Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

upright in glazed earthen vessels, with per- this aërial navigation the little insect floats pendicular sides, containing a sufficient with its back downwards and its legs quantity of water sufficiently to immerse folded, and thus reposing at its ease, uptheir bases, the spiders thus insulated use borne on streamers of silken threads, it every means in their power to effect an commits itself to the upper air.

M. escape; all their efforts, however, uniformly prove unavailing in a still atmosphere : nevertheless, when exposed to a

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN INDIA. current of air, or when gently blown upon The Rev. A. Duff, missionary of the with the breath, they immediately turn the Church of Scotland, in India, observes :abdomen in the direction of the breeze, and With regard to the medium of teaching emit from the spinning apparatus some of in our institution, it is English. There is their liquid gum, which being carried out appended to it a Bengali school, where the in a line by the current, becomes connected pupils daily attend, in successive classes, with some object in the vicinity. This the to perfect their acquaintance with the verspider ascertains by pulling at it with her nacular tongue. But the grand medium, feet, and drawing it in till it is sufficiently by which all our knowledge is conveyed, tense; she gums it fast to the twig, and is the English language. This has led passing along it speedily regains her liberty. some to think that our scheme is to eradiNow, that the same means are frequently cate the native languages altogether, and resorted to by spiders in their natural haunts, substitute English universally in their for the purposes of changing their situation place. No such thing was ever dreamed and fixing the foundations of their snares, of: no such conspiracy against the languages I have repeatedly observed.”

of India ever entered our imagination. It It must not be forgotten, however, that is the misconception, the delusion, of ignothis theory of Mr. Blackwall is by no means rant or thoughtless minds. What we deconfirmed. On this subject, we refer to a clare, without fear or contradiction, is, that most interesting paper on the aërial spider, while it is confessed that the vernacular by_J. Murray, Esq., in the first vol. of languages alone are available for imparting “ Loudon's Magazine of Natural History." an elementary education to the mass of the This talented writer observes, that “ the people of Hindostan, it is insisted on as a aëronautic spider can propel its threads, fact, that these languages do not at present both horizontally and vertically, and at all afford an adequate medium for communirelative angles in motionless air, or in an cating a knowledge of the higher departatmosphere agitated by winds; nay more, ments of literature, science, and theology. the aërial traveller can even dart its thread, For such a purpose, these dialects do not to use a nautical phrase, in the 'wind's contain a sufficient number and variety of eye.' My opinion and observations are terms; and even if they did, there are no based on hundreds of experiments ; on original writings, and not enough translated, favourable occasions I am constantly ex

nor will be, for centuries to come. The tending their amount, and as often do I English language, and it alone, is found to find my deductions supported, namely, supply the necessary medium. It is acthat the entire phenomena are electrical." cordingly employed as the only adequate Subjoined we present a sketch of the instrument for the conveyance of every

branch of useful knowledge, with the view of raising up a higher and more effective order of men, who shall spread a healthful influence over society on every side. The English in India holds the same place now, which the Latin and Greek did in Europe at the period of the reformation. Where did our reformers obtain their information ? Not in the vernacular tongues, because these did not contain it. They had to search for it in those ancient languages in which were embodied all the treasures of the existing knowledge. But,

by degrees, some of the original European gossamer spider, sailing along in a para- languages have become so enriched by the chute, formed by two diverging fasciculi of incorporation of foreign terms, that the threads, as observed by Mr. Bowman. In necessity for studying the ancient ones, as

[ocr errors]
[graphic]

