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PROFESSOR Kidd has collected an in- stage of the fruit, the cream mentioned teresting account of the cocoa-nut tree; to above, said to be albuminous, from its all the particulars of which the writer can resemblance to the white of an egg, is add his testimony, having had many op very nutritious and easy of digestion, as portunities of witnessing its extensive the writer has often experienced. Someusefulness and application in the various times, when the sun is admitted to bear islands of the Pacific. One valuable pro- upon it, from which it is generally perty not fully mentioned in this descrip- screened by the leaves, the juice is in a tion is, that the juice contained within state of fermentation, which gives a the shell, just as it begins to deposit a white sharpness to the taste which is
very pleaalbuminous cream upon the inside of its ing. The Tahitian females use the oil tenement, has, when no water could be made from the nut for the hair; but as it obtained, often allayed the traveller's soon turns rancid, a stranger, when he thirst and recruited his strength. In that I approaches their dwellings, soon finds that
he and his Indian hosts entertain very | The statement of Johnston is confirmed different notions respecting the choice of by captain Seely, in his account of Ellora, perfumery.
who says that, 'when he was stationed at Goa, in 1819, he lived, as many others did, in a cocoa-nut-leaf house; and that although the period was in the very height of the monsoon, and the house was on the sea-coast, it was comfortable and warm.' He believes that not a nail was used in the whole building : the rafters and supporters, &c., were fastened on with string made of the fibrous envelope of the cocoanut shell; the wood was the tree itself; the roof, walls, doors, and windows were the leaf. From the same authority we learn that the fibres, enveloping the shell
of the nut, may be woven into a cable, We here give a drawing of a piece of by which ships of seventy-four guns have the cocoa nut, to exhibit the situation and safely rode out heavy gales of wind, when form of the embryo, or that minute germ European cables have parted.” and first principle of vegetable existence, “ In the · Wernerian Memoirs,' vol. v. which will expand by means of the albu- p. 107, &c., is a very interesting account of men or meat of the nut, and attain two the cocoa-nut tree; in which the author or three feet in length without any other states that it will grow on the sand of the nourishment.
sea-shore, where scarcely any thing else Botanists, after Linnæus, call all fruit will vegetate.” resembling plums, drupes. A drupe con- * From other sources we learn that this sists of an external skin (take the damson tree bears fruit twice or thrice in the year ; for example) or cuticle, then a pulpy layer that the half-ripe nut contains sometimes called the flesh, next a hard nut or puta- three or four pints of clear aqueous fluid, framen, and lastly the seed. The cocoa-nut grant, and pleasant to the taste; and that is a drupe ; and if we take a recent speci- the nut itself, from its highly nutritious men, we have first a thin skin or cuticle, qualities, is used as an aliment in all interthen a fleshy layer, breaking ultimately by tropical countries. In the volume of the drying into woody fibres ; next a hard Wernerian Memoirs,' above mentioned, shell; and lastly the seed, which only lines it is said that in 1813 the number of cocoa the internal cavity of the nut.
trees cultivated in Ceylon, along a line Professor Kidd says, “ Among the vege- of coast of about one hundred and eightytable productions of coral islands, the co-four miles, was ten millions, and that that coa-nut tree stands pre-eminent in value; number was increased in the following containing in itself nearly all those import- years. It is also stated that it is fruitful ant properties which are found at large from its eighth to its sixty-fourth year, and in that natural family of plants, the palms; sometimes bears from eighty to one hun. and valuable indeed are those properties, dred nuts annually; that elephants are fed if we may rely on the accounts which
on cocoa-nut leaves; and that the ashes of have been given of them by different the tree contain so great a proportion of authors; and the truth of those accounts potash, that the native washermen of there is no sufficient reason to doubt. Ceylon use them instead of soap.' Johnston, speaking of the abundance of In the Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. Nat.', the cocoa-nut tree in India, where he tom. vii. p. 297, &c., it is stated, that, as says it occurs to a greater extent than in other palms, if the extremity of the the olive in Spain or the willow in Hol- sheath from whence the flowers of the land, affirms that there is no part of the cocoa arise be cut off while young, a tree which is not applied to some useful white sweet liquor distils from it, which purpose. Not only the cabins of the is used extensively as a beverage in India poorer natives, but large houses are con- under the name of palm wine ; that this structed entirely with materials afforded liquor, if concentrated by boiling, deposits by this tree; the trunk, when split, sup- a sugar; that if exposed to the air, it acplying rafters, &c.; and the leaves, quires vinous properties at the end of when plaited, making roofs and walls, twelve hours, and at the end of twentywhich are impervious to wind and rain. four hours becomes vinegar; that an vil may be obtained from the nut, which is not | elliptical, but not differing materially from inferior to sweet-almond oil, and which is circles, with the sun near the centre, reused almost exclusively in India, and volving almost in one plane of motion, and that the shell is formed into cups and moving in the same direction; those whose various other small articles.”
