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motives when you undertook the important ther.” Maria's half-raised countenance office of sabbáth-teacher ? I had hoped expressed surprise and inquiry. “When that the love of Christ constrained you; you return home, retire to your room, that an ardent desire for the extension of fall down before Jehovah's awful throne; his kingdom, love and pity for the perishing tell him that you are weary of the work he souls of your fellow creatures, had induced has assigned you; that you prefer your own you to devote yourself to this work. That ease and comfort to his service; that your the school is so far off, is one powerful | pelisse and bonnet are of more value reason why you ought to remain ; because than the immortal souls of those poor you are well aware of the great difficulty little children whom he has given to there is to obtain teachers on that very ac- your charge and instruction; that two count. I deeply lament the loss that the hours of the sabbath is too great, too costly school has sustained by the removal of our a sacrifice even for Him—for Him who dear friends Emma and Fanny ; but, being gave himself a sacrifice for your sins.” deprived of their efficient services, ought Maria sprung from her seat, threw her we not to be stimulated to greater exertion, arms round my aunt's waist, as if to preto more vigorous efforts, to prop the totter- vent her departure, and sinking down ing interests of the school ? As to the de- upon the footstool, buried her face in portment of those you complain of, I can her lap, and amidst her stifled sobs she only say, my child, that if pride were not murmureddeeply rooted in our own hearts, we “Base, ungrateful, selfish girl! Oh, should never be wounded by any little how vile I am! Pray for me, dear manifestation of it in the conduct of ano friends, that the sin of my heart may be ther. Maria ! where is the love that beareth pardoned and healed.” Something had all things, hopeth all things, believeth all dimmed my aunt's spectacles; she took things, that endureth all things ? That them off, and wiped away the moisture thinketh no evil ?. But you talk of sacri- with the corner of her lawn apron; then fices-sacrifices !!—My child, what sacri- spreading her hands upon the reclining fices have you ever made ? Behold the head of the still weeping girl, spake of that missionary and his wife standing on the blood which cleanses from all sin, of that deck of the vessel that is bearing them strength which is perfect in our weakness; from their dear native land : their tearful and as she spoke of the Saviour's tender eyes fixed on its fast receding shores : the love and piety, I marked a tear drop traindistinct forms of those beloved ones, velling slowly down the deep furrow that whom they have strained to their hearts time had made in her withered cheek. for the last time, are fading fast from their Need I say, we did not lose our teacher? fixed and ardent gaze. Behold these soldiers of the cross standing on the inhospitable shores of New Zealand : or, see them undauntedly pursuing their most perilous course among the opposing icebergs of the north ; enduring all the horrors of that in- A LEADING and obvious distinction in clement region, and fixing their habitation this family, is the head into which the among the disgusting and wretched natives flowers are densely gathered together. of Greenland. Remember Swartz, Henry This is exemplified in that well-known Martyn, Felix Neff. Remember the mar- plant, the wild teasle, so remarkable for tyrs of old. See their blood poured out, having its head of flowers fenced about their forms blackened, and blazing in the with sharp prickles, which may be either fires of Smithfield, amidst the shouts of employed to comb the hair, or dress cloth. their cruel persecutors. Think of these, To the former uses it is sometimes applied and then blush to call two or three hours in pastime by boys. It is common every on the sabbath a sacrifice.

where during the months of summer on Maria's dark and clustering locks could ditch banks and road sides, especially not conceal the crimson dye that flushed where the soil is good. Independent of her cheek. As my aunt proceeded, I saw the conspicuous head just mentioned, we the tears steal, one after another, through find a curious and observable object in the the long dark fringes of her eyelids, and disposition of the leaves, which occur in fall upon her trembling hands.

pairs, and are so united together by their “ Maria,” continued my aunt, “I will respective bases as to form a cup, through not receive your resignation, until you the bottom of which the stem passes. have declared your intentions to ano- These natural basins are filled with rain

BOTANY.-No. XIII.

