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VICISSITUDES.

CIRCUMSTANCES ATTENDING THE DEATH | dead bodies of the saints arose, Matt. xxvii. OF CHRIST.

52. As the touch of the bones of Elisha THERE was a remarkable fulfilment of caused a kind of resurrection, 2 Kings xiii. the prophecies and types in our Sa. 21, so our Saviour's body, new fallen to the viour's death, and the very individual earth, did give a kind of particular resurcircumstances that attended it; and all rection to the saints' bodies, to testify to confirm our faith, that this was indeed that by his death he had healed the the Messiah, and that he was thus deli- deadliness of the grave, and that the savered over to death by the most certain tisfaction of sin was accomplished, when and predeterminate counsel of God. death, the wages of sin, was thus conThe time of his death, so exactly pre- quered.-Sir M. Hale. dicted by Daniel, chap. ix. 25, 26 : the parallel circumstances with the paschal Jamb, in the nature of him, a Lamb without spot, Exod. xii. 5; Isa. liii. 7: in the Those vicissitudes which are brought time of his delivery over to death, at about by God's providence are undoubtthe feast of the passover, and the very edly real blessings ; thus St. Paul could, evening wherein the passover was to be say, “I have learned, in whatsoever state eaten ; and in the manner of his oblation, I am, therewith to be content. I know not a bone to be broken, Exod. xii. 46. both how to be abased, and I know how to Again, the manner of his death, by abound; every where and in all things I piercing his hands and his feet, Psa. am instructed both to be full and to be xxii. 16: the very words used by him, hungry, both to abound and to suffer need." Psa. xxii. 1, Matt. xxvii. 46: the words But this happy frame of mind, cannot be used of him, Psalm xxii. 8, Matthew possessed by those whose greediness of xxvii. 43: the crucifying of him be- worldly gain, or unsettled dispositions, tween malefactors, Isaiah liii. 12: the plunge them into continual difficulties. whippings, Isaiah liii. 5: the dividing of William Elliot, a common beggar, aged his garments, and casting lots upon his ninety-seven, died in a garret in Old-street, vesture, Psa. xxii. 18: the thirst of London. In the early part of his life he our Saviour upon the cross, and the was an eminent distiller, but having failed, giving him vinegar and gall, Psa. Ixix. he went to sea and was taken by pirates, 21. A strange and miraculous concus- from whom he escaped to an uninhabited sion of nature, giving testimony to the island, where he lived solitary, for the wonderful and unheard of dissolution of space of five years, depending for subsistence our Saviour's body and soul; darkness on the fowls he found there. He then, from the sixth hour until the ninth hour. after a series of adventures, got back to his It is observable, that in the night wherein native country, and became a strolling he was born, by a miraculous light, the player. Too unsettled to remain in any night became as day, Luke ii. 9; but at one calling long, he afterwards kept a loihis death, a miraculous darkness turned tery-office, and then entered on the profesthe day into night, for three hours, sion of a quack-doctor. A sober turn of Matt. xxvii. 45. Åt his birth a new star mind would have been more valuable to was created to be the lamp and guide him than all his contrivances to get a living, unto the place of his birth, Matt. ii. 9; He became a horse-dealer, and acquired but at his death the sun in the firmament ten thousand pounds in the lottery; but was masked with darkness, and yielded money is of little value to those who are not his light while the Lord of Life was given to dissipation; he became extravapassing into the vale of death,

gantly addicted to the vice of gaming, and Again, another prodigy that accom- reduced himself to such extreme indigence, panied the death of Christ, was an earth- that being arrested for debt, he was thrown quake, that rent the rocks, and opened into the Fleet prison, and remained there the graves, and struck amazement and many years. The time that is spent in conviction into the centurion that was captivity, under any circumstances, must watching him, Matthew xxvii. 51–54. hang heavy enough, but the burden of selfWhen our Saviour was entering into reproach adds greatly to the load. Libethe earth by death, the earth trembled, rated from prison by the Insolvent Act, he and so it did when he was coming out worked as a porter for his living, until his of it by his resurrection, Matt. xxviii. 2. strength failed him, when he commenced Again, the graves were opened, and the the calling of a common beggar, and in

