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BOTANY.-No. XXIII.

SOLANACEÆ,

sometimes attains to the length of four sonous character, we need mention only feet. It is quite harmless and may be the atropa belladonna, or deadly nighttamed. A Mr. Cristman, of London, shade, and the hyosicamus niger, or henkept one eleven years, which exhibited bane. It will, therefore, at first sight apthe utmost attachment to its master. The pear a little singular that the potato preserved skin, with a testimony to the should belong to a family impressed with creature's merits, is preserved in the mu- qualities so much to be dreaded; but to seum of the Zoological Society.

M.

explain the discrepancy by reference to analogy, we have only to recollect what a curious change the process of earthing up effects in a stem, as in the celery and sea-kale, for example. Take a stem of

the former, when ripe, and bite off a This is one of those interesting fami- piece that has grown two inches below lies which are brought within the range the earth's surface, and then a piece that of our domestic acquaintance by the rela- has grown two inches above the earth's tion that some of their component mem- surface, and then mark what a difference bers bear to the purposes of life in in flavour and quality. The potato is a serving as articles of diet or medicine. free stem propagated by the parent, and That well-known and useful vegetable, is ripened for use by lying in the soil the potato, is the root, (tuber,) or rather precisely as in the two instances just cited. the subterranean stem of the solanum tu- When a potato is exposed it turnsgreen, as berosum, which may properly stand as the a stem in natural course does, and, as an head and representative of all its brethren. eatable, becomes unwholesome and disThe calyx is divided into five segments, agreeable. After having stated thus and often permanent, that is, continues to much in reference to the potato, which, accompany the fruit after the other parts as we may hint by the way, came originof the flower have fallen off. The corolla ally from Mexico, we may go on to menis also cleft into five divisions, and bears tion a few examples for further illustration as many stamens from its base. The and exercise. The datura stramonium, fruit is divided into two cells by a parti- or thorn-apple, which is a native of this tion which is bisected on each side by a country, but frequently finds a place in ridge crowned with the seeds. This po- our gardens. The thorny points upon sition of the seeds may be rendered easy the seed-vessel render it a plant of easy to the apprehension by cutting one of the recognition, though these are not essengreen capsicums or chilis across, and ob- tial to the genus datura, but the fourserving how the seeds descend in the valved capsule and funnel-shaped plaited middle line on each side of the partition. corolla. The gloomy appearance and If the reader should happen to take a disagreeable smell may easily suggest pleasure in investigations this kind, he a recollection of the general character may remove the covering of the seed it. of the solanaceæ. The bitter-sweet self, when he will perceive, by the help and the black nightshade are easily of a little patience, that the embryo

; known by the exact resemblance which curled round a white substance which is potato. The former (solanum dulcamara) called the albumen. The characters we produces berries of a bright red in our have now given are the leading ones, as hedges, while the latter (solanum nigrum) far as the fructification in its parts are yields black ones upon compost and concerned; but the appearance of this among

rubbish. family was long ago considered as pecu- The tea plant, (lycium barbatum,) which iarly indicative of the dangerous qualities forms such a fast-growing covering for which many of them possess : as if the bowers and walls, belongs to this family. providential care of God had given us a It is a native of France and Japan, where cautionary notice and warning in the it is used sometimes as a s

as a substitute for gloomy aspect and unlovely hues and tea: whence its name. scents of certain plants, that we may not infer that though its blossom has a melanproceed at once to taste the fruit, which choly hue, it possesses but little of those is often attractive, or apply their foliage narcotic properties which are found in to purposes of diet, till trial and expe- many others of the same order. We riment can vouch for the safety of their may also refer to other examples in the

To remind the reader of their poi- mulleins, which it would seem are neither

Hence we may

use.

