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in future ? And if in the right, am I de- these few years they were common in sirous to manifest more forbearance to my Staffordshire. Some were of large size, erring partner ?" These are questions that and commonly hung at one end of the most of us are shy in putting to ourselves, mantel-piece; others were smaller, and but they are precious medicine, and if carried in the pocket. The days were taken with a dependence on God's bless- denoted by notches, and the other records ing, will do us great good. It will ren- by figures, which are too numerous to der us more humble, cautious, and for-describe. One of these Saxon almanacks bearing; it will increase our affection, and may be seen in St. John's College, Camit will do much towards influencing us bridge. to bear each other's burdens. Why cannot Almanacks, like books, were also writwe always dwell in affection, and bear each ten on parchment, brilliantly ornamented, other's burdens ? Why should an aggra- or illuminated with colours : vating or an angry feeling ever rise in our splendid collection of these, of the fourbosoms? It is because we have an enemy teenth century, exists in the British in the camp; a deceitful heart in our Museum. bosoms, influencing us to believe that we After the invention of printing, almaare always right, and that others are always nacks became generally used in Europe. wrong ; teaching us to call things by wrong The earliest English almanacks were names, and persuading us that aggravation printed in Holland, on small sheets; and is merely thoughtlessness ; selfishness, no- these have occasionally been preserved, thing more than prudence; and bitterness from having been pasted within the coof heart, a virtuous indignation.

vers of old books. In short, Old Humphrey's opinion is The almanacks most similar to the this, that we are all so bad that God alone

English are produced in Persia.

In one can mend us; and that the only way to of these, the first page contains a list of dwell in continual affection, bearing each fortunate days, to buy, to sell, to take other's burdens, is to live continually de medicine, to marry, to go a journey, &c.: pendent on God, seeking the influence of their predictions of earthquakes, storms, the Holy Spirit continually, taking the political changes, &c., being after the blessed gospel of his beloved Son our manner of the well-known More's Alma. Saviour for our guide, and seeking fervently nack.–Domestic Life in England. at the throne of mercy for those heavenly supplies that our earthly infirmities require.

Old Humphrey, had his object been to please you, might have spoken more pleasantly, but he wishes to do you good, even

God's great design, in the method of though it be against your will. Let not salvation, made choice of by infinite wisyour affections, then, be a flower that opens that’ « no Aesh might glory in his sight,

dom, was to stain the pride of all glory, and shuts in a day, but a tree whose deep but that he that glorieth should glory only struck roots will bear the rocking of the in the Lord,” Jer. ix. 24, 1 Cor. i. 31.wintry storm. You do not half love one another, if you wish to love each other

Halyburton through eternity; and if you wish to love each other through eternity, you will desire through time to dwell in affection, and 10

From the intimate conjunction that is bear each other's burdens.

between Christ and the church, it is just and equal in the sight of God, according to

the rules of his eternal righteousness, that Almanacks in England are of consi- what he did and suffered in the discharge derable antiquity, Our Saxon ancestors and imputed unto us, as unto all the fruits

of his office should be esteemed, reckoned, were accustomed to cut or carve upon and benefits of it, as if we had done and square pieces of wood the courses of the moon for a whole year, by which they

suffered the same things ourselves, Isa. lii. could tell when the new moons, fuil 5, 6.-Owen. moons, and changes would occur; and these pieces of wood were called by them

JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London, Almonaught,(al-moon-hee,d) whence the word almanack.

Price fd. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Five Subsequently, these

Numbers in a Cover, 3d. pieces were called clogs, and till within

W. Tyler, Printer, Bolt -court, Fleet street.

GOD'S GREAT DESIGN.

THE SAVIOUR.

ALMANACKS.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic][merged small][merged small]

BOTANY.--No. XXIV.

