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from an elevation of about forty feet ; , long, and 33 feet high. There is a fine and you enter a large room, which is sheet of rock-work running up the centre called the Tan-yard. This, like some of of this room, and giving it the aspect the rest, is an absurd name; but it has of two separate and noble galleries, till been adopted from the force of associa- you look above, where you observe the tion. There are in the rocky floor of partition rises only 20 feet towards the this room large cavities which may be roof, and leaves the fine arch expanding thought to resemble the tan-pits; and over your head untouched. There is a fromthe ceiling are suspended large sheets beautiful concretion here standing out in of beautiful stalactites, which resemble the room, which certainly has the form the tanner's hides. You advance to an and drapery of a gigantic statue; it bears upper floor in this room, which has chiefly the name of the Nation's Hero, and the one ornament, and that is sufficient. whole place is filled with those projecThere is, extending along the room, and tions; appearances which excite the imafrom roof to floor, an immense sheet of gination by suggesting resemblances, and the finest stalactite. When it is struck leaving them unfinished. The general with the hand, it emits deep and mellow effect, too, was, perhaps, indescribable. sounds, like those of a muffied drum, and The fine perspective of this room, four it is called the Drum-room.

times the length of an ordinary church ; You now rise by some natural steps to the numerous tapers, when near you, so a platform, which you have again to de encumbered by deep shadows as to give scend, and then find yourself in what is only a dim religious light, and when at a named the Ball-room. It is a handsome distance, appearing in their various attiand large apartment, about 100 feet long, tudes like twinkling stars on a deep dark 36 wide, and 26 high. Its floor is so heaven; the amazing vaulted roof spread level as to admit of dancing, and it has over you, with its carved and knotted been used for this purpose. There is in surface, to which the streaming lights the centre of it a large calcareous depo- below in vain endeavoured to convey site, which has received the name of their radiance ; together with the impresPaganini's Statue : the whole room is sion that you had made so deep an enrelieved by grotesque concretions; and trance, and were so entirely cut off from the effect of the lights burning at every the living world and ordinary things, elevation, and leaving hidden more than produces an effect which, perhaps, the they reveal, is exceedingly fine.

mind can receive but once, and will reFrom the Ball-room you make an ascent tain for ever. of 40 feet. This is named Frenchman's On leaving these striking apartments,

from the circumstance that a visitor you pass through a passage in which is from France, with his guide, had their standing some grand formation, named lights extinguished near this spot. Hap- Cleopatra's Needle and the Pyramids, pily the guide had such an accurate and then enter a room called the Church. knowledge of the locality, that, after The appearances in this instance suggest much difficulty, they got safely back, a the name. It has about the dimensions distance of more than 500 feet. You wind of a church, and has an elevation of your way through passages, and make a about 50 feet. There is at one end an descent of nearly thirty feet, by what is elevated recess, which has the air of a known as Jacob's Ladder, with pits and gallery. At the back of this gallery caverns opening about you, and come into there are a great number of pendent stathe Senate Chamber, and afterwards to lactites, of an unusual size and beauty. Congress Hall. The last is a fine room, They are as large as the pipes of a fullvery like the Ball-room, but with an un- sized organ, and are ranged similarly. even floor. As you leave it, an immense They emit, when struck, mellow sounds cavern spreads itself before you, with the of various keys; and if a stick is run dim lights gleaming over its mouth, so as over them, as we run the finger over muto make its unfathomed darkness horrible. sical glasses, they make pleasant music. You gaze on it with amazement, and There is nothing forced in giving this ininstinctively long to pass on, lest it should strument the appellation of organ; it is drink you up. It has received the name one of the best that nature ever made, of Infernal Regions. By another lobby, and the most remarkable that I ever be and another descent, you enter Washing; held. At the other extremity there rises ton Hall. This is the most wonderful from the ground (not stuck on a roof, as opening of the whole. It is 250 feet we frequently see) a beautiful spire of

Hill;

considerable height; and this is the tiful concretion. It is a tower, about steeple.

thirty feet each way at the base; and You pass by the steeple, and come rising in diminished squares to the height into an apartment, which has the name of of thirty fect. It is a stalagmite; nearly the Dining-room. It has similar dimen- as white and clear as alabaster, and dazsions to the church ; and on its left side zles you by its capacity to reflect lights. there is a continued elevation, resembling You pass, also, some fine springs, at a table.

