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on its front were usually hung armour, The hall, such as we have described it, antlers, &c. The hall itself was a large is found in every old English mansion and lofty roon; the roof was richly carved built before the reign of Elizabeth. But, and emblazoned with the arms of the fa- about that time, the nobles began to disuse mily; and “the top beam of the hall,” in the custom of dining in company with allusion to the position of this coat of their retainers and household in the great arms, was a toast, or symbolical manner hall, and a separate apartment was reof drinking the health of the master of the served for the use of the family, which was house. At the upper end of the hall, called the dining-parlour, or banquetting furthest from the entrance, the floor was
The chapel was another principal usually raised a step, and this part was feature in every early English residence. It styled the dais, or high place. The win- usually formed one side of the first court. dows usually ranged along one or both Both the hall and chapel were often oversides of the hall, at some height above the looked from windows in galleries and upground, so as to leave room for wains- per rooms. The other apartments were coting or tapestry below them. They the great chamber, or withdrawing room, were enriched with stained glass, repre- (now called the drawing-room,) usually senting the armorial bearings of the fa- reserved for state occasions, and hung with mily, their connexions, and royal patrons, tapestry; and the gallery for the recepand between the windows were hung full- tion of visitors, for amusement, and in-door length portraits of the same persons. The exercise. This was a long room, with royal arms usually occupied a conspicu- several bay windows, projecting exterous station at either end of the room. The nally, and forming agreeable nooks for head table was laid for the lord and the private conversation within. The gallery principal guests, on the raised place, and was often embellished with royal or family other tables were ranged along the sides for portraits, maps, &c. The larger houses inferior visitors and retainers. In the had, in addition to these apartments, the centre of the hall was the rere-doss or smaller in their stead, the parlours-somefire-iron, against which fagots were piled, times divided into summer and winter and burnt upon the stone floor, the smoke parlours. Of these rooms, some were passing through an opening in the roof hung with tapestry, others wainscoted immediately overhead, which was gene- in small panels also of richly-grained oak, rally formed into an elevated lantern, a and the ceilings framed into panels, also conspicuous ornament to the exterior of of oak, for which plaster has been subthe building. In later times, a wide-arched stituted. Texts of Scripture and moral fire-place was formed in the side of the truths were sometimes painted on cloths,
By a record of the year 1511, it which were hung in the pannels of the hall appears that the hall fire was discontinued or parlour. at Easter-day, then called God's Sunday; Kitchens merit separate mention. The and the fire-irons being cleared away, the oldest kitchens are said to have been built space whereon the fire was burnt, or the by the Romans. They were mostly ochearth, was strewed with green rushes and tagonal, (or eight-sided,) with several fireflowers; whence the custom, in our time, places without chimneys: there was no of decorating stove-grates with evergreens wood in the building, and a stone conical and flowers when they are not used for roof, with a turret at the top, let out the fires. The halls at the universities of Ox- steam and smoke; some, however, had ford or Cambridge furnish a picture, par- vents below the eaves, to let out steam. ticularly at dinner, of the style and cus- They generally had four ranges, a boiling toms of the olden time; and those who place for small boiled meats, and a house are curious to know the mode in which for the great boiler. In each kitchen was our ancestors dined in the reign of the usually a place for keeping fitches of Henrys and Edwards, may be grati- bacon, similar to our racks in farm-houses. fied by attending that meal in the great Staircases in the older houses were halls of Christchurch or Trinity College, carried up in separate turrets, generally and imagining the occupants of the upper circular; the steps being of stone, running table to be the baron, his family, guests, round a pillar in the centre, and the and the gowned commoners at the side outer hand-rail grooved into the wall. In tables to be the liveried retainers. The the reign of Elizabeth, staircases first service of the kitchen, butteries, and cel- became splendidly ornamented ; being of lars, is conducted, at the present day, pre-wood, enriched with massive hand-rails cisely according to the ancient custom. and balustrades, curiously carved, while
the landings were superbly ornamented mering spark, though the overflowings of with figures, &c.—Domestic Life in Eng-corruption threaten it with total extinction
yet, since the great Jehovah has undertaken to cherish the dim principle, many waters