DIPSACEÆ.

water, destined in part, it would seem, for to remain in that condition, it is difficult the refreshment of thirsty insects, which in many instances to observe them with frequently, like their superior, man, in too prominence and satisfaction. great a baste to come at the expected plea- In the sheep's scabious, however, they sure, destroy themselves in the enjoy- present themselves in such a strong and ment. The collector of insects may always. conspicuous grace and loveliness, that find many luck less individuals drowned when submitted to the eye of the most in these repositories of moisture, which, indifferent, they cannot fail to conciliate if too much soddened to adorn the drawers attention. To effect this object, the leaf of his cabinet, will generally serve for should be pulled lengthwise, just hard the purposes of examination and dissec. enough to separate the contexture.

If tion. The members of this family are this opening be held up to the light, or, very closely related to each other in exter- what is better, placed under a magnifier, nal appearance, though widely distributed various strains of these beautifully twisted over various regions of the earth, in the threads will be seen in all their proporwarmer as in the colder climates. In tions. In addition to the mode of flowering, this country we meet with, in the course the studious will find that the stamens are of summer excursions, the wild teasle generally four in number, adhering to the (dipsacus sylvestris) just mentioned, the tube of the corolla, but not united into small teasle, and two species of scabious. a tube, as in the dandelion, and its numeThe wild teasle is generally so well rous relatives. The corolla grows upon

the known, and by the remarks we have de- top of the calyx. The stigma is simple, scribed, so easy of detection to the ob- and not divided into two horns, as in server, that it is not necessary for us to the plant last alluded to. The fruit is say more by way of a general description. covered with a membranous case, surThe small teasle is not common in most mounted by the calyx. The head is supplaces, but may be seen occasionally ported by leaves, which are called invogrowing in lanes, and in situations lucral, and resemble a calyx. Close by where the soil has not been disturbed for each little floweret we find a minute leaf, many years. The prickly head of this which is fancifully denominated the chaff. plant is much smaller than in the com- In the teasle, these paleæ or minute mon soil ; the prickles, which are clothed leaves are sharp, in the scabious provided with hair, less pungent.

Amidst the with hairs or bristles. ripening corn a large blue flower, which The four examples may stand thus, upon examination will be found to be com- with their scientific names :posed of numerous little flowers, may often Dipsacus sylvestris, wild teasle. be seen. The blue colour inclines to what

Dipsacus pilosus, lesser teasle. is called a pale blue, and the scent of Scabiosa arvensis, scabious. the flower is sweet. These two circum- Scabiosa succisa, sheep's scabious, stances are sufficient to distinguish the scabious from the blue-bottle, which has its flowers of deep blue, without any agreeable odour. The other species of scabious, which is sometimes called the It has been truly said, that the artisan sheep's scabious, is extremely common now enjoys luxuries in furniture which upon our heaths, commons, and rcad-sides. were, but three centuries ago, beyond the It may be known by its small rounded reach of the king. Even in the time of head of blue flowerets, closely compacted Elizabeth, the comfort of a carpet was seltogether. This was once denominated dom felt, and the luxury of a fork unknown. the devil's-bit, because, as it was sagely Rushes commonly supplied the places of pretended, the enemy of mankind, envy- the former, and fingers were the invariable ing man the possession of a plant replete substitutes of the latter. The bedding of with so many virtues, bit a piece off the this period is described to have been straw root ! But without the help of the fable, pallets, or rough mats, covered only with a the inquirer after nature may find a curi- sheet, under-coverlets of dogwain, and a ous subject of observation in the leaves of good round log instead of a bolster or pilthis plant.

The presence of what are, low. A householder, seven years after his with sufficient accuracy, called spiral-ves- marriage, thought himself well lodged with sels, is to be met with in most plants ; a mattress, or flock bed, and a sack of but from their frail and brittle texture, chaff for a pillow. Even “ the lord of the and their liability, when once stretched, town seldom lay in a bed of down or

FURNITURE.