hurtful nor unsightly. This genus (ver, as it represents objects under an angle bascum) distinguished by its wheel-shaped greater than is presented to the naked corolla and its bearded filainents, compre- eye.—(See the cut representing the difhends several species which are occasion- ferent angles under which the man is ally seen in gardens, and are remarkable viewed, in the 2nd column of page 372 ) for a long spike of yellow flowers, and The moon, for example, appears to the the downy covering of their leaves. The naked eye under an angle of half a dę. great broad-leaved mullein (verbascum gree; consequently, a telescope magnifies thapsus) is often a solitary but a conspi- one hundred times, when it represents cuous object by road sides. Its tall, the moon under an angle of fifty degrees, straight stem, bright yellow flowers, and which is one hundred times greater than pale downy leaves will always point it half a degree. If it magnified two hun. out as the plant in question.

dred times, it would represent the moon The winter cherry, (physalis alkekengi,) under an angle of one hundred degrees : so remarkable for the enlargement of the and the moon would, in that case, appear calyx, claims a space here; the blossom larger than one-half of the visible heavery much resembles that of the potato, vens, whose whole extent is only one while the pulpy seed-vessels, when ripe, hundred and eighty degrees. It theremake an agreeable dessert, especially in fore happens, that, in viewing the moon hot climates. This example shows that through a telescope of a high magnifythe gloomy appearance, joined to the ing power, a small portion only of her botanical characteristics, may be esteemed disk is visible at a time; because the a salutary caution, and is not an invaria- size of the telescope remains the same, ble prohibition against eating the fruit of whilst the apparent size of the moon is these plants.

increased : consequently, the telescope The last we shall name is the nicotiana must be moved about, to view different tabacum, or tobacco plant. The narcotic parts in succession, in order to examine properties of this pernicious weed are the whole. Thus a telescope whose obsoon felt on the first trial of the inexpe-ject lens (that is, the glass next the object, rienced, while they are subsequently at- or at the further end of the telescope) is tested by the haggard looks and declining three inches diameter, when it is adapted appetite of those who yield themselves to magnify about forty times, it will show to its indulgence.

the whole surface of the moon at once, as shown in figure No. 1; if a power of one hundred be applied to the same telescope, it will show a much less por

tion of the moon at a time, but greatly magA TELESCOPE magnifies as many times | nified, as represented in figure, No. 2. Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.

THE TELESCOPE.No. III.

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The principal end of telescopes, then, I telescope magnifies twenty, sixty, or a is to increase, or multiply, the angle hundred times, &c. under which objects appear to the naked Before showing the arrangement of the eye. Accordingly, we say, that such a glasses to form a telescope, we must re

mind the reader of the following general, a point, then it is clear that a concave particulars, which we have before explained; namely, by a convex lens parallel rays are rendered convergent, and convergent rays parallel; thus,

a

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B

(a, a, parallel rays; b, b, divergent rays.) (a, a, parallel rays; b, b, convergent rays.)

glass renders converging rays parallel, and convergent rays become still more and divergent rays become still more diso, and the reverse as before; thus, vergent, and the reverse; thus,

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(a, a, convergent rays; 6, 6, more convergent.)

(a, a, divergent rays; b, b, still more divergent.) By a convex lens, parallel rays are ren- The following figure represents the ardered divergent, or if you consider those rangements of the glasses, forming a terays marked divergent, as converging to / lescope of the simplest kind :

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(a, a, parallel rays.

b, b, convergent.

c, d, parallel.) A B is a convex lens, called the object- parallel, to enter the eye of a person glass of the telescope, whose focus is at placed at E, more distinct vision will be the point E, which (as explained at page obtained, as objects are, in all cases, 372) is the point where the image of best distinguished when they are so disan infinitely distant object would be tant that the rays of light from them formed by the parallel rays which fall which fall on the eye are parallel to each upon the glass being refracted in passing other. through it, so as to converge to this The magnifying power of such a telespoint. c d is a concave lens, called the cope as above described, amounts to eye-glass, which is placed nearer to the as many times as the focal distance of object-glass than the point E, by the dis- the object-glass A B is greater in length tance of its own focus, so that the point than that of the eye-glass c D. Thus, E is the focus of both glasses. Now, supposing the distance of the objectthe parallel rays, after passing through glass A B, from its focus E, to be thirtythe object-glass, converge towards the six inches, and that the distance of the focus e; but it is evident, that before eye-glass c d from its focus (which is they arrive at that point, they must pass the same point E) is one inch; then the through the eye-glass C D, which, being difference between these two focal distances concave, cause all converging rays to is thirty-five inches, and therefore such a become parallel, as before stated; there- telescope would magnify thirty-five times, fore, the rays on leaving the eye-glass, or the object viewed would appear under again become parallel to each other, as an angle thirty-five times greater than when they were when they first reached the viewed by the naked eye. It hardly need object-glass. By thus rendering the rars be remarked, that the glasses are fixed in a tube, though not so represented in our sage with affection, “Bear ye one another's figure.