cannot quench it, nor the floods drown it. The almighty Architect stretches out Nay, though it were feeble as the smok. the north, and its whole starry train, over ing fax, Almighty Goodness stands enthe empty space: he hangs the earth and gaged to augment the heat, to raise the fire, all the ethereal globes upon nothing: yet and feed the flame, till it beam forth, a are their foundations laid so sure, that they lamp of immortal glory, in the heavens, can never be moved at any time :-no Isa. xlii. 3, Song viii. 7, Isa. xli. 10, John unfit representation to the sincere christian x. 28.-Hervey. of his final perseverance; but such as points out the cause that effects it, and constitutes the pledge which ascertains it. His nature
TAXES IN SWEDEN. is all enfeebled, he is not able of himself to think a good thought, he has no visible there is one on elegant furniture, pictures
With respect to taxes in Sweden, safeguard, nor any sufficiency of his own; gilded ornaments, and splendid female and yet, whole legions of formidable ene
attire. Such are the sumptuary rules mies are combined to compass his
ruin: observed respecting
their dress, that it The world lays unnumbered snares for his amounts to a high offence if servants prefeet; the devil is incessantly urging the siege by a multitude of fiery darts or wily part of their apparel, especially that of
sume to imitate their mistresses in any temptations ; the flesh, like a perfidious the cap. If regulations of this nature inmate, under colour of friendship and a
were introduced into England, I am specious pretence of pleasure, is always forward to betray his integrity': but, amidst disposed to think it would not be all these threatening circumstances of per-mestics from their masters and mis
found so very difficult to distinguish dosonal weakness and imminent danger, an invisible aid is his defence. “I will uphold
tresses, in consequence of that rage for ess, which so universally prevails.
FOthee," says the blessed God, with the right reigners who have acquired a fortune in truth! The arm which fixeth the stars in Sweden, and who are disposed to leave it their courses, and guides the planets in ting it, and transferring their property, to
for another country, are obliged, on quittheirs, is stretched out to preserve the heirs other hands, to pay one-sixth part of the of salvation. “My sheep,” adds the great whole to government.—Rae Wilson. Redeemer,“ are mine; and they shall never perish, neither shall any pluck them out of my hand.” What words are these! And did they come from Him who hath all SCRIPTURE EXPLANATIONS.-NO. XXXI. power in heaven and earth ? And were
“Now the coat was without seam, woven from the they spoken to every unfeigned though
top throughout."-John xix. 23. feeble follower of the great Shepherd ? then Omnipotence itself must be vanquished and have heard many ridiculous and infidel
I have often heard this passage disputed, before they can be destroyed, either by the observations made upon it. The passage seductions of fraud or by the assaults of vio- presents no difficulty to Hindoo weavers ; lence. If you ask, therefore, What security have we of enduring to the end, and they have a method of weaving garments continuing faithful unto death ? the very stated in the text.-W. Brown.
seam, from the top throughout, as same that establishes the heavens, and 'settles the ordinances of the universe. Can these be thrown into confusion ? Then may the true believer draw back unto SELF-WILL.-Men, left to their own wills, perdition. Can the sun be dislodged from will rather go to hell than be beholden to his sphere, and rush lawlessly through the free grace for salvation, John v. 40.-Cole. sky ? then, and then only, can the faith of God's elect be overthrown finally. Be of good courage, then, O my soul ; rely on JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London. those Divine succours which are so so
Price jd. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Five lemnly stipulated, so faithfully promised.
Numbers in a Cover, 3d. Though thy grace be languid as the glim- W. Tyler, Printer, Bolt-court, Fleet-street,
WHEN we turn our attention to the vast sures, which own his careful labour, are assemblage of the smaller mammalia, dis- repaid by a system of extermination, still tributed throughout the globe, we cannot little or nothing is known about them; but feel convinced that our information on they are regarded as a set of insignificant their habits and manners is, for the most miscreants, whose habits are only annoying part meagre and imperfect ; that too often and vexatious, but beneath especial inquiry. indeed the naturalist has to content himself | What in reality do we know of the habits with that degree of knowledge, if know- of the small rodentia of Europe ? Very ledge it can be called, which relates merely little of most, and still less, as might be to their general affinities in the group to inferred, of those of the small rodentia of which they belong, while their peculiar distant climates. habits and instincts are almost wholly un- In the singular animal now presented to known.
