more calculated to impress of these hills it is the most common. It us with the ingenuity of that mighty peotenants the central region, equidistant from ple, than the remains of these works, which the snows on the one hand, and the plains are continually unearthed in our time. Beof India on the other; and though it before the Roman invasion, the British had found every where within that central

space

their trackways, which were not paved or between the Sutlege on the west, and the gravelled, but covered with verdant turf. Teesta on the east, it is more frequent in the They were called postways and ridgeeastern than in the western half of the tract ways; the latter because they followed the so defined, or in Nepal Proper. The fe- natural ridges of the country, or, instead male is scarcely distinguishable from the of keeping a straight line, wound along male except by her somewhat inferior size, the crest or sides of the chains of hills in smaller horns, and paler colour.” .. “ The their way. The Romans adopted these Nepalese call this animal the thar. The trackways, as far as was convenient for chase of it is a favourite diversion of the civil and commercial purposes; but for Gooroony tribes especially, who usually kill military transit they raised vast causeways it with poisoned arrows. Its flesh is very or elevated paved streets, and placed coarse and bad, but there is plenty of it; towns and stations on them at regular disand these mountaineers, who are apt to look tances, for the accommodation of troops to the quantity more than the quality of on their march. Our Anglo-Saxon ancessuch flesh as a Hindoo government deems tors called the old Roman roads military lawful food for them, prize the thar very ways; the British trackways the country highly, and hunt him very eagerly.” roads; and distinguished the highways by

The thar, or bubaline antelope, when one wagon's way, four feet broad, and full-grown, stands upwards of three feet two wagons' ways, probably eight feet or high at the shoulders; the horns are short, more; which distinction, according to Mr. conical, recurved, and ringed with closely Fosbroke, shows the origin of our narrow set prominent rings, for two-thirds of their village roads. distance from their base; these rings are, We subsequently find roads made of however, broken by longitudinal furrows or mortar and stone ; of wood and stone; an! grooves, irregularly disposed, running up roads for carriages, distinguished from from the base : the ears are large, erect, bridle-ways, or those purposely for horses. and somewhat pointed; the eye is inex- Narrow roads were called passes : openness pressive, but of moderate size; the neck in roads was thought essential to preven: slightly elevated and straight, without any robbery; and, for this purpose, all roadside of that graceful turn and bearing which we thorns and wood were cut down. expect in the antelope: the limbs are strong, It may, however, be supposed that in short, and admirably framed for climbing early times, the only roads, properly so the steep sides of the craggy mountains. called, were from one large town to anoThe hair is coarse, bristly, and thinly set, ther, with such cross tracks as infrequent lying close upon the skin, except along the communications would form. The first back of the neck, which is furnished with a turnpike road was established by an act of semi-erect straight mane of long coarse parliament, 3rd Charles 11.; but so insenhairs. The general colour of this remark-sible were the people to the improvement, able animal is deep black, clouded on the that the mob lled down the gates, and sides and under parts with rusty brown, the new principle was supported at the which prevails especially on the limbs; the point of the bayonet. Long after this pehorns and hoofs are black; the former riod, however, travelling was dangerous measuring eight inches in a straight line. and difficult; of which there is a recorded The tail is short, narrow, and deer-like. Of circumstantial proof. In December, 1703, the bubaline antelope no living example has' Charles J., king of Spain, slept at Pet

we were

way for him."*

worth, on his way from Portsmouth to, Up to that point they travelled on a narrow Windsor, and Prince George of Denmark causeway, with an unmade soft road on went to meet him there by desire of the each side of it. They met, from time to queen. In the relation of the journey, given time, strings of pack-horses, from thirty to by one of the prince's attendants, he states : forty in a gang, the mode by which goods We set out at six in the morning by seem to be transported from one part of torchlight to go to Petworth, and did not the country to another. The leading horse get out of the coaches (save only when of the gang carried a bell to give warning

overturned or stuck fast in to travellers coming in an opposite directhe mire) till we arrived at our jour- tion; and when they met these trains of ney's end. We were thrown but once horses with their packs across their backs, indeed in going, but our coach, which the causeway not affording them room, was the leading one, and his highness's they were obliged to make way for them, body-coach, would have suffered very and plunge into the road-side. much, if the nimble boors of Sussex had In 1760, fifty miles a day was consinot frequently poised it, or supported it dered a prodigious rate of travelling, alwith their shoulders, from Godalming al- though to announce so important an event most to Petworth. The last nine miles of as the death of George il. The coach the way cost us six hours to conquer them; from Edinburgh to London started once a and, indeed, we had never done it, if our month, and occupied sixteen or eighteen good master had not several times lent us days on the journey. A person may now a pair of horses out of his own coach, start from Edinburgh on thursday evening, whereby we were enabled to trace out the have two spare days in London, and be

back again in the Scotch metropolis to Again, about 1746, a manuscript letter breakfast on the next thursday.--Domestic from a servant of the duke of Somerset, Life in England. dated from London, and addressed to another at Petworth, acquaints the latter that his Grace intends to go from London