whole feathers. An old writer says: “As | under the providence and government of my for servants, if they had any sheet above heavenly Father, who hath said he will not them, it was well ; for seldom had they any leave me, nor forsake me; who takes more under their bodies to keep them from the care of me, and bears more love to me pricking straws that ran oft through the than I can bear to my most dutiful child; canvass of the pallet, and rased their har- who can, in a moment, rescue me from the dened hides.” “Again, in Skipton Castle, calamity, or infallibly secure me under it; one of the most splendid mansions of the who sees and knows every part of my connorth, at this period, there were not more dition, and has a thousand expedients to than seven or eight beds, nor had any of preserve or relieve me. On the other side, the chambers either chairs, glasses, or car- do I fall in the same common calamity, pets. In a merchant's house, about the and sink under it, without any deliverance same period, we find the parlour had wains- from it or preservation under it? His cot, a table, and a few chairs ; the cham- will be done ; I am sure it is for my good; bers above bad two best beds, and there nay, it is not possible it should be otherwas one servant's bed; but the inferior wise; for my very death, the worst of servants had only mattresses on the floor. worldly evils, will be but a transmission Yet this merchant is supposed to have been into a state of blessedness and immortality; better supplied than the neighbouring gen- for, “ Blessed are the dead which die in try. His plate, however, consisted only of the Lord : they rest from their labours, and sixteen spoons,

and a few goblets and ale- their works follow them." Rev. xiv. 13.pots.

Sir. M. Hale. Although the balance in point of comfort is infinitely in favour of modern upholstery, on the other hand, the splendour

Our High Priest.—How should faith of our hangings, bed-furniture, and plate, triumph in this ! Is not our High-Priest in is' far inferior to that of earlier periods. the sanctuary? Is He not clothed with Thus, we hear of carved and inlaid bedsteads, with hangings of cloth of gold, And doth he not bear the names of his peo

garments of salvation and righteousness? paled with white damask and black velvet, and embroidered with coats of arms; blue before the Lord ? Thy particular concern

ple upon his shoulders and upon his breast velvet, powdered with silver lions ; black satin with gold roses and escutcheons of ments, if thou art a believer, are written

upon his heart, with the pen of a diamond, arms; tapestry of cloths of gold and silver in such lasting letters of loving-kindness as for hanging on the walls; gold plate ena

shall never be blotted out, Isa. xlix. 16.melled with precious stones; and cloths of

Mather. gold for covering tables; all which must have exceeded in magnificence any furniture of the present day. These gorgeous moveables descended from generation to blood-red; so called from the city of Sardis

,

Sardine, or SARDIUS.-A precious stone, generation; and many ancient wills contain bequests and inventories of them. They The sardius was the first stone in Aaron's

in Lesser Asia, where the best were found. were, indeed, the wealth of great persons, breastplate, Exod. xxviii. 17, xxxix. 10; the who could easily convert them into cash, sixth in the foundation of the heavenly Jeupon pledge, or by sale.- Domestic Lifc rusalem in John's vision, Rev. xxi. 20; in England.

and was among the jewels of the king of Tyre, Ezek. xxviii. 13. The glory of God on the throne which appeared to John in Patmos seemed “like a jasper and sardine,"

Rev. iv. 3. “He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things ?”

ERRATUM. Rom. viii. 32. “ All things work toge

Page 150, line 24, instead of, "a mile and a half ther for good to them that love God.” Rom. long," read, “ fifteen miles and three-quarters.” viii. 28. Upon the assurance of these Divine promises, my heart may quiet itself in the midst of all the most dark and

Is tumultuous concussions in the world.

JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London.

Price fd.each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Five it best for me to be delivered out of them,

Numbers in a Cover, 3d. or to be preserved in or under them ? I am W. Tyler, Printer, Bolt-court, Fleet-street.

RELIANCE.

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BOTANY.No. XIV.

CHENOPODEÆ.

ture, they are not without their measure

of curiosity. That well-known vegetable, The plants which we are going to in the spinage, may serve both as a specimen troduce to the attention of the reader, of their form and utility, while the figure offer little that can attract the observation of the white goosefoot will recall to the of a florist, and still less to those who recollection of the reader one of the most are only engaged by the splendour of common inmates, or rather intruders, of colours. But though this order may seem our garden. That tall blood-red plant, to have few pretensions to beauty or come- which used to make a conspicuous figure liness, and many are regarded as vile in every cottager's flower-border, is also and troublesome weeds, in cultivated a member of this family. On the seagrounds, yet, to a mind acr:ustomed shore, we find in the greatest abundance to consider the several points of cor- the sea purslane, which is readily known respondence in property, habit, and struc- by its shrubby stem and hoary egg-shaped

VOL. III.