our readers, we have an example in point. Some animals, terrific from their power It is the leaping hare or Cape jerboa, comand disposition, imposing from their bulk, mon in many parts of Southern Africa, but or attractive from their beauty, force them of the minuter detail of whose history, selves, as it were, upon our notice, and much yet remains to be collected. Here compel or court us to watch their move the naturalist must depend upon the travelments. Those, on the contrary, to which ler; but it too often happens that travellers we now refer, are unobtrusive and retiring: have not the opportunity, (environed as their timidity and feebleness lead them to they mostly are, by unnumbered difficulavoid the scrutinizing eye of man; and ties,) of following out a series of zoological though the depredations they not unfre- observations; and many, perhaps, have quently commit in the fields and enclo- not the inclination. The picture of an
elephant-hunt is more spirit-stirring, more pecially needed in ascending the steep sides romantic, than a description of the simple of the mountains, where it delights to dwell, habits of a timid little animal, whose bur- and wbere it digs its subterraneous abode. row is its refuge, and whose hours of plea- That they assist, however, in throwing sure and activity are during the silence of out the loosened earth may well be bethe night. Such an animal is the Cape lieved, and for such an operation they could jerboa, Helamys cafer. F. Cuvier. Pe. not be better constructed. On his second de tes cafer. Higea.
visit to Asbestos Mountain, Burchell says, The Cape jerboa is an animal of the ro- many burrows of the spring haas (leaping dent order, and in the general contour of its hare) attracted our notice. These animals, body, the disproportion between the fore and making their holes in soft sandy ground, 1 hind limbs, and in the mode of progression, were said to derive great assistance from which is by a succession of leaps, it bears an their hinder feet, in throwing out the sand, evident relationship to the true jerboa (dipus) which they loosen with their fore-paws; with which it was formerly associated, and and which, as the nails of these paws have from which it has been separated by modern so little appearance of being worn, may naturalists; the grounds of such separation perhaps be the only reason why they have consisting in the character of its teeth, con- been supposed to dig only with their hinder nected with various minor details. A feet; a supposition contrary to my own glance at the Cape jerboa is sufficient to opinion.” The idea, however, is truly remind us of the kangaroo, to which ani- this; that the animal digs the soft sand with mal it exhibits a marked analogy in many its fore-paws, and throws or spurts it backparticulars, and especially in the form of wards with its hind feet, as we have seen the posterior extremities, and the hoof-like done by the rabbit. nails, with which the toes are protected. The leaping hare, (or spring haas of the The Cape jerboa may be thus described :- colonists,) is nocturnal in its habits. Dur. In size, it is equal to a common hare; the ing the day it lives in its deep burrow, secure fur is soft, of a brownish yellow or dark from the attacks of the sanguinary prowlfawn above, passing into white on the un- ers which infest the precincts of its retreat. der surface; the tail is tipped with black. All night it comes forth to feed ; night, inThe teeth consist of two incisors above and deed, is the season of its active existence, below, and four molars on each side. The and hence, abundant as it is, it is seldom head is large, the ears long, the eyes full seen, though the ravages which it makes in and dark; the fore limbs are exceedingly the neighbouring fields of grain betray its small, and terminated by five toes or fin- existence, and prompt the peasants to its gers, each furnished with a long, curved, destruction. Where the leaping hares are and pointed nail. The hind quarters are numerous, in the proximity of cultivated developed and muscular, the posterior corn lands, their depredations (like those limbs being large and strong; on each foot of hares in our own country) are prothere are four toes, protected, as we have ductive of serious injury; they devour the observed, by strong hoof-like nails. Burchell corn both green and ripe. On the dawn of observes, that the fore-claws of this animal the morning they break up their revels, leap seem better adapted for holding its food away to their rock.girt places of refuge, than for scratching up its burrows, while and wait in undisturbed repose till evening the strength of the hind limbs (which are again shall summon them to their feast. ten inches long, while the fore are little In the elevated situations where the more than two,) together with their power- leaping hare chiefly takes up its abode, it ful nails render them fitter instruments must often experience a considerable degree than the former for excavating the earth, of cold, and that for several months in sucand this is said to be their use; though, cession; it is not, however, ascertained as he observes, “ such an application whether it hybernates in winter, nor wheof the hind legs is a singular anomaly, and ther, like the hamster, (cricetus,) of northnot easily to be explained, without having ern Europe, it hoards up a magazine of had a more favourable opportunity of provision. watching their mode of life.” For our- This interesting animal inhabits the sides selves, we are very doubtful on this point; of the rocky mountains of the greater part the true jerboa does not use its hind legs of southern Africa. One species only is for such a purpose, nor the viscacha of known; we are not aware of its having the pampas of South America. Con- ever been brought alive to England, nor nected with the creature's leaping mode indeed are specimens of it common in progression, we imagine their service is es
THE PRISON VAN.