Fig. a, corolla, exhibiting the stamens, of which two are longer than the other.
Fig. b, germen, or future seed-vessel, terminated by the style

and stigma.
Fig. c, the calyx divided into two halves.

neighbourhood of heaths and common pasPEDICULARES.

tures, we find the lousewort (pedicularis In treating of this family, we cannot, as sylvatica) in great plenty. It may be in many other instances, take our departure known by its pink red flowers, and its from some well-known plant, and bespeak leaves, which are prettily divided into the attention of the reader for the rest, by roundish segmentsam. A closer observation pointing out their relationship to their prin- will show that the lobes of the calyx are cipal. But several of the plants belonging to notched in imitation of the leaves. This it are, from their abundance in certain situa- plant is very common in many places upon tions, very apt to engage the eye of the in- Hampstead-heath, where the frequency of quisitive, and excite some question about its appearance, and the neatness of its outtheir nature and conformation. In moist line, have induced persons but little interplaces, where the water is stagnant for a ested in the pursuits of botany to ask by good part of the year, especially in the I what name it was called,

Зв

VOL. III.

When we enter the glades of some shelv- 1 is generally so divided as to have the reing wood, a widely-branching plant, of a semblance of an upper and nether lip, of dismal green, with here and there a few which the former is variously shaped, yellow flowers, meets our eye. This is and thus imparts a peculiar character to commonly the meadow cow-wheat (melam- the blossom, while the latter is for the Pyrum pratense.)

most part divided into five lobes. The In the early part of summer, the grass in stamens are, as in the labiaceæ, or plants some meadows is diversified by the flowers resembling dead-nettle, disposed in pairs of the yellow rattle, which has a peculiar which differ in length. But the chief point feature in the swollen or puffed nature of of uniformity, and to which a final referthe calyx. In fact, the enlarged calyx ence is made, is found in the structure of forms the leading generic character in the the seed-vessel, which is divided into two rhinanthus, to which the yellow rattle be- cells by a partition which rises from the longs, called rhinanthus crista-galli

. centre; or, to speak with more propriety, Should our walk be directed over the from the middle line of the valves. Upon springing soil of a marsh, or along the each side of this partition the seeds are banks of a river, we shall, in the first in- borne. No difficulty will attend the examistance, meet, under favourable circum- nation of the seed-vessel, or in ascertaining stances, a specimen of the genus bartsia, the mark we have pointed out; for the seedwhich is distinguished as a genus by the vessel of the cow-wheat, which may be found dyed leaves of its calyx, which sometimes in every wood, or of any of the rest aforesurpasses in freshness of colour the corolla, mentioned, will teach the unassisted eye, contrary to what usually happens in other that it is composed of two flattened pieces or plants, where the calyx contributes but valves, joined together by seam at their little to beautify the flower; it is therefore edges. If a horizontal cut be then made generally neglected or overlooked by those across, a partition, studded with seeds, conwho are chiefly pleased by its external come- necting the valves by their middle line, will liness. The red eyebright (bartsia odontites) be exposed. There is nothing abstruse in the is very common in some places. It is detection of this directing character in the a plant about a foot high, with many erect pediculares, which, the reader may be asbranches, and numerous small narrow sured, is as obvious to the eye of inquiry, leaves of a dull green colour. The flowers as it is important in distinguishing this grow in clusters at the top of each family. branch, and are all turned one way. For the sake of illustration, we have The corolla is of a rosy red, while the given a figure of the orobanche major, or calyx is violet-coloured. This plant, so broom-rape, at the head of this article, as it common under every hedge-row, and in affords a specimen, both of a family and of almost every pasture in many parts of Suf- a genus, which is singular in growing in a folk, was among the first that puzzled the parasitic manner upon the roots of other attention of the writer of this article. It plants. This finds its abode upon the roots was by no means satisfactory to tread upon of the common furze, while another species a plant in every corner of a field, or in any selects a correspondent situation upon the grassy strip of roadside, without being able clover. The mistletoe has become so familiar to say with certainty by what name it was to our acquaintance, that we cease to feel any known among botanists. It was not un- surprise when we see tufts of it about the pleasing to find, at a subsequent period, branches of the oak; but when we observe that the plant had perplexed the minds of that such humble productions as the furze, more experienced students of nature, some the broom, and the clover, are called upon regarding it as a species of euphrasia, and to support a little intruder out of their owr. others as belonging to bartsia.