PP

leaves, in company with the sea orache, , of the chenopodium are known in some listinguished from the former by its herba- places by the name of blite, in others gooseceous stem and narrow leaves. Examples, foot. There is one sort that grows at the in short, are every where to be met with; foot of and sometimes upon walls, which and we might say, at a venture, that the may be easily recognised by its strong disweed most prolific upon any dunghill, agreeable smell, and its small hoary leaves, is one of the chenopodeæ. Another ex- which are rhomboidal, that is, shaped ample of this order may be cited in the something like a diamond pane of glass in marsh samphire, which grows in such a cottager's window. This is the chenopo prodigious quantities wherever the tide dium olidum. A reference to this plant ebbs and flows. These plants agree in will serve to introduce a remark about the that part of their habit which makes them leaves of the chenopodea. For, though in of a rank and prolific growth, wherever some instances, they are egg-shaped, and they find a suitable earth; such probably in others narrow, (linear,) tapering to a as contains a portion of alkaline sub- point, yet, in general their shape reminds stance, since we find them either on the us of mathematical figures : even in the sea-shore or in the neighbourhood of leaves of the spinage, which are puckered manured grounds, where matters of this as if the nerves had been too short for their kind abound. We have long been im- purpose, the eye remarks a singularity in pressed with the idea, that they all contain their cut or contour at the base. A good à certain kind of alkali in combination deal has been said in commendation of the with their nutritious qualities : this is ob- medical properties of the chenopodeæ, and served in the glasswort, long known for the not perhaps altogether without foundation. alkali it yields; which being used as a flux An essential oil prepared from the chenoin melting fint into glass, has imparted podium anthelminticum, which grows in to the plant the name of glasswort. In the North America called worm-seed oil, is roots of the beet, chemists a few years reputed very useful for the object intimated ago discovered a portion of sugar, in many by its name. In Mexico a tea is made of respects better than that obtained from the another species, remarkable for the sweetsugar cane.

This led to the cultivation o ness of its smell, as the writer, who often the beet on a large scale in France, for the gathered it when in that country, can testify. specific purpose of manufacturing sugar ; An analysis of this herb (chenopodium and so well has the attempt succeeded, ambrosioides) shows that it contains, among that some think it will displace the cane. other principles, gluten, a volatile oil, and a Even in Cuba, we are told, a preference is great number of salts. We may take leave given to the beet. Thus we see that a of this family by annexing a short list of department of the vegetable nature, which some of the common specimens of it: at the first glance might awaken but little Beta vulgaris, common beet. interest and curiosity in our minds, as

Salicornia europea, marsh samphire. sumes an importance in the comforts and which has been divided into three distinct well-being of life ; which, while it reflects species, by Dr. Smith. credit upon the investigations of man, as- Chenopodium bonus Henricus, common cribes praise to Him who has laid up, in every English mercury, or wild spinage. corner of this sublunary creation, something C. viride, green goosefoot.-Leaves with that, by skill and perseverance, may be turned round notches. Gardens. to the advantage of his creatures.

Atriplex hastata, wild orache.-Rubbish. The corolla in these plants is gene- A. patula, spear orache.-Both these rally wanting, though in some instances species are very common, and may be disthe calyx is finely coloured, to make up tinguished from each other, by observing, for its absence. The calyx, in the that in the former the stem is flattened, in the perfect flowers, is divided into five seg- latter somewhat four-cornered.-Rubbish.

From a point near the base of each segment, a stamen bearing a yellow anther arises, so that they are generally five in number, to correspond with the divisions of the calyx. In the atriplex, the flowers Before the invention of newspapers, are of different kinds; in some we find the pilgrims and persons attending fairs were stamens and divisions of the calyx as we grand sources of conveying intelligence. have just described ; in others two small Blacksmiths' shops, hermitages, &c., were leaves, which enclose the seeds, like the two other resorts for this purpose, as well as valves of a cockle-shell. Several species the mill and market. Our chief nobility

ments.

NEWSPAPERS,

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