eccentricity is the most considerable having the smallest masses, and the larger ones
deviating hardly at all from the circular OUR LIMITED KNOWLEDGE.
path. The influence of gravitation, which There is a striking contrast to be ob- is inseparably connected with all matter, served between the creature and the Creator. as far as we know, extends over the whole The person who wishes to attain to an ex- of this system ; so that all those bodies alted character in the literary world must which move round the sun, twenty-three make known his acquirements to others. planets including their satellites, and six or How exactly opposite to this are the means seven comets, are continually acted upon adopted by Jehovah to promote his glory; each by two kinds of force ; the original for it is the glory of God to conceal from projection, which sends them forward, and our view, whilst in this world, many things is accompanied with a similar, and probarespecting his own nature, the mode of his bly a coeval rotatory motion in some of existence, concerning the union of the Divine them round their axis, and the attraction and human nature in the person of Christ, of each towards every other body; which also the economy of his providence, and attraction produces three several effects : many things connected with a future state of consolidating the mass of each, and, in existence. These things we know not now, conjunction with the rotatory motion, mouldbut we shall know hereafter; and the conceal- ing their forms; retaining each planet in its ment of them from our view in the present orbit round the sun, and each satellite in state, illustrates the glory of his character. its orbit round the planet; altering or disThis it does by showing his superiority to all turbing what would be the motion of each created intelligences : were it not for this, round the sun, if there were no other bothe christian graces of faith, patience, and dies in the system to attract and disturb. humility, would not be in such lively exer- Now it is demonstrated by the strictest procise. Besides, in the present state, we cess of mathematical reasoning, that the should be unable to bear further manifesta- result of the whole of these mutual actions, tions of them. Christ declared, “I have proceeding from the universal influence of yet many things to say unto you, but ye gravitation, must necessarily, in consecannot bear them now;" and had all the quence of the peculiar arrangement which circumstances of our lives been told us when has been described of the orbits and masses, first entered on, we should have been over- and in consequence of the law by which whelmed with the view; whilst, on the gravitation acts, produce a constant alteraother hand, had all the glory of the future tion in the orbit of each body; which alterstate been fully revealed to us, we should be ation goes on for thousands of years, very so overcome by it, as to be unable to attend slowly, making that orbit bulge, as it were, to the duties of our stations. Let us, then, until it reaches a certain shape, when the be grateful to God for what he has revealed alteration begins to take the opposite directo us in his word, submit to his authority, tion, and for an equal number of years and live to his glory.