that situation, according to his own account, having reached the limit of his southern spent the happiest period of his eventful journey, turned backward on his annual life. Had this man, abundantly supplied path. The scorpion was the terrible haras he was with the means of usefulness, ! binger of the burning and poisonous lived a sober, righteous, and godly life, how | winds; and the balance marked the anmany trials might he have spared his own nual equipox, when the day and night heart, and how much happiness might he are of an equal length, resembling the have communicated to the hearts of others. equilibrium of that instrument. Hence,

the origin and the corruption of stellar

worship SUPERSTITION OF ANCIENT ARABIANS.

It was the belief that the stars were The pagan Arabs were grossly idola. the dispensers of weather, which led to trous. Though assuming a variety of the idea of their being inhabited by angels, forms, the essential basis of their religion or intelligences of an intermediate nawas sabaism, or star-worship,—the pri- ture between man and the Supreme Being; mitive superstition of most oriental na. hence the Arabs paid them Divine hotions. The number and beauty of the nours, because of the alleged benefits heavenly luminaries,—the silent regu- they procured through their intercession. larity of their motions,-the sun rejoicing-Andrew Crichton. to run his race,-and the inoon walking in brightness,—were all calculated to im. press the vulgar mind with the idea of a

CHRIST, THE SUM OF THE SCRIPTURES. superintending and eternal Power. From viewing them as the visible types of a

The knowledge of Jesus Christ is the Divinity, man, in the simple infancy of very marrow and kernel of all the scriphis reason, believed them to be endowed tures; the scope and centre of all Divine with instincts like his own; animated revelations. The ceremonial law is full of with his understanding, and subject to his Christ, and all the gospel is full of Christ;

the blessed lines of both Testaments meet passions. But when to this childish error was

in him; and how they both harmonize added the general persuasion of their real and sweetly concentre in Jesus Christ, is or imaginary influence over the produc- the chief scope of that excellent epistle to tions of the earth and the fortunes of its the Hebrews, to discover; for we may inhabitants, the transition from curiosity call that epistle the harmony of both Testo adoration was natural and easy. When

taments, This argues the unspeakable the husbandman observed the growth of excellency of this doctrine ; the knowledge seeds and plants to maintain a constant

whereof must needs, therefore, be a key and invariable sympathy with the pheno-to unlock the greatest part of the sacred mena of the heavens, and vegetation flou- scriptures. For it is in the understanding rishing or disappearing with the rising of scripture, much as it is in the knowand setting of certain planets, or the same

ledge men have in logic and philosophy : i.

a scholar once come to understand the group of stars; and when the shepherd remarked the increase of his flocks, and its hinge, the controversy turns, the irue

foundation principle, upon which, as upon the genial moisture that enriched his

pastures, harmonizing with the periodical re

knowledge of that principle will carry turn of the celestial bodies, they learned, furnish him with a solution to every argu

him through the whole controversy, and as it were mechanically, tu associate in their minds the operations of the one Jesus Christ, like a clue, leads through the

Even so the right knowledge of with the constant recurrence of the other; and even applied to the heavenly

hosts whole labyrinth of the scriptures.-- Flavel. the very names of the terrestrial objects to which they seemed linked by some mysterious affinity. The bull and the ox

TRUE KNOWLEDGE.Bible knowledge, were the stars that indicated the sea- fetched in by prayer, and watered weli son for ploughing and preparing the soil; with meditation, makes the mind humble the ram, the lamb, and the goat, were thé and serious.-Berridge. signs under which these valuable animals brought forth their young. The lion and

JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, Loudon, the dog were venerated for the same

Price 3d. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Fivo cause; the group of the crab measured

Numbers in a Cover, 8d. the boundary of the tropic, when the sun, W. TYLER, Printer, Bolt-court, Fleet-street.

ment.