burdens." When a telescope is directed towards the Did you ever find your hearts fill with heavens, or to very distant objects on the joy when you beheld a married couple surearth, the space discovered appears in the rounded with comforts, animated with the figure of a circle, that being the aperture of same hope, journeying on together towards the tube which forms the telescope ; and the same heaven, affectionately loving and we see those objects only which are in- highly honouring each other; and, in adcluded in that space; so that to examine dition to all this, bearing each other's burother objects, the position of the instrument dens ? Oh it is a lovely, a glorious thing in must be altered : this circular space pre- this world of affliction, to find hearts knit sented to the eye of the spectator is called together in sorrow and in joy, sharing with the field of the telescope. It will readily equal willingness the shine and the shade! be understood, that it is a great advantage And have you never looked with pain to have a very large field of view ; for sup- upon an ill-matched pair, reminding you of pose two telescopes directed to the moon, dogs chained together, pulling different by the one of which we can discover only ways ? Have you seen the eye inflamed a portion of that luminary, whereas by the with wrath, whilst the tongue was venomed other we see her whole body, together with with bitterness, and discomfort, clamour, the neighbouring stars, (see our cut, Fig. 1, and confusion reigned around ? and Fig. 2,) the field of the first is, there- Oh it is a bitter and an evil thing for those fore, much greater than that of the other: who are in wedded life to dwell in hatred, and relieves the observer not only from the not in love; increasing, instead of bearing trouble of frequently changing the posi- each other's burdens. tion of the instrument, but procures I know not how it may have been with another very great advantage, that of en- you, but the experience of Old Humphrey abling us to compare several parts of the has taught him that troubles will come object, one with another, by viewing them without being sought after, and that there at the same time. The extent of the are thorns and briers enough in the world, apparent field of a telescope will, how- without our gathering them and planting ever, depend upon the magnifying power them in each other's bosoms. employed. A much lower power, as before You have just entered on a new life, and explained, will enable us to discover the God of his mercy grant that it may be a whole illuminated surface of the moon at happy one; but as it was of olden time, so once; but an increase of power produces it is now, weeds spring up in the fairest a correspondent diminution of the apparent gardens. Such is the evil of our nature that field, because, while we increase the ap- the cockle will grow with the wheat, and the parent size of the object, the diameter of thistle with the barley; and so long as the the telescope remains the same. It is con- human heart is not wholly sanctified with sequently desirable, that a telescope should God's grace, so long will its infirmities ever have as large an aperture as possible, by and anon get the upper hand, setting at vawhich means a higher magnifying power riance those whose heart-strings should be may be advantageously employed. twined together; bear, then, with a few

remarks from Old Humphrey.

Perhaps you have known each other from OLD HUMPHREY'S ADDRESS TO A NEW

the days of youth, and succeeding years MARRIED COUPLE,

may have strengthened your affection. You I have a message for you, a high and a

were, perhaps, so well acquainted with each holy message, coming from a high and a other's dispositions and qualities, that marholy source; one that concerns your com- riage has not made manifest a single infort, your enjoyment, and your peace. An firmity that you did not know before. If attention to it will shield you from many so, happy are ye. sorrows; a neglect of it will burden you But if, on the contrary, when you enwith many calamities. Now mind that you tered into wedded life, you were but half receive it in a friendly, kind-hearted way. acquainted with each other; if circumstances