C. J. M. goes on constantly, as it were, flattening
the orbit, till it reaches a certain shape,
when it stops, and then the bulging again STABILITY OF THE PLANETARY SYSTEM. begins; and that this alternate change of
Let us observe the structure of the pla- bulging and flattening must go on for ever netary system. There is one particular by the same law, without ever exceeding arrangement which produces a certain ef- on either side a certain point. All changes fect, namely, the stability of the system; in the system are thus periodical, and produces it in a manner peculiarly adapted its stability is completely secured. It for perpetual "duration, and produces it is manifest that such an arrangement is through the agency of an influence quite conducive to such a purpose, and so ceruniversal, pervading all space, and equally tainly accomplishing that purpose, could regulating the motions of the smallest par- only have been made with the express
deticles of matter, and of its most prodigious sign of attaining such an end ; that some masses. This arrangement consists in mak- Power exists capable of thus producing ing the planets move in orbits more or less such wonderful order, so marvellous and wholly admirable a harmony, out of such experiment, I had four boxes, different in numberless disturbances; and that this size, shape, and colour, made with small power was actuated by the intention of card shutters, corresponding to apertures in producing this effect. The reasoning upon the covering. Honey being put into them, this subject, I have observed, is purely they were placed at the distance of two hunmathematical ; but the facts respecting the dred paces from my aviary. In half an system on which all the reasoning rests are hour, bees were seen trooping thither; and known to us by induction alone; conse- by carefully traversing the boxes, they soon quently the grand truth respecting the secu- discovered the openings through which they lar disturbance, or the periodicity of the might introduce their bodies, and, pressing changes in the system that discovery against the valves, reached the honey. Their which makes the glory of Lagrange and extreme delicacy of smelling is. here most La Place, and constitutes the triumph of obvious; for not only was the honey quite the integral calculus, whereof it is the fruit, concealed from view, but its very effluvia, and of the most patient course of astrono- from being purposely covered and disguised, mical observation whereon the analysis is could not be much diffused. grounded, may most justly be classed as a “It is worthy of remark, that some truth, both of the mixed mathematics and flowers have a structure_resembling the of natural theology.
valves in the experiment. The honey-vessel of several species is situated at the bottom of a tube, enclosed or concealed among the
petals; yet, in spite of this concealment, INSECTS.-No. XLI.
the bee finds it out, though its instinct, less (Smell.)
refined than that of the humble-bee, affords
fewer resources. The latter, when unable That insects have the sense of smell is
to penetrate the flowers by their natural caindisputable. Redi ascertained that no vity, drills an aperture at the base of the maggots are ever generated except from tube, through which it insinuates its sucker eggs laid by the parent flies ; for when he into the place where nature has placed the carefully covered up pieces of meat with reservoir of honey. By means of this stratsilk or paper, sealed down with wax, no
agem, and favoured by the length of its maggots were seen; and that the parent sucker, the humble-bee can obtain honey, flies attracted by the smell of the covered which the hive-bee could only reach with meat, not unfrequently laid their eggs on
great difficulty, if at all.” the outside of the paper or silk : thus de- The varied effects of different odours on ceived by the very sense that was given to bees, were experimentally ascertained by the direct their instinct.
elder Huber, in numerous instances. He In the case of bees, the odour of honey found that the mineral acids and volatile produces the most obvious result. John alkali acted with peculiar power. “On Hunter mentions that he has seen great our presenting musk,” he says,
to bees commotion produced in a recent swarm, feeding before the entrance of their hive, in wet weather, when he supposed the they ceased, and partially dispersed, but bees to have been hungry, by placing without precipitation or beating their wings. honey on the floor of a glass bive, which We sprinkled some powdered musk on a gave him a good opportunity of observing drop of honey, into which some bees thrust their proceedings. All of them appeared their suckers as if by stealth, for they kept to be eagerly on the scent, and even those as far back from it as possible ; but alwhich were weak and hardly able to though they often appeared to suck it, we crawl, threw out their tongues as far as did not perceive it to become less in a quarpossible to get at the honey. The observ- ter of an hour, long before which it would ations of Huber are still more interesting. have disappeared, had it not been mixed
