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SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS._NO.XVIII.

mal and vegetable, was swept away by the

wild tornadoes to inevitable destruction. “ And a man shall be as a hiding place from the wind, and a covert from the tempest ; as rivers of In vain were banks and ancient boundaries water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock opposed to the wide-spreading waters, in a weary lanā.”—Isaiah xxxii. 2.

urged on by the tremendous whirlwind The evangelical prophet, in this sublime which raged. O how sweet would then passage, has beautifully described in glow- have been a covert from the tempest! The ing imagery the exalted work and Divine next year's storm, equally dreadful, destroysufficiency of the Redeemer. This, like other ed every house in the town; not one escaped passages, derives a point and an additional without injury. The judge's house, though force by travelling under the sun of an the strongest and best, withstood not the Indian climate. The prophet, in the first terrible hurricane. “ Men's hearts failing part of the passage, alludes to the terrible

for fear, the seas and the waves thereof tempests which sometimes desolate these

roaring." “ As a river of water in a dry countries. In the year 1831, no less than place,” life-preserving streams, and the from fifteen to twenty thousand people were is shadow of a great rock in a weary land.” destroyed in Balasore district by the tem- Next to water and food there is nothing like pests of October. The ships on the coast

a shade.

How it refreshes the weary pilwere some of them thrown upon the shore grim! Seldom do we find in Orissa such by the breaking in of the sea, and after- à shade as the “ shadow of a great rock;" wards left dry. Almost every thing, ani- | the deep shade of a venerable tree whose

VOL. III.

N N

DRESS.

tough branches have borne storms of a cen- like a woman's stays, across a stomacher, tury, afford, nevertheless, an inviting retreat and their gowns were open in front, above from the broiling influence of the sun. This and below the girdle. The coxcombry of passage always recurs to my mind when the two preceding centuries was almost sitting in the much-desired recess. Often exceeded in the present.

Beaux wore a whilst sitting under some shade, surrounded boot on one leg, and a stocking on the by the naked barbarians of these deep other; and winter mantles, with sleeves jungles, I thought myself as happy as any that hung down to the ground, and licked man could be. Let those who know spiri- up the dirt of the streets. The borders of tually this heavenly Rock, repose under its these habits were frequently embroidered shadow, secure from the tempest. May with verses of Latin, hymns or psalms in we build upon this Rock; and when the gold, and the garment itself was sometimes rain comes, and the floods descend, and of red and white silk. may beat upon our house, our house shall not Ainong the female fashions, were outer fall, for it is founded upon a Rock.-W. corsets or boddiced waists, and enormous Brown.

trains to the gowns, which were discontinued for borders about the middle of the century. There were two peculiar head

dresses: one was the horned, of two eleThe coxcombry of the thirteenth vations, like a heart in cards, with the botand fourteenth centuries must not be tom cut off, as shown on a monumental spared; since the clergy of the time in brass of Maud, wife of John Fosbrok,* in their pulpits, and the king in council, de- Cranford Church, Northamptonshire ; claimed and decreed against its excesses. this lady having been nurse to King Henry Thus, the beaux had their long-pointed | vi. The other extraordinary head-dress shoes cut on the front with the rich tra

was the steeple-fashion : so immoderately cery of a church window, and the points high and broad was this head-gear worn, fastened to their knees by gold and silver that we read of the doors of state apartchains. Their habits were of innumerablements being raised and widened, in 1416, colours; the beard was worn long, and the that the head-dresses of the company might head was embroidered with figures of ani- have room to enter. The fabric was supmals, which, like lappets, buttoned beneath posted by a horn on each side, and from the chest, and were sometimes enriched each top was suspended a silken streamer, with jewels. The females also wore as which fluttered in the wind, or crossed the many colours as possible; little caps were breast, and was tied to the arm. fastened on with cords; and girdles with In this century should not, however, be short swords hung before the stomach. forgotten the common bonnet, that is, one