A BIRD'S EGG. thither on a certain day, and directs that Wuen a bird's egg is examined, it is " the keepers and persons who knew the found to consist of three parts ; the chick, holes and the sloughs must come to meet the yolk in which the chick is placed, and his Grace with lanterns and long poles, to the white in which the yolk swims. The help him on his way.

yolk is lighter than the white; and it is The Sussex roads remained proverbially attached to it at two points, joined by a bad within our recollection, and in an old line, or rather plane, below the centre of rhyme is, “Sowseks ful of dirt and mire :" gravity of the yolk. From this arrangealthough at this moment, one of the finest ment it must follow that the chick is always roads in England, (considering the natural uppermost, roll the egg how you will; obstacles to be removed in its formation,) consequently the chick is always kept or that from London to Brighton, passes nearest to the breast or belly of the mother for nearly thirty miles through a portion while she is sitting. Suppose, then, that of the county of Sussex.

any one acquainted with the laws of moIn 1754, improved turnpike-roads were tion had to contrive things so as to secure made, though not without renewing the this position for the little speck or sac in opposition which attended their first intro- question, in order to its receiving the necesduction: tumults arose, and at the end of sary heat from the hen—could he proceed the reign of George 11. a law was passed, otherwise than by placing it in the lighter enacting it felony to pull down a toll-bar; liquid, and suspending that liquid in the so difficult was it to reconcile the people to heavier, so that its centre of gravity should this great social improvement.

be above the line or plane of suspension ? Of the state of travelling fifteen years Assuredly not; for in no other way could previous to this date, we find a record in his purpose be accomplished, Dr. Cleland's Statistical Account of Glas- tion is attained by a strict induction ; it is gow; where Mr. D. Bannantyne states supported by the same kind of evidence on that, in 1739, upon two persons (named) which all physical truths rest. But it making the journey from Glasgow to Lon- leads by a single step to another truth in don on horseback, there was no turnpike- natural theology.—That the egg must have road till they came to Grantham, within been formed by some hand skilful in meone hundred and ten miles of London. chanism, and acting under the knowledge

* Annals of Queen Anne, vol. ii. App. No. 3. of dynamics.-Lord Brougham.

This posi

BOTANY.No. XI.

JASMINEÆ.

two distinct plates ( cotyledons.) The white fleshy substance (albumen) in which the

embryo is embedded, is intended to nourish This interesting and natural group of the seed in germination, till it is able to shrubs and trees take the general name provide for itself. The reader is probably from the jasmine or jessamine, that favour- aware, that whilst the white of the egg and a ite of oriental poetry. It is composed of part of the shell are, by the vivifying operathe privet, the olive, the ash, and the lilac, tion of nature, transformed into the various and a few others of less notoriety. They are Auids and solids which compose the frame allied to each other by the presence of a of a chicken, a part of the yolk is lodged single pair of stamens in each flower, and within the body to supply its wants, till by a calyx and corolla, if present, divided such time as it can provide for itself. There into twice that number of segments. The is, therefore, a beautiful analogy between privet and the lilac are generally, during the white substance just described and the the early part of summer, within reach; yolk of an egg, inasmuch as both are desand will readily furnish subjects for com- tined to supply the wants of the future inparison, which will prove to the observer, dividual, till it is able to shift for itself. It that the same general characters apply to was customary in the times portrayed by them both. The small flowers of the ash Homer, for the host to entertain the stranger contain only two stamens with a calyx, with the best his house could afford; and then which, when present, is divided into four to dismiss him with some valuable present segments. The paucity of seeds in this or presents, as a pledge of his kind and family corresponds with the fewness of hospitable feeling. Such is the hospitality the stamens, for the number rarely exceeds of nature, that not only bestows upon her two. The fruit is sometimes pulpy, as in nurslings what is necessary for their present the olive and privet; at others merely a cap- condition; but at parting gives them cersule or dry case, as in the ash. In the last tain remembrances of her kindness, to keep mentioned, the curious manner in which them at the commencement of their future the capsules are expanded into a wing-like journey. Those who feel but little relish process, is a matter of common observation, for a minuter contemplation of nature, may though the progress of the expansion, from find a lesson and repoof in Ps. xcii., "O its earliest commencement to its final de Lord, how great are thy works! and thy velopement, would not be unworthy of a thoughts are very deep. A brutish man careful and enlightened attention. Soon knoweth not; neither doth a fool underafter the appearance of this article, the stand this.” "Amongst the most interestprivet will have ripened its berries; when the ing subjects of this group are the followstudent of botany and the inquisitive reader ing : will have an opportunity of examining the The common jasmine, (jasminum officiposition and structure of those parts, which nale,) the ornament of the cottager's garden, are destined for the reproduction of the spe- which still retains its Persian and Arabic cies. This examination, in many instances, name, indicating from whence it was brought requires a well-practised eye; but in the to us. privet, the elements of increase are The sambac, (mogorium sambac.) The obvious and convenient, that a happier op- flowers of this highly scented jasmine are portunity cannot offer itself of teaching our strung and worn by females in India as uninitiated friends how to ascertain and chaplets, in the same way as the blossoms distinguish them. After the dark pulpy por of the gardenia are in the islands of the tion of the berry has been removed, a white Pacific. ball will be found, which, when opened, will The ash, (fraxinus excelsior,) the stately present a little body, somewhat in shape and favourite tree of the painter. Before the like a fire-screen or a fan, with a short handle. introduction of Peruvian bark, the bitter This minute member of the seed just de- and astringent bark of the ash was used for scribed is no other than the embryo. When the same purposes. the seed is deposited in a suitable bed of The manna ash (f. ornus,) common in earth, the handle of the little fan (radicle) the south of Europe, and especially in Calais prolonged into a root, to collect nourish- bria, yields the manna of the shops. The ment for the springing plant; while the wood of this tree was famous in antiquity broad part of the fan is extended into a pair for yielding the material of which the warof seed-leaves. A slight effort, requiring no rior's javelin was made. great delicacy of hand, will separate it into Privet (ligustrum vulgare.) The pulpy