Surely, thought I, as I turned away I STOPPED one afternoon outside a police- in horror from scenes like these, it is bad office of our metropolis, to observe those who enough to see a young offender ; but what were about to enter the prison van. The first can we say for the hoary-headed man, was a young lad, apparently sixteen years who ought to have learnt wisdom from his of age, who showed the utmost unconcern, own and others' experience ? What can we and, laughing, uttered an oath as he received say for him who, instead of devoting his some beer, handed to him by one of his asso- years to the good and the advantage of the ciates in crime, a lad of his own age. Here young, employs them to corrupt, contamiwas a sad instance of juvenile depravity. nate, and ruin youth ? O that youth would more cautiously at- Let, then, the readers of the Weekly tend to the advice of Solomon, “ My son, Visitor, while such affecting scenes as these if sinners entice thee, consent thou not.” are held up to their view, endeavour more Let the young readers of the Weekly Visitor and more to seek the aids of Divine grace, to be warned from this circumstance, and avoid the paths of sin and folly, and to let them remember that they are not too employ the talents they possess for the young to be led into sin by the snares of glory of God, and the good of mankind; wicked companions. The second was a that at last they may be able to render a young man, decently dressed, who, in a fit good account of their stewardship. P. H. of passion, caused by intemperance, had so cruelly used a fellow-apprentice, for some
NATIONAL PARTIALITIES. slight provocation, as to endanger his life.
The editor of the “ Chinese ReposiHis eyes were red and swollen, and history," published at Canton, observes :hand greatly trembled as he stepped into All those who are familiarly acquainted the van, Å neatly dressed young female with the people of China, Great Britain, was in the crowd, who appeared in as and the United States of America, may much grief as the criminal, who was her frequently have observed in each a strong brother. I learnt that this young man's inclination to extol themselves. The fosentence would be transportation for life, reign resident here sees this disposition and that he might consider himself leniently exhibited by the Chinese in no dubious dealt with' if he escaped the extreme pu
numerous occasions. nishment of the law. This, thought I, is This feeling is cherished by parents and an instance far more deplorable than the teachers, and by them it is communicated former. Young men, exposed to the tempt to the rising generation. The stranger, ations of intemperance, beware! do not who visits England, and becomes familiar be led away by any idea that ardent spirits with the people of that country, will obcan strengthen or invigorate you: on the
serve wherever he goes, more or less of contrary, they only excite to weaken; they the same disposition ; and if he cross the create passion, and may lead you into the Atlantic, he will there also find it prosame awful circumstances as this young ducing the same effects as in England and
China. We will not undertake to say The next was a middle-aged female, who in which of the three nations this parhad lived in respectability as housekeeper tiality exists in the greatest degree: it to an old gentleman for many years. She will suffice for our present purpose to had been tempted to commit some petty notice its existence, and point out some act of theft; this was at length succeeded of its bad effects. In order to bring the by a robbery of the old gentleman's pro- subject the more distinctly to view, we perty to a great amount, in which she was
will cite the opinions of a few', who may the principal. Her abettors escaped, and
serve as the representatives of many: she is now on her way to banishment for life, in an unknown and foreign country, each of the nations named above, and in
We will give the opinions of one from
their own words : commencing with the The other was a dirty-looking man; his hoary hairs bespoke his advanced age,
CHINESE. while his hardened brow told a tale, sad but “ I felicitate myself that I was born in too true, that he was also far advanced in China, and constantly think how very crime. I learnt that he was in the constant different it would be with me, if I had habit of seducing children from the streets, been born beyond the seas, in some and sending them out to commit robbery remote part of the earth, where the where and whenever they could.
people, far removed from the converting
as a felon.