The Psalmist cried out, “ Behold, how were not favourable to that thorough knowgood and how pleasant it is for brethren to ledge which beings eating of the same bread, dwell together in unity !". And if it be and drinking of the same cup, and sharing goodly and pleasant for brethren to do this, the sweets and bitters that fall to the lot of surely it must be still more so for hus- humanity, ought to possess, why, then, bands and wives. Receive, then, the mes- make amends for this disadvantage as far

as you can, by bearing each other's bur- | silver make to themselves wings and fly dens,

away. What if want should take the place It is an easy thing to love what is lovely of plenty? Will you then look kindly on in each other, to smile when the sun shines, each other? Will you then bear each and to be kind and good-tempered when other's burdens ? your partner is kind and good-tempered You are in health, but you cannot reatoo; but this is no proof of real affection. sonably expect to remain so long; the

Can you put up with each other's in- tooth-ache, the head-ache, the heart-ache, firmities, bear with each other's wayward- and a hundred other ails are known by ness, and forgive each other's errors? This others, and are likely enough to be felt by is proving your affection; this is, indeed, you, and they may try you sorely ; and if bearing one another's burdens. Old Hum- care, want, and sickness, should meet tophrey is in the habit of putting some search- gether in your habitation, you will have ing questions ; questions that at times go need of all your affection, ay, and of God's right to his own heart, while he means grace, to enable you to remain kindly affecthem to go to the hearts of others; he feels tionate one to another, and to bear one his infirmities, and smarts under his own another's burdens. correction ; so much, as to be half disposed If you cannot travel together with affecto blot out the observations he has made ; tion, you will find hatred and unkindness but he will be faithful in spite of his in- but sorry companions. If helping each other firmities; he will speak plain truths, ask will not do, hindering one another will do plain questions, and make plain remarks, worse. If bearing one another's burdens whoever may be affected by them.

will not enable you to trudge along toleraIt is a clear case, that “ two cannot bly comfortable, you will make but a sad walk together unless they are agreed;" but business of it, by adding to each other's if they are agreed, they get on wonderfully load. Therefore“ Bear ye one another's well. The one may be stronger or weaker, burdens.” bolder or more timid than the other, but If you have made your calculation for that will not signify. The one may be a fine weather only, go and bespeak an umgood walker, and the other a very bad one ; brella, for be sure you will have need of it. there may be some lameness or weakness If you think to look at each other always in the one, and not in the other ; but still with the same fond and affectionate regard they will so accommodate themselves to that you have yet done, Old Humphrey each other's infirmities, that they will go tells you, in spite of your fairy dreams of forward in comfort and peace; and if this unabated love, that if you go through the be true of any people in the world, it is first year of your married life without a particularly so of married people.

single heart-burning, you will deserve to The path may be stony, the hill may be have your pictures framed and glazed, and steep, the hedge thick and thorny, the hung up in the market-hall for universal stream strong and deep; but all will be admiration. No! no! Old Humphrey overcome by helping each other along, by will tell you the truth; however you try to encouraging each other, and by bearing Aatter and deceive one another, you are a each other's burdens.

pair of poor, weak, erring, sinful creatures, I trust that you have not built your requiring Divine aid every moment of your hope of earthly happiness on the mere at- lives, to keep you from inattention, from tractions of each other's persons. A hand- wanderings of heart, from selfishness, from some face and an agreeable way of beha- bitterness, and from hatred. viour are but a poor stock of comforts If you really wish to love one another to begin housekeeping with. You have always, you must love God always : for something better than these, but have a none but God can preserve your affection, care how you begin ; for a good beginning and enable you to bear each other's burdens. is the best preparation for a good ending. And, mark me, when the time comes, as You are now at ease; but as the fairest sum- come it will, when you feel yourselves mer has its thunder-cloud, so surely will the to be overtaken in a fault, when you have smoothest life have its cares. Are you ready been angry one with another, be faithful in to meet with disappointment and anxiety? questioning your own hearts. Say to yourAre you ready to bear each other's burdens ? selves in private, “Am I sure the fault is not

Your wants appear to be well supplied. mine ? Have I not been thoughtless, unIn Scripture language your heads appear reasonable, selfish, hasty, or bitter? If in anointed with oil, and your cup runs over ; the wrong, have I made acknowledgment of but it may not always be so, for gold and it, and am I anxious to avoid my error

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