In the fifteenth century, gowns became with shades over the cheeks, which now less frequent, and the skirts of the tunic first appears. Shoes also were regularly more puckered. The sleeves were like manufactured, and the Cordwainers' Comthose of bishops; though few of our fair pany incorporated in 1410: the queen

of readers, and perchance once wearers of Richard 11. introduced the piked shoes, bishops' sleeves, are aware that they were with chains, &c., and Edward iv. proin fashion nearly three and a half centuries claimed that beaks of skin and boots ago. The cloaks, or appendages to tunics, should not exceed two inches in length, had large flaps. In this century the jacket, upon pain of cursing by the clergy, and a originally the same as the doublet, differed fine of twenty shillings; and any cordmaterially from it; for, at this time, both wainer that“shod” any man or woman on were often worn together; then the jacket the sunday was to pay thirty shillings. served as an upper tunic, and, like thc The piked shoe next gave way to the rodoublet, it eventually lost its proper name, sette fastening. Ribands of every colour, and is now called a coat. The breeches except white, the emblem of the depress. or hose were tight, the sleeves of the ed house of York, were had in esteem; doublets were pinked to show the shirt, but the red, like the house of Lancaster, and the men wore their hair very long: held the pre-eminence; thus denoting the Strutt, however, says, at the end of antique origin of the rosette of our day, this century, the dress was exceedingly from the full-blown riband rose of the absurd and fantastical, so that it was difficult to distinguish one sex from the other. * Ancestrix of the Rev. Tomas Dudle Fosbrok,

Encyclopædia of Antiquities, The men wore petticoats over their lower

we are indebted for many of the leading facts of the clothing; their doublets were laced in front, present paper.

to whose valuable “

house of Tudor. Representations of ladies The Arsenic Salts, or ARSENIATES, in hunting-dresses at this period differ but when heated with charcoal, yield arsenic, little from the present riding-habit: one which

may be known by its peculiar smeli, bears a bow in her hand and a quiver of resembling that of garlic. We have also arrows at her side, and another has a horn the arsenites, the tungstastes, the acetates, resembling a bugle, slung from the right the tartrates, the citrates, the camphorates, shoulder across to the left side.--Domestic and the prussiates. Many of the salts have Life in England.

been formed by the chemist, but can be applied to no particular use; while others,

with those that are of native production, CHEMISTRY.-No. XVIII,

are of the greatest importance in domestic SALTS. NO. II.

economy, medicine, the arts, and chemical The salts formed by carbonic acid are examination. called carbonates. If sulphuric acid be Salts are distinguished from each other poured on any of these salts, they will effer- by their taste, and their power of resisting vesce, and evolve carbonic acid. Many of or yielding to the effects of heat; but more them are found abundantly in a native especially by the form of their crystals. state; particularly carbonate of lime, of We may here make a few remarks in relawhich chalk, limestone, and marble are tion to the phenomena of crystallization. varieties. Among the carbonates we may All persons must have observed the variety mention that of potash, usually called salt of form assumed by different bodies when of tartar ; the carbonate of animonia, the in a crystallized state; some having four, common smelling salt; and the carbonates others six, eight, or more sides. Crystalof soda, barytes, strontites, and magnesia. lization may be defined, in general terms, as The carbonic acid will also combine with the regular figures which bodies assume copper, tin, and other metals.

when their particles have full liberty to As the salts that are formed by chlorine combine according to the laws of cohesion. were not described when that substance An example of crystallization may be shown was treated of, they may be here mentioned. by a very simple experiment. Take a The chlorates are a remarkable class of small quantity of sulphate of soda, (Glauber salts, possessing properties that distinguish salt,) and after having dried it thoroughly, them from all others. When raised to a dissolve it in about three times its bulk of high temperature, in connexion with a com- hot water. When perfectly dissolved, set bustible body, they explode with great the solution aside to cool, and the salt will violence by friction, and sometimes without gradually separate itself from the superany mechanical force. When mixed with fluous water, and form itself into crystals ; sulphur and charcoal, they produce the or, if the water that has not combined with most dreadful explosions; while, in some the salt be evaporated, a solid crystallized instances, they have nearly proved fatal to substance will be presented. those who have experimented on them. Bodies are crystallized both by solution The chlorates are capable of being dissolved and by fusion. Some of them will dissolve in Chlorine combines with potash, only in hot water, others in water at any soda, lime, and magnesia.