media of knowledge, is in a great measure has been the Persian, whose attainment superseded. Precisely similar is the case will not enlighten, though it may greatly of India. Do we want to raise up there a darken the mind and vitiate the heart. At class of men who shall have the stamp and present there is a strong disposition to character and energy of reformers? If so, abolish it altogether, and substitute the they must be the recipients of a higher English in its place. About two years ago, knowledge. And where is this knowledge it was abolished in the political department to be acquired ? Not, surely, in the native of government. This change has already languages, which have it not; but in that begun to work. In the great native courts, modern language which has it all in highest instead of a Persian, must in future be perfection—the English. And when the supported an English secretary: and the former become sufficiently enriched by a next step is to send for an English schoolcopious infusion and lintermixture of 'ex- master. In some instances these two offices pressive terms, drained from other sources, have been conjoined, so that in several of the latter may, as a medium of acquiring the palaces of the rajahs there is now an knowledge, be altogether dispensed with English school. Owing to this substitution Thus, for the present, must the English of the English for Persian, a considerable language in India be viewed as the medium sensation has taken place. The present of acquisition to the thoroughly educated noble and enlightened governor has given few; and the vernacular dialects, to the intensity to this sensation. Instead of ordinarily educated many. The one forms sending, as heretofore, presents of cashthe channel of contribution to the reservoir mere shawls, and other oriental ornaments, of those minds that are to be cultivated, so to the different princes, he has, with a wisas to disseminate all knowledge; the other dom peculiar to himself, as governor-genewill form the channels of distribution to ral of India, resolved, in most cases, to subthose who must be satisfied with the mere stitute something more profitable; such as elements of knowledge. The former un- globes, atlases, telescopes, microscopes, seals the inexhaustible fountain of all know- barometers, thermometers, and English ledge. The latter serve as ducts to diffuse spelling-books, with large pictures in them, its vivifying waters over the wastes of a dry to suit eastern taste; often accompanying and parched land. To those who have them with a note to this effect, studied the history of the world, and having understood that such a person was traced the rise of reformations, and marked aware of the great difference between the the progress of society, I now appeal, whe- learning of the east and of the west, he ther the process now described be not a wished he would, by comparison, ascertain rational one: one based on the lessons to the nature and amount of these differences, be gathered from the experience of ages ? and, at his own convenience, acquaint him The English language, I repeat it, is the with the result of his inquiries.". Such relever which, as an instrument, is destined quisition was admirably calculated to stito move all Hindostan.

mulate curiosity; and the consequence has This naturally leads me to refer to a been, that from the Burman empire to the crisis in the history of India which seems banks of the Indus, there has been, more or now approaching. If, as has been shown, less, a demand for English books and Enthe communication of useful knowledge glish teachers. will destroy the ancient Hindoo systems; and if the English language cannot be thoroughly mastered without such knowledge

OLD ENGLISH MANSION. being acquired, what follows? The uni- The chief feature in the interior of an versal spread of English would prove the ancient residence, of every class, was the universal death-knell of the Hindoo systems. great or stone hall, which often gave its And what next? One almost shrinks from name to the whole house. The principal the contemplation of it. Weigh the facts of entrance to the main building, from the the case. Already, in Calcutta, Allahabad, first or outer court, opened into a thorough Delhi, and other stations, there are govern lobby, having on one side several doors ment seminaries established where English or arches, leading to the buttery, kitchen, is taught without religion. And the demand and domestic offices; on the other side for English is likely soon to increase ten- the hall, parted off by a screen, genefold, if not a hundred-fold. The reason is ob- rally of wood carved, and with several vious. Till very recently, the language uni- arches, having folding doors. Above versal in India as the language of government the screen, and over the lobby, was the business, political, financial, and judicial, gallery for minstrels, or musicians, and

" That

room.

on its front were usually hung armour, The hall, such as we have described it, antlers, &c. The hall itself was a large is found in every old English mansion and lofty room; the roof was richly carved built before the reign of Elizabeth. But, and emblazoned with the arms of the fa- about that time, the nobles began to disuse mily; and “the top beam of the hall,” in the custom of dining in company with allusion to the position of this coat of their retainers and household in the great arms, was a toast, or symbolical manner hall, and a separate apartment was reof drinking the health of the master of the served for the use of the family, which was house. At the upper end of the hall, called the dining-parlour, or banquetting furthest from the entrance, the floor was