proper store of nutriment, our surprise is This general allusion to the red eye- awakened, and we feel an unusual anxiety bright will point it out to most readers to remember the circumstance. with greater facility than a more laboured description. Should any of our friends be

ORIGIN OF THE BIBLE SOCIETY. in possession of a few dried specimens of From Leifchild's “Life of Hughes." the genera here enumerated, or, what is The committee meetings of the Religious better, have the means of procuring the re- Tract Society took place, for the first fourcent plants, the laying them side by side, for teen years, on the premises of the late the purpose of mutual comparison, will afford Joseph Hardcastle, Esq., near Londouan interesting and an instructive lesson. bridge. Mr. Hardcastle was at that period See the irregular shape of the corolla, which the treasurer of the London Missionary So

ciety; a man of a princely spirit, and de- | into action. It was a spring under ground, voted to the promotion of religious know- accumulating its waters, and continually ledge. His rooms were gratuitously afforded rising near the surface. That which revived to the committees of both these societies, and enlarged its operations, was the inforwith their morning refreshment, and every mation brought to him, from time to time, necessary accommodation, He had the of the still more deplorable condition, in gratification and honour, while he lived, of this respect, of the inhabitants of the contihearing his counting-house and offices nent, as well in protestant countries as adverted to as the birth-place or nursery of in those avowedly catholic. He saw the some of the noblest institutions that Britain whole of Europe, to say nothing of remoter or the world contains. This, too, is a heir- lands, enveloped in shades of ignorance, loom in his family, which cannot but be which the sun of revelation had but faintly highly appreciated. It will descend with and partially pierced ; in no place so comthe name of Hardcastle to future genera- pletely as wholly to disperse them; in some tions. “I scarcely ever pass over London- not so much as in any perceptible degree bridge,” said the Rev. John Townsend, to abate the gloom. without glancing my eyes towards those Things were in this state, when an incihighly-favoured rooms appertaining to our dent occurred, which can scarcely be looked beloved friend's counting-house, at Old upon in any other light, than as a direct Swan Stairs, and feeling a glow of pleasure interposition of Providence. The Rev. T. at the recollection, that there the London Charles, a clergyman of the church on Missionary Society, the Tract Society, the England, but frequently officiating among Hibernian Society, &c., formed those plans the calvinistic methodists in Wales, paid of christian benevolence, on which Divine a visit to the metropolis. Ile represented, Providence has so signally smiled.” with all the characteristic ardour and pathos

There it was that the Rev.Joseph Hughes, of his native country, the dearth of Bibles the secretary of the Tract Society, and his in the native language of the Principality. colleagues, met together, from time to time, He told of a scanty supply which had to transact the business of that institution ; once been obtained from the Society for delighted as they must often have been at Promoting Christian Knowledge ; but the increasing patronage it obtained, and, which, by its inadequacy, had served rather as the consequence, at its enlarged capa- to increase than allay the anxiety of the bilities and prospects of usefulness. There, inhabitants; as the thirsty earth but pines too, it was (at Old Swan Stairs) that the and languishes the more for a few big drops British and Foreign Bible Society took its only from the cloud, which had been ex

pected to shower down an abundance of Previously to its formation, he could not moisture. This individual being present as but be aware of the lamentable fact of the a visitor at the committee meeting of the great scarcity of the Scriptures in these Tract Society, spoke upon the subject of realms, notwithstanding the efforts of seve- a supply of Welsh Bibles, (Mr. Joseph ral societies already in existence for their Tarn, a member of the committee, having dissemination. He had conversed with in- previously introduced him,) and urged it dividuals on the subject from the Princi- most earnestly upon the attention of the pality; he had preached the sermon before meeting. To supply Bibles was not the ihe Scottish Society for Promoting Religi- professed object of the society; yet he ous Knowledge in the Highlands and Is. could hardly have been introduced to a lands, whose published reports told of the circle of individuals in the whole world, deplorable condition, in this respect, of the more disposed to listen to his representamountaineers of that country; and he was tions, to sympathize with his feelings, and in the habit of hearing details from the as- to respond to his cails. The whole meetsociations belonging to the society, with ing instantly felt the desirableness of the which he was already connected, of the object; but the mind of the secretary was most affecting instances of such destitution. warmed with the subject, his previous train It was next to impossible that his benevo- of reflections was recalled and quickened lent mind should not be led to muse on into motion, and wrought, it may well be these painful discoveries, and on the de- believed, into a high degree of energy. His sirableness of some plan to remedy the views, probably, in connexion with those evil. Scich a sentiment, in point of fact, of the members present, went much further appears from his writings, to have been than the specific object proposed to therlong operating in his thoughts, and waiting the supply of the Welsti. The preciselanonly for a proper occasion to burst forth guage in which he expressed his views it

rise.