temperature. The more gradually the proThe FLUATES, so named from their base, cess proceeds, the more regular will be the fuoric acid, are capable of decomposition form of the crystals ; but perfect rest will by sulphuric acid, and yield a vapour that sometimes prevent the formation of crystals. has the property of corroding glass. They The presence of atmospheric air is necesare not altered by the application of heat, sary during the act of crystallization ; and and are scarcely soluble in water. The even light has a tendency to accelerate the Auates of lime, soda, ammonia, and alum- process. The water that combines with nia, are the most important.

any substance, and forms part of the crys. The Boracic Salts, called borates, are tallized body, is called the water of crystalall capable of being melted into glass. By lization; and the residue is called mother mixing them with different metallic oxides, water ; some bodies combine with a small glass of various colours may be made. portion of water, while others unite with They are not subject to decomposition from considerably more than their own weight of heat. The borates of barytes, lime, mag- that fluid. nesia, and potash, and the sub-borate of When a salt has the property of absorbsoda, called in commerce borax, are the ing water from the atmosphere, it is said to most important.

be deliquescent; and when it parts with

er.

its water of crystallization, and falls into coffee shrub, while the widely circulated powder, it is said to be efflorescent. fame of the Peruvian bark and ipecacuanha,

Some salts have the power of mutually establishes its claim to the highest degree of destroying each other; an effect that is medical reputation. Nor is the elegance of always produced when the acid of one has the foliage and the fragrance of the flowers a stronger affinity for the base of the other less entitled to estimation. From those than for that to which it is united; or, in minute specks in the mighty expanse of the other words, when the two acids mutually Southern Pacific, the Gardenia breathes a attract their bases from each other. In this delightful perfume to welcome the sea-faring case two new salts must necessarily be pro- man as he approaches their coral shores; duced, and the operation itself is termed while every grove and thicket in the larger double decomposition.

islands presents fresh specimens of this never-ending family, to entertain and puzzle the botanist. For, though the characters

which connect them with the family before DISCONTENT. Beg of God a meek and quiet spirit, which is their affinity with each other, that the col

us, are easily read and understood, yet such is of so great price in the sight of God; and

lector finds it extremely difficult to ascertain watch after your prayers, not only how the

their differences, with that confidence which Lord answers, but how you endeavour.

the mind feels when satisfied with its own He that prays against discontent, binds conclusions. We have thus taken a tranhimself to watch and strive against it, or else

sient glimpse of the value of the rubiaceæ as his prayers are sin. Beg an humble heart of God; the humble man is seldom discon- yielding articles of diet, medicine, and pertented, he thinks that the least of mercies is

fumery; we may now add a fourth ground

of interest—their importance in the arts; good enough for the chief of sinners. Here for that well-known dye, the madder, is the is a poor house, coarse fare, hard lodgings, produce of the rubia tinctorum, which unkind usage ; but it is good enough for stands as the head and representative of the me: any thing short of hell is mercy ; if I whole family, which takes its general dehave but bread to eat, and raiment to put on, nomination, rubiaceæ, from the relationship it is good fare for such an one as I. And then that the various members have to the beg a mortified heart to all that is in the rubia tinctorum. The general characters world. When the heart is dead to the consist in a calyx, which forms a crown world, worldly troubles do not trouble. He that is dead to the world will save his bones upon the top of the germen ; a corolla, comwhole: when crosses, straits, and troubles posed of four or five petals

, sometimes

more, united to each other below; for which come upon him; it may be said of such a

reason it is sometimes called a monopetaone, Yonder man is dead already to the lous corolla. The stamens are alternate world, his heart is crucified to it; he feels

with and correspond in number with the nothing so as to be distempered by it.” When united petals. The numbers of the essenwe strip dead men, they struggle not; we may take all, they are not troubled at it.