You now enter an immense which you may refresh yourself on the gallery about 10 feet wide, and some way. There is one I must distinguish be121 feet long, and from 80 to 100 feet fore we leave. You ascend, in getting to high. You turn aside to visit a small it, a steep of twelve feet, by a ladder, and apartment, but of exquisite beauty. Here then, by a little hard climbing, attain to the most singular sparry concretions hang the end of the recess, and stand before pendent from the roof, while an equal what is named the Source of the Nile. It number are growing up from the ground is a fine transparent spring, and is very rein several degrees of progress, many of markable for being covered with a thin pelthem meeting in the centre and becoming licle of stalagmite. It is strong enough to one. Winding passages are left amongst bear you; and has a hole cut in the centre, them, which make a sort of labyrinth ; which gives you access to the water. and as they are semi-pellucid, the pass- I hope you will not think you have been ing of the lights through the several al- detained too long on this spectacle. My leys, has a very singular effect. This has regret is, that I have only described onethe name of the Garden of Eden.

half of what it unfolds, and that with You return to the Dining-room, and haste and imperfection. It is, in my judgpass by a dark opening at your feet, which ment, one of the great natural wonders of is the mouth of a cavern, into which the this New World ; and for its eminence in foot of man has never been. It can only its own class, deserves to be ranked with be explored by rope ladders; and it is the Natural Bridge and Niagara, while it is supposed, though I think without suffi- far less known than either. Its dimensions, cient reason, to be charged with mephitic by the most direct course, are more than gases, fåtal to life.

You may now make 1,600 feet; and by the more winding an ascent of some 50 feet, if your nerves paths, twice that length; and its objects allow, and your reward will be adequate are remarkable for their variety, formation, to your pains. You must climb over the and beauty. In both respects it will, I face of the rock, which has nearly a per- think, compare, without injury to itself, pendicular pitch, and you will then find with the celebrated Grotto of Antiparos. yourself on an elevated platform, and For myself, I acknowledge the spectacle surrounded by loop-holes and striking to have been most interesting ; but, to be figures. You may now look down from so, it must be illuminated, as on this ocyour eminence, which is the Giant's casion. I had thought that this circumCauseway, into the large illuminated stance might give to the whole a toyish rooms you have left, and perhaps see a effect; but the influence of 2000 or 3000 small party moving over the foors in lights on these immense caverns is only misty shadow. Here stands out in relief such as to reveal the objects, without disbefore you, and on the very verge of the turbing the solemn and sublime obscurity platform, a fine groupe of stalagmites, which sleeps on every thing. Scarcely any white as alabaster, and suggesting to the scenes can awaken so many passions at fancy the figures of a small party of horse once, and so deeply. Curiosity, appremoving over high and dangerous preci- hension, terror, surprise, admiration, and pices. They are Buonaparte and his delight, by turns, and together, arrest and Guards. There is a fine arch expanding possess you. I have had before, from before you over the scene below; you other objects, one simple impression made may, with caution, ascend on its head, with greater power : but I never had so and by this means gain a more command many impressions made, and with so much ing view of the objects so far beneath power before. If the interesting and the you.

awful are the elements of the sublime, here But we must hasten on. When you sublimity reigns, as in her own domain, in have made your descent to the ordinary darkness, silence, and deeps profound.level, and move on your returning course, Reed and Matheson's Visit to the American you pass by an enormous and most beau- Churches.

THE MANNER OF KNOWING, served to enter fourteen principal giu-shops The difference between believers and in one week : unbelievers as to knowledge, is not as

142,453 men, 108,593 women, 18,391 much in the matter of their knowledge, children ; total 269,437. as in the manner of knowing. Unbelievers, As it is improbable that the observers some of them, may know more and bé recognised individuals who entered more able to say more of God, his perfections than once, I will suppose that these were and will, than many believers; but they the whole number of visits to the shops in know nothing as they ought, nothing in that week, and that each person visited it a right manner, nothing spiritually and once a day : then the number of persons savingly, nothing with a holy, heavenly visiting those shops would be 269,437 dilight. The excellency of a believer is, vided by 7, or 38,491. not that he hath a large apprehension of