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TASTE OF HEAVEN.

poor to

part of the berries is employed to give a sin, brought to repent and believe the colour to some wines.

gospel, are justified by faith in Christ, are Lilac (syringer vulgaris.) This most regenerated and gradually sanctified by the charming shrub is a native of Persia, and Holy Spirit. Yes; heaven is a place of still preserves its Persian name. It was in- holiness. Sinners, ye who refuse to keep troduced into Europe in the sixteenth cen- holy the sabbath, must be made holy, or no tury, since which time it has spread over heaven hereafter for you. But you cannot all the gardens of Europe. The generic make yourselves holy. You may try it, name indicates a tube, for the stem is hol- but you cannot do it. “Ye must be born low, and is therefore applied by the Turks again,” John iii. 7; receive a new nature, to form tubes for their tobacco-pipes. be made holy by the Holy Spirit ; and for

this, ask of God in Christ's name.
would not be shut out of heaven, pray and

beg of God, “ Create in me a clean heart, A SABBATH WELL SPENT IS A FORE

O God,” Psalm li. 10.

Heaven is also a place of gladness. And

the sabbath, rightly observed, is eminently St. Paul, in his epistle to the Hebrews, a day of gladness-a day of joy and praise. iv. 9, writes, “ There remaineth therefore The worldly-minded, not understanding a rest” (literally, a sabbatism, or keeping true spiritual joy, resort to their sports, of a sabbath) " for the people of God.” pleasures, amusements ; hence, in France, We do not know very much respecting they open their theatres; hence, in heaven. We are not able to understand it christian England, the rich crowd to here. But I often think that a sabbath, parks, the

tea-gardens and duly sanctified, gives us perhaps the best public-houses : and thus they observe idea we can have on earth of the blessed the sabbath. Alas! they understand not ness of heaven. The sabbath is a day of spiritual joy, they have no idea of the joy rest: after the toils, cares, anxieties of the of heaven. It is, to rejoice in the Lord, to week, on this day you are invited to rest delight in God, to see the beauty of holifrom them all, to come anew to Jesus for ness, to admire the perfections of Jehovah : rest, to repose the soul upon the promises it is to sing and wonder, to adore and of God. Heaven is certainly a place of praise, to grow in moral likeness to God, rest: “I heard a voice from heaven, say- to have the love of God more and more ing, Write, Blessed are the dead which die shed abroad in the heart by the Holy in the Lord from henceforth : Yea, saith Ghost. This is joy, well worthy of the the Spirit, that they may rest from their name. And this joy may be yours, dear labours," Rev. xiv. 13. Oh, what sweet brethren, more and more all through life. thoughts may we have every sabbath morn- Lastly : heaven is a place where Christ, ing! Now, heaven and rest are one week the Lamb that was slain, is the bond of nearer : six more days of toil are over: last union, the object of admiration, the theme week's sufferings are gone: I am getting of adoring love to all the redeemed, gathered nearer my home, even my Father's house ! together from all classes, kindreds, lanFurther: 'the sabbath is also to be a

guages among men.

And so on earth, day of holiness. And if we know nothing on every Lord's day, to Him is “ the else of heaven, we know this, that it is a gathering of the people," Gen. xlix. 10; pure and holy place. The wicked hardly in his house, high and low, rich and poor dare to deny or dispute that. The common meet, or ought to meet, on the same level, conscience of man revolts against the idea as sinners looking to him for salvation. of an unholy heaven, a mohammedan para- Then he is continually magnified in his dise of sensuality, a place resembling the people. True christians forget not their

Elysian fields of pagan antiquity. You Lord on the Lord's day. Christ crucified know what the scriptures say: “Without is the theme of our preaching, the sum and holiness no man shall see the Lord,” Heb. substance of our doctrine, the motive to xii. 14. “ There shall in no wise enter your faith and practice from sabbath to into it any thing that defileth, neither what sabbath. Every believer loves to praise soever worketh abomination, or maketh Christ and meditate on him on this day. The a lie; but they which are written in more he studies his person, character, and the Lamb's book of life," Rev. xxi. 27 : work, the more he sees of the fulness and and all, those whose names are written glory of Christ.-Hambleton. there, are here, in this life, called out of

GREENWICH FAIR:

At the foot of the bridge, at that time, there were

some water-works, and I The other day the following interesting leaned over the bridge to look at them; fact was told me by one in affluent cir- | but, though I thought of the crowds of cumstances.

people, of Greenwich fair, and of the “ When I was a young man,” said he, water-works that I was looking at, I “ I worked five years at one place without thought more of what my master had ever asking for more than one holiday, said to me, than of all put together. and that one I shall have reason to remem

When words once get a firm hold of you, ber all my days. When I applied for it, it is a very hard matter to get rid of my master, who was one of the society of

them. Here had I a half-day's holiday ; Friends, usually called quakers, said to victuals and money in my pocket, the me, “ Thomas, I have no objection to thy sun shining, and crowds of people hashaving a holiday; but I should like to tening on to enjoy themselves, and yet I know how thou dost intend to spend thy could not go on.

The advice of my time?'

master was uppermost in my mind, and I “Why, sir, I have heard a great deal thought that I should do better to attend cf Greenwich fair, and never having seen

to it, and go back to my employment, it, I intend to go there.'

rather than go forward to Greenwich fair. Ay, Thomas! so I thought; but it is I cannot say but that it cost me a great my duty to tell thee, thee hadst better not deal to give up the point. I looked one go. In the first place, thou wilt lose half way, and the other way, and the scales a day's wages ; in the next, thou wilt spend were so nicely balanced, that it seemed at the least two days' wages more ; and it as though a feather would have turned is not very unlikely that thou wilt get into them. When I thought of Greenwich, kad company. What mischief bad com- it seemed impossible to give up the fair; | any will do thee it is impossible to say, and when I thought of my master's adbut it often leads young men to their ruin. advice, it was impossible to go on. At Thou mayest run into some excess, and if last, prudence won the day, and I made thou thinkest rightly of the follies and ac- the best of my way back to my work. cidents that excess brings about, sometimes "Why, Thomas ! is that thee?' said ill health, and sometimes sudden death, my master, when he saw me, 'why, I thou wilt be persuaded, and wilt not go.'

thought thee wert junketting at Green“ “Why, sir, I mean to walk there and wich : what has brought thee back again? back again, and that will cost nothing ; I told him, that in stopping on Londonthen I can take a bit of bread and cheese bridge to look at the water-works, I had in my handkerchief, and need not spend thought over the advice he had given any thing; and as to bad company, I think me, and had made up my mind to come that I am proof against any temptation of back to my work.

Thee beest a pruthat kind.'

dent lad, Thomas,' was the remark he "No doubt thee thinkest so, Thomas, made to me; and I set to work a great but thee dost not know what Greenwich deal more comfortable in my mind than sair is. If thou hast made up thy mind I had been since I first set off for Greento go, we will have dinner at one o'clock, wich. that thou mayest be off at two; but again “Nothing more was said about it during I tell thee that thou hadst better not go.' the week, but when saturday night came,

“Why, sir, I have set my heart upon my master paid me my fuli it, and shall think it rather hard not to go then put down a guinea by itself. “There, there once in my life.”

Thomas,' said he, “take that; thou hast * Very well, Thomas, at two o'clock acted prudently in following thy master's thee mayst go.'

advice, and not going to Greenwich, and “ Exactly at one o'clock my master or- I trust thou wilt never have occasion to dered in dinner, and no sooner did the repent it.? clock strike two, than he told me I was at

“I verily believe that this was a turn in liberty. It took me but a short time to get my life. Had I gone to Greenwich fair, ready, and to set off for Greenwich with it is not unlikely that things would have my little stock of provisions, to prevent happened just as my master said ; and if my spending money. A great many nothing else had occurred, perhaps it people were going over old London- would have been the beginning of bad bridge; for all the way to Greenwich, on habits, which might have clung to me all a fair-time, the road is like a market. my days : whereas, by taking good coun

wages, and

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