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BOTANY.-No. XXVI.

copious abundance fringe the banks and CYPEROIDEÆ, SEGS, ETC.

shallow edges of our streams. These plants Very few of our country readers are unac- select the same situations as the rush, and quainted with some of the segs which in are often found growing in company with

3 D

VOL. III.

the bulrush, but, from the number and semblance, are not easily distinguished variety of species, by far more abundantly; from one another, even by the experienced there being scarcely a ditch or pool, if the botanist : we referred for examples of this surrounding soil has not been disturbed family to the segs, because they are every for some years, which does not furnish an where to be met with. We may next allude example of the seg (carex.) They resem- to the bulrush, which, if it is less comble the grasses in their appearance, as they mon, since it is confined to marshy grounds, have long grassy leaves, though the stem is is much more familiar in story, as our ears more frequently three-cornered instead of are no strangers to its report, though our eyes being round. The flowers consist of seve- may be with its outward form and bearral small spikes at the top of the stem. ing. The stem, unlike many of its relaThese spikes are generally of a brownish tives, is round, and bears at its top a tuft colour, and present a dry and parched ap- of small oval spikes. The essential chapearance. A tuft of some kind of seg is racter of the bulrush consists in the scales often seen by the humid sides of a shady being placed all round the spike, like the road, and may be recognised by its exter- tiles

the roof of a building. We may nal resemblance to the grasses, but is ge. take this occasion of guarding the reader nerally of a stouter texture, in respect to against a mistake which the writers of the leaves, and with a stem that is flat- Scripture botany sometimes fall into, who tened into three corners, instead of a well-treat the rush and the bulrush as if they turned roundness, as in that family. The belonged to the same genus. If, however, larger kinds of seg used to be braided into the flowers of the bulrush (scirpus lacuscollars for horses, to supply the place of tris) be compared with those of the comthose prepared with more cost and care by mon hard rush, (juncus conglomeratus, the harness-maker. Besides, a collar of which the country women cut ip in measeg was formerly no uncommon assistant dows for brooms, a very obvious differfor youthful novices in the art of swim- ence will present itself, even to one uniniming, though now superseded by the bark tiated in these studies. The land of Judea of the cork tree. The student would do is so lamentably defaced and altered since well to compare the flowers of any species the reign of Hezekiah, that it would not of seg with those of some grass. In the be easy to say with certainty what plant is grasses we find each seed in the centre of referred to in Isaiah lviii. 5, or in Job viii. a distinct flower, which is composed of at 11; but of no plant could the question be least two minute leaflets, in many instances asked with more propriety, “Can the rush with four, and may be separated from the grow up without mire ?" than of our common rest, with its stamens, styles, and seed, as a bulrush; since it is confined to those spots little whole. But in the segs, each seed or where the particles of the soil are reduced seed-vessel is accompanied by a single scale, and mingled with water in the highest state bearing three stamens in its bosom, fig. a. of disintegration. These scales have, as before noticed, a dry Another specimen of this family is the and parched appearance; but as they are cotton-grass, of which the figure at the ranged upon the spike sometimes in a man- beginning of this article is a representation. ner peculiarly neat and elegant, they are The white silky flakes which follow the not destitute of their appropriate beauty. flowers constitute so curious and remarkable The comparatively less complete nature of an object,upon morassy heaths and swampy their conformation, however, induces the soils, that their appearance must at some classifier of vegetable objects to place this time or other have interested the eye of family at a point lower in the scale of per- every one that is in the habit of noting fection than that assigned to the grasses. any remarkable botanical object he may see. It is necessary to remark in this place, that while the flower is young, these silky in the segs, the flowers in one spike often pro- threads form a ruff round the base of the duce seeds without stamens, while the flowers seed, fig. c, and thus constitute the essential in another spike produce stamens without and distinguishing feature of the eriophorum. seeds; they are, for this reason, divided | These silky fibres, so pleasing to the eye, into fertile and barren. In some instances are available to no useful purpose; but, the barren and fertile flowers are borne by adhering to moving objects, serve to upon different parts of the same spike. convey the seeds to distant places, like the These variations, in respect of the flowers, down of thistles, and thus subserve the inafford help in discriminating the species, terest of propagation. This family (cypewhich amount in this country to upwards roidea) takes its name from cyperus, or of fifty, and which, from their mutual re-rush-grass, which is rendered a matter of

upon

ness.