B

TELESCOPE. No. IV. Is now difficult, if not impossible to ascertain; and we must, therefore, be contented We last gave an account of what is with the fact. Some, indeed, of the indi- called the Galilean telescope, which posviduals present at that meeting who sur- sesses a concave eye-glass; we now provive, recollect nothing particular: others ceed to explain what is more commonly retain a sense of his distinct and emphatic termed an astronomical telescope, which, utterance of this remark: “Why not Bibles like the former, consists of only two for the whole country- for the whole world ?" glasses the eye-glass being convex instead The minutes of that meeting, which were of concave. revised by himself and Mr. Tarn, under a concern to leave a perfectly accurate account of what had transpired, record that such an object, “AT THE SUGGESTION OF THE SECRETARY,” was deemed worthy of attention, was suitable for the notice of that body, and should be placed on record for their consideration at their next meeting. This fact he himself, though careful of not having too much attributed to him, always ad- The object-glass A B is the same as in mitted. It appeared in several printed ac- the Galilean telescope, convex, whose counts while most of the members of that focus is in F, where the image of a celescommittee were living, and all had access tial object would be formed, then on the to the minutes as well as himself. A va- axis of the object-glass E G, we fit a small riety of particulars in his correspondence, eye-glass c p, of much greater convexity as well before as after this period, and the than the object-glass a B, and so placed part immediately and thenceforward as- that its focus shall also be in the point E; signed to him in all ulterior proceedings, then (as explained at page 381) the rays confirm the idea. It may, therefore, be from the image at F,

which strike upon safely concluded, that the elements of the the eye-glass, will become parallel, on new institution were first of all deliberately leaving it and entering the eye; distinct conceived in his mind; that there its origi- vision will thus be obtained; and the nal seed was planted by the hand of its magnifying power will be, as in the former Almighty Author. The facts above related case, a many times as the focal distance occurred in the memorable morning of of the object-glass exceeds that of the December the 7th, 1802. The views and eye-glass. feelings of all present accorded with the When the telescope first came into suggestion or suggestions, made to that use, and for a long time after, it was effect, above noticed.

usual to make them of a very great Mr. Hughes was requested by the chair- length, to obtain a high magnifying powman, in the name of the rest, to embody er, as the focal distance of the objectthe sentiments then delivered, in a written glass could thus be made very much address, to be read to them at a future greater than that of the eye-glass; but the meeting convened for the purpose. He modern great improvements in optical readily complied, and after several meetings science have quite supplanted those ponof the same kind, the address, with some derous and cumbersome instruments, by few emendations, was ordered to be printed, placing at our command more portable with a view to its immediate circulation, and efficient ones, (the principle of the

The publication of Mr. Hughes's Essay instrument remaining the same.) We are took place early in 1803, and for something now enabled, with a telescope of five or more than a year the project was repeat- six feet length, to do more service to the edly contemplated with serious and, it may science of astronomy, than our ancestors be believed, with much prayerful thought, could do with their unmanageable teleby the pious and benevolent men of various scopes of one hundred feet. Hugens christian denominations, who then formed constructed an instrument, which he called the committee of the Tract Society, with the an æriel telescope, of one hundred and assistance of a few others of a kindred twenty-toree feet focal length, in which spirit. At length its first general public he dispensed with the tube altogether, meeting was called on March 7th, 1804, thinking that, by such an arrangement, it Granville Sharp, Esq., in the chair. would be more manageable; this telescope

was presented by him to the Royal Society, and was used by Dr. Pound, and

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