“In order," he says, “to ascertain with musk. Pounded assa'ætida, whose whether the appearance of the flowers or odour is so disagreeable to us, upon being the odour of the honey apprises bees of mixed with honey, and put at the entrance its presence, we placed honey in a window of a hive, did not seem to annoy the bees; near a hive, where the shutters, almost for they greedily sucked all the honey, neiclose, still permitted them to pass if they ther attempting to withdraw, nor vibrating wished. Within a quarter of an hour, four their wings, till they only left the particles bees and a butterfly had insinuated them of the gum. selves, and we found them feeding thereon. “ Having remarked that bees, going For the purpose of a still more accurate out to the fields and coming home, turned aside in the air to avoid passing immedi
MY AUNT RACHEL. ately over a piece of camphor laid before
(Concluded from page 297.) the entrance of their hive, I tried the I HAD just sealed my answer to Mrs. effect of bringing some camphor towards Selwin, inclosing a sovereign for the mantheir mouths, while their tongues were gle, when Maria Parker called. After the plunged into some honey placed on a card. usual salutations and greetings, she said All of them took flight; but after plying the object of her visit was to inform my about for some time, they ventured to aunt that she wished to resign her office of alight near the honey. While they were sabbath-teacher, at the conclusion of the tempted again to try it, I threw some bits present quarter. Again my aunt's busy of camphor on the surface. They drew scissors were laid down. back a little, still keeping the tip of their “ I am very sorry to hear it; but doubttongues amongst the honey, and carefully less you have some very sufficient reason avoided the camphor. One vibrated its for relinquishing the duty ?" wings as it fed, while some were less af- Why”-replied Maria in a tone of hefected, and others not at all ; but when I sitation" the school is so very far off, covered the honey entirely with camphor, and in winter one gets so wet and cold. they all instantly flew away. I had this My new bonnet and pelisse were entirely card carried to my hives, while some spoiled yesterday with the rain." honey was put on another clean one within I am sorry for that,” said my aunt, reach of the bees. The latter was soon “ but you should always take the precaudiscovered, and the honey consumed in a tion of providing yourself with an umfew minutes ; but an hour elapsed before brella.” a single bee came near the camphorated “ But really, ma'am, it is quite a labour card; when, at length, two ventured to to attend sunday after sunday, in all weaalight on it, and thrust their tongues into thers; one is so wearied and exhausted.” the edge of a drop of honey. Others
“ But," observed my aunt, “ you are followed, and two hours after it was co- young, and in the full vigour of health, vered with them, and all the honey con- Maria.". sumed, the camphor alone remaining; “ And all one's best time,” continued whence it was proved that the attraction Maria, without noticing my aunt's observaof honey overcomes their repugnance to tion, occupied; it is, indeed, too great a the smell of camphor."
sacrifice." We shall only mention the effect of the “ How can you call two or three hours odour of one other substance on bees; all your time, child? You are only an namely, their own poison, which Huber afternoon teacher ; there are some who was curious to ascertain. The sting of attend all the day.” one was accordingly extracted, and pre- “ Well, but I have another reason, sented to some workers before the entrance ma'am.” of a hive. Although they had previously “ A better one, I hope,” said my aunt, been quiet and tranquil, they became, all with a deep-drawn sigh. at once, much agitated. None flew away, “ The school is very different from what but two or three darted against the sting, it used to be.” and one furiously assailed the experi- “In what respect, Maria ?”. menters. That it was the odour of the “ Since my dear friends, Emma and sting-poison alone which produced these Fanny Watson left the school, it has been violent emotions was obvious, from their quite uncomfortable ; some of the new appearing insensible of its presence when teachers are so distant and repelling; there it lost its scent hy drying. In another is such an atmosphere of ice about them, instance, bees were confined in a glass as completely freezes' me : it is extremely tube, and irritated with an arm of barley unpleasant. I suppose they think it a detill they protruded their stings and left gradation to speak to, or look at any one some poison on the sides of the glass. whom they conceive to be a grade below The mouth of the tube was then pre- them in society. The school is not like sented to a group of bees at the entrance the same; and I thought it my duty, of a hive, and it soon produced the agita- ma'am, as you are the superintendent, to tion of rage, obviously unaccompanied acquaint you with my intentions." with fear.
The wrinkles in my aunt's forehead be(To be continued.)
came more contracted, and something like