interest to us, by embracing the papyrus, At the first table sat the noble family, (cyperus papyrus,) of which the Egyptians and such of the nobility as came there. constructed their skiffs or small vessels, At the second table, in the dining-room, and from the pulp of which their paper sat knights and honourable gentlemen, was manufactured. Some ancient manu- attended by footmen. scripts written upon this are still preserved. In the hall, at the first table, sat the Some species of this are natives of this steward, the comptroller, the secretary, country, and may be recognised by the the master of the horse, the master of the passing neatness of the spikes, which are fish-ponds, my Lord Herbert's preceptor, flattened, and have a single row of nicely with such gentlemen as came there under finished scales on each side. Some species the degree of a knight, attended by footmen, of this genus are singular, in having roots and plentifully served with wine. which bear little protuberances, that have At the second table in the hall, (served an aromatic flavour, and are very sto- from my lord's table, and with other hot machic. A species that grows in the meats,) sat the sewer, with the gentlemen Sandwich isles produces a root which is waiters and pages, to the number of twentypowerfully odoriferous. A cloth scented four. with this root, which a native servant gave At the third table in the hall, sat the to the writer of this article, yielded a scent clerk of the kitchen, with the yeomen offiso oppressive, that he could not sleep in

cers of the house, two grooms of the chamthe same room with it. This tribe, which ber, &c. so nearly resembles the grasses, bears not The other officers of the household were, the slightest proportion to them in useful- chief auditor, clerk of the accounts, pur

There does not appear the slightest veyor of the castle, ushers of the hall, closhade of comparison. The fact seems to set keeper, gentlemen of the chapel, keeper set forth the sovereignty of God, who is of the records, masters of the wardrobe, and not bound, by human reasonings about the armoury, master grooms of the stable analogy, to bestow or withhold good, but for the war horses, twelve ; master of the dispenses it in the kingdom of nature, as hounds; master falconer; porter, and his well as in the kingdom of grace, after the man; two butchers, two keepers of the counsel of his own will. Fig. b, in the en- home park, two keepers of the red deer park; graving, style with three stigmas.

footmen, grooms, and other under-ser

vants, to the number of one hundred and RAGLAND CASTLE.

fifty ; some of the footmen being brewers An interesting picture of the magnificent and bakers. hospitalities of the seventeenth century, is The out-officers of this princely estabpreserved in "A List of the Household lishment were, the steward of Ragland; Method of Living at Ragland Castle, by the governor of Chepstow Castle, (in the the Earl of Worcester, in the reign of vicinity ;) the housekeeper of Worcester Charles I., 1641.” From this document House, in London; thirteen bailiffs; two we learn, that at eleven o'clock in the fore-counsel for the bailiffs, and a solicitor. noon the castle gates were shut, and the tables laid ; two in the dining-room, three in the hall, one for the chaplains, and two in the housekeeper's room,

for the ladies' The earl entered the dining-room, at

The eyes of insects include, as Kirby

"a world of wonders.” says,

Unlike tended by his gentlemen. As soon as he those of vertebrate animals, they are incawas seated, the steward of the house retired. pable of motion. And hence so various a The comptroller attended with his staff, as

provision is discoverable to prevent injury did the sewer,* the daily waiters, and

many

or inconvenience from this arrangement. gentlemen's sons, with estates from two

Some are simple eyes. They vary as to hundred to seven hundred pounds a year, number, from two to sixteen. Their colour who were bred up in the castle, and my in the many is black and shining, but in lady's gentlemen of the chamber.

the bird-louse of the goose, they are quite * The sewer was an officer who, at a feast, set on white and transparent. In spiders they and removed dishes, which the inferior servants

are often of a sapphorine colour, and clear brought in. It was the business also of the sewer to bring water for the hands of guests: hence as crystal. In some instances they appear he carried a towel, as a mark of his office. In our

to consist of iris and pupil, which gives time, the sewer's office is superseded by the use of finger-glasses.

them a fierce glare, the centre of the eye

INSECTS, -No. XLI.

VISION

women.

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