Thirty-eight thousand four hundred and things, but that what he doth apprehend, ninety-one persons, the women and children which may perhaps be very little, he sees being nearly equal to the men, habitually it in the light of the Spirit of God, in a

attend these fourteen shops; how many, saving, soul-transforming light: and this is then, must contribute to the support of that which gives us communion with God, the other 4059 shops with which the meand not prying thoughts or curious raised tropolis is disgraced ! Either immense notions.- Owen.

multitudes must be infected with this vice, or else, those who are infected must be ruinously devoted to its indulgence. It is

well known how it grows upon those who SPIRIT DRINKING.

yield to it; and some idea of the degree in Among other destructive vices, spirit which it prevails in London may be formed drinking is pre-eminently fatal. It impairs from the fact, that above 23,000 persons the health of its victim, extracting the are annually taken up by the police, for colour from his cheek, and stealing the drunkenness alone. The numbers taken up vigour from his limbs. It makes him by the police for drunkenness in the years despondent, delirious, insane. By the waste 1831, 1832, and 1833, were as follow :of his money, the consumption of his time, 1831 ; 19,748 males, 11,605 females, the destruction of his energies, and the ruin total 31,053. of his character, it conducts him, by a sure 1832; 20,304 males, 12,332 females, road, to destitution. Thus it robs his total 32,636. house of its furniture, his children of their 1833; 18,268 males, 11,612 females, food; and, inspiring him with ferocious total 29,880. malice against the unhappy mother who A circumstance which renders this complains of his unnatural selfishness, amount of drunkenness still more appallthus tears up by the root the last flower of ing is, that it, for the most part, is so indomestic happiness.

dulged as that it excludes the drunkard Whether this vice is more or less preva- from all the means of grace on the sablent in London than formerly, I do not bath-day. Labourers and artizans, being know; but it prevails sufficiently to do in- paid their wages on saturday, devote that calculable mischief to the population. The evening to revelry. The public-houses in number of public houses and gin-shops in Lambeth, Spitalfields, Whitechapel, St. the metropolis is 4073, besides 1182 beer- Giles's, and Covent Garden, are filled with shops, and great numbers of coffee-shops, persons drinking, till a late hour on saturmany of which are said to be, at present, day night. Early on sunday morning they worse than the worst public-houses, as fill again, (some having been open all schools of profligacy. Hence we may night;) and just before eleven o'clock turn judge of the numbers infected. Not long out their disgusting herds, to roll along the since, the following numbers were observed streets, or lie in the gutter till they are to enter two principal shops, one in Hol- picked up by the police. Saturday night born and the other in Whitechapel, in one and sunday morning, in those low neighday :

bourhoods, are the scenes of drunken fray Holborn shop, 2880 men, 1855 women, and revolting vice. Men fight with men, 289 children; total 5024.

and women with women, till the clothes are Whitechapel shop, 3146 men, 2186 wo- torn from their backs; defy and insult the men, 686 children; total 6018.

police; and then spend their sabbaths in The following numbers were also ob- | the watch-house.-B.W. Noel.

The OC

SLAVERY OF THE FEUDAL SYSTEM.

of Britain. The land so held was called Under the Anglo-Saxons, parents are

a fee, feud, or, fief; hence the conditions known to have exposed their children for were named the feudal system. sale in the market-place, like cattle; and cupiers were tenants of the land and vasan old historian accuses the Anglo-Saxon sals of the lord. But the vassal could not nobility of selling their female servants alienate or dispose of such possessions, as slaves to foreigners : thus proving the without the consent of the lord, upon the practice of slavery in England many cen- performance of certain oppressive duties. turies since.