The chapel was another principal usually raised a step, and this part was feature in every early English residence. It styled the dais, or high place. The win. usually formed one side of the first court. dows usually ranged along one or both Both the hall and chapel were often oversides of the hall, at some height above the looked from windows in galleries and upground, so as to leave room for wains- per rooms. The other apartments were coting or tapestry below them. They the great chamber, or withdrawing room, were enriched with stained glass, repre- (now called the drawing-room,) usually senting the armorial bearings of the fa- reserved for state occasions, and hung with mily, their connexions, and royal patrons, tapestry; and the gallery for the recepand between the windows were hung full- tion of visitors, for amusement, and in-door length portraits of the same persons. The exercise. This was a long room, with royal arms usually occupied a conspicu- several bay windows, projecting exterous station at either end of the room. The nally, and forming agreeable nooks for head table was laid for the lord and the private conversation within. The gallery principal guests, on the raised place, and was often embellished with royal or family other tables were ranged along the sides for portraits, maps, &c. The larger houses inferior visitors and retainers. In the had, in addition to these apartments, the centre of the hall was the rere-doss or smaller in their stead, the parlours-somefire-iron, against which fagots were piled, times divided into summer and winter and burnt upon the stone floor, the smoke parlours. Of these rooms, some were passing through an opening in the roof hung with tapestry, others wainscoted immediately overhead, which was gene- in small panels also of richly-grained oak, rally formed into an elevated lantern, a and the ceilings framed into panels, also conspicuous ornament to the exterior of of oak, for which plaster has been subthe building. In later times, a wide-arched stituted. Texts of Scripture and moral fire-place was formed in the side of the truths were sometimes painted on cloths, room. By a record of the year 1511, it which were hung in the pannels of the hall appears

that the hall fire was discontinued or parlour. at Easter-day, then called God's Sunday; Kitchens merit separate mention. The and the fire-irons being cleared away, the oldest kitchens are said to have been built space whereon the fire was burnt, or the by the Romans. They were mostly ochearth, was strewed with green rushes and tagonal, (or eight-sided,) with several fireflowers; whence the custom, in our time, places without chimneys: there was no of decorating stove-grates with evergreens wood in the building, and a stone conical and flowers when they are not used for roof, with a turret at the top, let out the fires. The halls at the universities of Ox- steam and smoke; some, however, had ford or Cambridge furnish a picture, par- vents below the eaves, to let out steam. ticularly at dinner, of the style and cus- They generally had four ranges, a boiling toms of the olden time; and those who place for small boiled meats, and a house are curious to know the mode in which for the great boiler. In each kitchen was our ancestors dined in the reign of the usually a place for keeping flitches of Henrys and Edwards, may be grati- bacon, similar to our racks in farm-houses. fied by attending that meal in the great Staircases in the older houses were halls of Christchurch or Trinity College, carried up in separate turrets, generally and imagining the occupants of the upper circular; the steps being of stone, running table to be the baron, his family, guests, round a pillar in the centre, and the and the gowned commoners at the side outer hand-rail grooved into the wall. In tables to be the liveried retainers. The the reign of Elizabeth, staircases first service of the kitchen, butteries, and cel- became splendidly ornamented; being of lars, is conducted, at the present day, pre- wood, enriched with massive hand-rails cisely according to the ancient custom. and balustrades, curiously carved, while

THE ALMIGHTY.

the landings were superbly ornamented mering spark, though the overflowings of with figures, &c.—Domestic Life in Eng- corruption threaten it with total extinction, land.

yet, since the great Jehovah has undertaken to cherish the dim principle, many waters

cannot quench it, nor the floods drown it. The almighty Architect stretches out Nay, though it were feeble as the smokthe north, and its whole starry train, over ing fax, Almighty Goodness stands enthe empty space: he hangs the earth and gaged to augment the heat, to raise the fire, all the ethereal globes upon nothing: yet and feed the flame, till it beam forth, a are their foundations laid so sure, that they lamp of immortal glory, in the heavens, can never be moved at any time :-no Isa. xlii. 3, Song viii. 7, Isa. xli. 10, John unfit representation to the sincere christian x. 28.-Hervey. of his final perseverance; but such as points out the cause that effects it, and constitutes the pledge which ascertains it. His nature

TAXES IN SWEDEN. is all enfeebled, he is not able of himself

With respect to taxes in Sweden, to think a good thought, he has no visible

there is one on elegant furniture, pictures, safeguard, nor any sufficiency of his own; gilded ornaments, and splendid female and yet, whole legions of formidable ene

attire. Such are the sumptuary rules mies are combined to compass his ruin. The world lays unnumbered snares for his

observed respecting their dress, that it

amounts to a high offence if servants prefeet; the devil is incessantly urging the

sume to imitate their mistresses in any siege by a multitude of fiery darts or wily part of their apparel, especially that of temptations; the flesh, like a perfidious

the inmate, under colour of friendship and a

сар.