tial parts just stated, taken in company o beg such a heart , that God may do what the mind of the botanist, in surveying a

with the inferior position of the germen, lead he will with thee, that his will may be done; strange plant, to suspect that it belongs to and this prayer will procure patience and help against discontent.--Steele.

the rubiaceæ. For further satisfaction, he may next examine the seed; when, if he is right in his conclusion, an elegant little leaf will be found imbedded in the horny or fleshy substance of the seed. The seed of the coffee, when recent, affords a

beautiful example of this peculiar trait in This is one of the most copious and the history of the rubiaceæ. In the middle most interesting orders to be met with in of a horny substance, a little pale-coloured the whole compass of botanical science. leaf is found, of a very exact and finished A magnificent assortment of genera, distri- workmanship.

This little leaf is no other buted over all the parallels of latitude within than what is called the embryo, which fosthe torrid and temperate zones, related to tering nature has lodged in a bed of future each other by points of great simplicity, is nourishment for its use in germination. here presented to us. It embraces shrubs This horny substance, which, in scientific which, in reference to households, are of the language, is called the albumen, forms the highest importance; as, for example, the material of which our coffee is made.

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BOTANY.No. XII.

RUBIACEÆ,

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The English plants, which belong to this growing in the open glades and grassy pathfamily, are in appearance of a humbler de ways of our woods and copses. The leaves scription. The flowers are small, white or are placed like eight radiating spokes round yellow. The divisions of the delicate co- each joint of the stem. The flowers are rolla form a cross, and alternate with four small, and arranged in straggling clusters. minute stamens. The leaves are narrow, and an agreeable perfume is breathed from the placed in whorls about the joints of the whole plant. stem, like the spokes of a wheel. The We shall subjoin a short list of exmost common example is the cleavers or amples of such as occur most frequently. clivers, found on every ditch-bank through- They may be known from members of out the summer. It is often employed any other family in this country by the in medicine by the London practitioners, position in which the leaves grow; and, who send messengers to collect it in the as we have before stated, the cross-shaped fields. It has obtained the name of cleavers, flower. A spontaneous effort to make ourfrom its propensity to lay hold on the skin selves familiar with the particular forms or clothes, by means of the little hooked and differences of this group of obvious points with which its external surface is over- but interesting plants, would often dispel the spread. There are twelve other species be- vapours, and drive unprofitable thoughts longing to this genus, which may all be and anxieties from the mind. Experience known by the whorl of narrow leaves at the teaches us that there is nothing so wholesome joints, which vary in number according to the for a jaded understanding as a change of species, and the little cross-shaped blossom. employment; and, independent of the intelAmong them is the yellow bedstraw, (gali- lectual gain, it is generally far more refreshum verum,) known by its profusion of yellow ing than any merely idle amusement that can flowers, and its narrow thread-like leaves. In be devised to entertain it. fact, the shape of the flower and the posi- Galium aparine, cleavers or clivers.tion of the leaves will always point them Stem, leaves, and seeds adhere to the clothes out to the collector. The following is a when the plant is touched. representation of the asperula odorata, or Galium cruciatum, yellow-crossed wort.

-Flowers golden-yellow, leaves and stem rough. Leaves in fours.

Galium saxatile. - Remarkable for its weak, straggling, and its numerous milkwhite flowers; on heaths.

Sherardia arvensis, little field madder.--Minute blue and purple flowers; found amongst springing corn.

Rubia tinctorum.-Flowers yellow and berries black ; in the south of England,

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One monday morning, as I had just poured out my aunt's second cup of coffee, a note was brought to me from Mrs. Selwin, entreating my assistance to purchase a mangle for a poor woman, whose husband had lately died of the cholera, and who was left with five little children. I closed the note with feelings of sorrowful regret; for my quarterly allowance was reduced to two sovereigns, and with them I was going that morning to buy my winter dress. Without speaking, I gave the note to my aunt; who, after she had perused it, gave me ten shillings.

“How sorry I am, aunt, that I cannot give ten more! ”

“Well, my dear, you must give what sweet-scented woodroof; it is often found you can."

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