-Domestic Life in England.
All landed estates amongst the Anglo-
Saxons were cultivated by great numbers
of slaves, who were not so much the pro-

THE PORPOISE. ,perty of the master, as, so to speak, that If we examine the structure of a porof the soil; the two being bought and sold poise's head, we find its cavities capable of together. There are some instances of great distention, and such that he can fill freemen selling themselves for slaves ; and, them at pleasure with air or with water, on the occasion of a famine in England, according as he would mount, float, or many persons, having no means of subsist- sink. By closing the blow-hole

, he shuts ence, sold themselves into slavery. Theft out the water ; by letting in the water, he was in some cases punished with loss of can sink; by blowing from the lungs liberty; but the great supply of slaves against the cavities, he can force out the arose from the capture of prisoners of war. water, and fill the hollows with air, in order A father had the power of selling his son to rise. into slavery for seven years, but for no No one can doubt, that such facts afford longer. There were not only slaves who direct evidence of an apt contrivance ditilled the land, but those who took charge of rected towards a specific object, and adoptthe household affairs of their lord. Never- ed by some Power thoroughly acquainted theless, all slaves were allowed to redeem with the laws of hydrostatics, as well as themselves, on payment of a sum of money; perfectly skilful in workmanship. -Lord after which each enjoyed all the privileges Brougham. of a freeman. Guthred, for example, rose from a slave to fill the throne of Northum. berland.

The Covenant OF GRACE.-If any The lords possessed extraordinary power thing ought to be accounted worthy of over their vassals : for, Aubrey tells us, the most attentive consideration, it is that at Tormarton, in Gloucestershire, indeed the covenant of grace. Here a way anciently the seat of the Rivers family, is is shown unto a better paradise than the a dungeon fourteen feet deep: about four earthly, and to a more certain and more feet high are iron rings, fastened to stable happiness than that from which the wall

, avhich were probably to tie of Adam fell. Here new hopes shine upon fending vassals to ; as all lords of manors

ruined mortals, which by so much ought had this power over their vassals, and had the more to be acceptable, by how niuch all of thein, no doubt, such places for their it came more unexpected. Here conpunishment. Aubrey adds : “it is well ditions are offered, to which eternal life is known that all castles had dungeons; and annexed; conditions not again by us to so, I believe, had monasteries; for they had be performed, which would cause the often within themselves, power of life and mind to despond; but by Him who dedeath." In latter times, even the porter's parted not this life, before He had truly lodge had a dungeon, and was a place of said, “It is fiuished,” Rom. x. 4.-Witsius. smaller punishment for the servants and dependants of the great. What is called in history the feudal

God's TIME.-One minute sooner than system, which was at its greatest height un- God's time would not be his people's der William the Conqueror, was through- mercy, Exod. xii. 41, Psalm xxxi. 15.out a scheme of slavery. It was, indeed, Fleming. a system of government and landed property, under which tenants, or vassals, as they were called, held land upon condi- JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London. tion of certain services to the lords, or Price £d. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Five followers of the Norman Conqueror,

Numbers in a Cover, 3d. among whom he parcelled out the whole W. Tyler, Printer, Bolt-court, Fleet-street.

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SPIDERS' EGGS.

(ovarium) within the spider's body, squeezed The purposes for which an all-wise Pro- together in a flat manner, and only come vidence has bestowed on spiders the power into a globular form after they are laid, in of spinning silk from their bodies are very consequence of the equal pressure of the various. By this they can construct for air on every side, in the same way as we themselves a place of concealment from see dew drops and globules of quicksilver their enemies, or sheltering canopy from formed from the same cause. rain and storms, and nets and snares to en- The eggs of spiders, it is worthy of retrap the insect-prey upon which they feed, mark, are in most cases, though not always, besides what we shall now advert to, the placed in a roundish ball; and as there is covering which they manufacture for their nothing in creation without some good eggs, and which may be called a nest, is a reason, if we can discover it, we may infer very curious and interesting object of ob- that this form is designed to economize the servation for those who delight to trace the materials of the silken web, which the moworking of providential wisdom among the ther spins around them by way of protecminor beings of creation.

tion. Whether we are right or not in this Looking at the size of a spider, and at conjecture, there can be no question as to that of the eggs which it lays, it appears the manner in which the ball is shaped, as almost incomprehensible how they could we have often observed the process. The be contained in so small a body; but by mother-spider, in such cases, uses her own observing them more closely it may be dis- body as à gauge to measure her work, in covered that they have not, like the eggs of the same way as a bird uses its body to birds, a hard shell, being, on the contrary, gauge the size and form of its nest. The soft and compressive. Accordingly, be- spider first spreads a thin coating of silk fore they are laid, they lie in the egg-bag, as a foundation, taking care to have it

VOL, III.

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