If regulations of this nature

were introduced into England, I am specious pretence of pleasure, is always forward to betray his integrity: but, amidst found so very difficult to distinguish do

disposed to think it would not be all these threatening circumstances of per- mestics from their masters and missonal weakness and imminent danger, an invisible aid is his defence. “I will uphold dress, which so universally prevails. Fo

tresses, in consequence of that rage for thee," says the blessed God, with the right reigners who have acquired a fortune in hand of my righteousness.” Oh comfortable truth! The arm which fixeth the stars in Sweden, and who are disposed to leave it their courses, and guides the planets in

for another country, are obliged, on quittheirs, is stretehed out to

ting it, and transferring their property to preserve

the heirs of salvation. “My sheep,” adds

the great whole to government.-Rae Wilson.

other hands, to pay one-sixth part of the Redeemer,“ are mine; and they shall never perish, neither shall any pluck them out of my hand.” What words are these! And did they come from Him who hath all SCRIPTURE EXPLANATIONS.-NO. XXXI. power in heaven and earth? And were

Now the coat was without seam, woven from the they spoken to every unfeigned though

top throughout."-John xix. 23. feeble follower of the great Shepherd ? then Omnipotence itself must be vanquished

I HAVE often heard this passage disputed, before they can be destroyed, either by the observations made upon it. The passage

and have heard many ridiculous and infidel seductions of fraud or by the assaults of violence. If you ask, therefore, What secu

presents no difficulty to Hindoo weavers ; rity have we of enduring to the end, and

they have a method of weaving garments continuing faithful unto death ? the very stated in the text.-W. Brown.

without seam, from the top throughout, as same that establishes the heavens, and 'settles the ordinances of the universe. Can these be thrown into confusion? Then may the true believer draw back unto SELF-WILL.-Men, left to their own wills, perdition. Can the sun be dislodged from will rather go to hell than be beholden to his sphere, and rush lawlessly through the free grace for salvation, John v. 40.-Cole. sky ? then, and then only, can the faith of God's elect be overthrown finally. Be of good courage, then, O my soul ; rely on JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London. those Divine succours which are so so

Price ld. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Five lemnly stipulated, so faithfully promised.

Numbers in a Cover, 3d. Though thy grace be languid as the glim- W. Tyler, Printer, Bolt-court, Fleet-street,

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic][ocr errors][subsumed][ocr errors][subsumed][merged small]

WHEN we turn our attention to the vast sures, which own his caresul labour, are assemblage of the smaller mammalia, dis- repaid by a system of extermination, still tributed throughout the globe, we cannot little or nothing is known about them; but feel convinced that our information on they are regarded as a set of insignificant their habits and manners is, for the most miscreants, whose habits are only annoying part meagre and imperfect; that too often and vexatious, but beneath especial inquiry. indeed the naturalist has to content himself What in reality do we know of the habits with that degree of knowledge, if know- of the small rodentia of Europe ? Very ledge it can be called, which relates merely little of most, and still less, as might be to their general affinities in the group to inferred, of those of the small rodentia of which they belong, while their peculiar distant climates. habits and instincts are almost wholly un- In the singular animal now presented to known.

our readers, we have an example in point. Some animals, terrific from their power It is the leaping hare or Cape jerboa, comand disposition, imposing from their bulk, mon in many parts of Southern Africa, but or attractive from their beauty, force them of the minuter detail of whose history, selves, as it were, upon our notice, and much yet remains to be collected. Here compel or court us to watch their move the naturalist must depend upon the travelments. Those, on the contrary, to which ler; but it too often happens that travellers we now refer, are unobtrusive and retiring: have not the opportunity, (environed as their timidity and feebleness lead them to they mostly are, by unnumbered difficulavoid the scrutinizing eye of man; and ties,) of following out a series of zoological though the depredations they not unfre- observations; and many, perhaps, have quently commit in the fields and enclo- not the inclination. The picture of an

VOL. III.

X X

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »