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being dark, and the circumference paler. I and forming a triangle; the lowest row conIn the celebrated tarantula; the pupil is taining seven lenses, the next six, and so transparent, and red as a ruby; and the on, gradually losing one, till the last termiiris more opaque, paler, and nearly the nates in unity. colour of amber. When there are more Compound eyes are the most common than two, they vary in magnitude. In the in hexapod insects, when arrived at their enormous bird-spider, (mygale avicularia,) perfect state; in their larva state their eyes the four external eyes are larger than the are usually simple. When seen under a four internal; but in other cases, the two or microscope, they appear to consist of an four internal are the largest. They vary infinite number of convex hexagonal pieces. also in shape; not only as to the eyes of If the eye of any fly be examined with a different insects, but as to the eyes of the good glass, it will be found traversed by same insect. In one spider, (mygale cal numberless parallel lines, with others equalpeiana,) for instance, the two smallest are ly numerous cutting them at right angles
, round, and the rest oval; and in the trap- so as to form, apparently, myriads of little door or mason spider, (mygale cementaria,) squares, with each a lens set in it. The the four small internal ones are round, and same structure, though not so easily seen, the large external ones oval; while those obtains in the eyes of other insects. When that are circumscribed posteriorly with an the eye is separated and made clean, the impressed semicircle, are shaped like the hexagons are as clear as crystal. Reaumur moon when gibbous.
fitted one eye to a lens, and could see The situation and arrangement of simple through it well, but objects were greatly eyes are also yarious. In many they are multiplied. The number of lenses in an imbedded, as usual, in the head; but in a eye varies in different insects. Hooke comlittle scarlet mite, they stand on a small puted those in the eye of a horse-fly to foot-stalk-- and why? Because otherwise amount to nearly 7000; Leeuwenhoeck the hairiness of this creature might have found more than 12,000 in that of a draimpeded its sight. In the phalangidæ, gon-fly; and 17,325 have been counted in the frontal eyes of the scorpion cease, and that of a butterfly. But, of all insects, only a pair of dorsal ones are inserted they seem to be the most numerous in the vertically in the sides of a horn or tubercle, case of some beetles. The pictures of oboften itself standing upon an elevation, jects, therefore, that are delineated on these which emerges from the back of the animal. lenses, must be millions of times less than And here is another admirable provision; those found on the human eye. Many for if the eyes of these insects were not in insects still smaller have eyes, doubtless a vertical and elevated position, their sight contrived to see objects thousands of times would be very limited; but by means of less than themselves; for such the small this structure, they get a considerable range particles on which they feed must certainly of surrounding objects, as well as of those be. above them. Sometimes the eyes are When a facetted eye, such as that of a placed nearly in the segment of a circle; butterfly, is examined a little closely, it sometimes in two straight lines ; at others will be found to have the appearance of a in three lines, and at others in four. Again, multiplying glass, the sides, or facettes, in some instances they form a cross, or two resembling a brilliant cut diamond. Puget triangles; in others, two squares ; in others, adapted the eye of a fea (pulex irria smaller square included in a large one ; | tans) in such a position, as to see objects in others, a posterior square, and two anterior through it; and nothing could exceed triangles; sometimes a square and two lines. the singularity of the exhibition, “ A Though generally separate from each other, soldier, who was seen through it, apin several cases two of the eyes touch ; and, peared like an army of pigmies; for in one instance, three coalesce into a tri- while it multiplied, it also diminished the angle. But it would be endless to mention object; the arch of a bridge exhibited a all the variations, as to arrangement, in the spectacle more magnificent than human eyes of spiders.
skill could perform ; and the flame of a Conglomerate eyes, instead of being dis- candle seemed the illumination of thoupersed, are collected into a body, so as, at sands of lamps." Leeuwenhoeck, in the Arst sight, to exhibit the appearance of a same manner, looked through the eye of a compound eye; they are, however, not dragon-fly, (libellula,) and viewed the steehexagonal, and are generally convex. In ple of a church, which was 299 feet high, the common millepede (iulus terrestris) there and 750 feet from the place where he re twenty-eight eyes, placed in seven rows, stood. He could plainly see the steeple,
SUNSET IN INDIA.
though not apparently larger than the point and, in case any of these annoyances should of a fine needle. He also viewed a house slip in, to assist the bees to throw it off, or in the same manner, and could discern the brush it away the more easily, by a friction front, distinguish the doors and windows, which bees perform with their feathered legs. and perceive whether they were open or Similar hairs are found in the facetted eyes shut.
of many other insects, Swammerdam has given us so beautiful Behind the outer coat (cornea) of the an account of the eye of the hive-bee, (apis bee's eye, there is an opaque substance mellifica,) that our pages will be enriched like what is called the paint (uvea) in the hy abstracting it. The outer coat (cornea) eyes of quadrupeds and man. In bees this of a bee's eye is stiff
, hard, flexible, and trans- is of a deep purple colour; in other insects parent, similar to a very thin plate of horn. it is green; in some, blue; in some, black; It is not smooth, as in men and otheranimals, and, in others, it has a very beautiful mixbut has various and manifold divisions, ture of various colours. which resemble globules or little spheres ; and hence Dr. Hooke and others supposed that the insect's eye was a congeries of innumerable little eyes, each agreeing in
Bishop HEBER, in his journal, says:structure with the eyes of the larger ani- This evening we had a most beautiful mals; but Swammerdam was unable to sunset, the most remarkable recollected verify this. The divisions in the eye of the by any of the officers or passengers, and, bee, indeed, are by no means globular, but I think, the most magnificent spectacle I rather six-sided, exactly like the closed
Besides the usual beautiful cells of the comb, rising into a convex and tints of crimson, flame-colour, &c., all globular surface, as if it were vaulted. which the clouds displayed, and which The woven cells of a hornet's nest still were strongly contrasted with the deep more accurately resemble the facettes of a blue of the sea, and the lighter but bee's eye, having six sides, and being very equally beautiful blue of the sky, there beautifully surmounted by an arched web. were in the immediate neighbourhood of The eye of the bee, and most other perfect the sinking sun, and for some time after his insects, considered in this light, is really disk had disappeared, large tracts of a pale like a little net. Some curious persons, to translucent green, such as I had never whom Swammerdam showed these six- seen before, except in a prism, and sursided facettes, were of opinion that, in the passing every effect of paint, or glass, or structures of the eyes, reasons might be gem. Every body on board was touched found why bees make their comb-cells six- and awed by the glory of the scene; and sided, because they exercise the sense of many observed that such a spectacle vision with six-sided eyes. “ Behold,” he alone was worth the whole voyage from exclaims, “how far we are led away by England. One circumstance in the scene fictions, when, being ignorant of the found struck me as different from all which ations of things, we follow our vain fancy I had been led to expect in a tropical as a guide ; for it would be as natural to sunset; I mean that its progress from say, we should build only round houses, light to darkness was much more gradual because the pupil of our eyes is of that than most travellers and philosophers figure !"
have stated. The dip of the sun did not The eyes of the bee, Swammerdam fyr- seem more rapid, nor did the duration of ther describes as very thickly covered with the tints on the horizon appear materially hair, serving, as he supposes, instead of less than on similar occasions in Engeye-brows, or eye-lashes. In structure land. Neither did I perceive any strikthese hairs resemble bristles, being round, ing difference in the continuance of the and tapering from the root to a fine point. twilight. I pointed out the fact to Major They are very firmly fixed, piercing through Sackville, who replied, he had been conthe outer coat of the eye, as hairs do vinced that the supposed rapidity of sun
rough the human skin. Their number is rise and sunset in India had been exagvery considerable, and though less than the gerated; that he had always found a number of the facettes, they appear so good hour between dawn and sunrise, closely set as to constitute a thick forest of and little less between sunset and total bristles, like so many fir-trees planted darkness.-Sept. 19th. I wakened before upon the eye. They are probably fixed to dawn this morning, and had therefore guard the eye against anything falling on an opportunity of verifying, to a certain or striking against it, to keep off the dust; l extent, Major Sackville's observations
on a tropical sunrise. I had no watch, old tablet against the wall, from which but to my perceptions his account was time had peeled away the inscription accurate,
in strips, just as a boy would peel an orange; and the old tumble-down
head-stone, with a death's-head and RELIGION EVERY MAN'S FIRST cross-bones at the top, and part of a
verse yet readable at the bottom ;-all It is a fact which shocks us, and which
these had excited my interest; and shows the degraded state of man, that
even the green hillock, in the shady not a few superior minds look down
corner, that had no tombstone, and religion as a subject beneath their investi- nothing but weeds around it, was visited gation. Though allied with all knowledge, and some of the quaint old sayings, and
by me with a strange kind of pleasure; and especially with that of human nature and striking texts of Scripture that I used to human duty, it is by too many wrongly re
read there, have never been effaced from garded as a separate and an inferior study, particularly fitted to the gloom of a convent, my memory to this day, and the seclusion of a minster. Reli
As I grew older, this interest in a gion is still confounded, in many gifted nished." I have stood gazing on the
'church-yard rather increased than dimiminds, with the jargon of monks and the tablet erected against the east end of the subtleties and strifes of theologians. It is thoughta mystery, which, far from coalescing,
church, to the memory of my grandwars with our other knowledge. It is sesfather
, till my tears have blinded me. He dom ranked with the sciences which expand and his children's children before his
feared God, and charged his children and adorn the mind. It is regarded as a method of escaping future ruin, not as a
death, to meet him at the throne of vivifying truth, through which the intellect Christ in a better world. That charge and heart are alike to be enlarged. Its has sunk deep into the heart and soul of bearing on the great objects of thought and
Old Humphrey. the great interests of life is hardly suspected, inclination to visit a church-yard is
And now that I am an old man, my This degradation of religion into a technical study, this disjunction of it from morals- stronger than ever. O, there is a keepfrom philosophy, from the various objects ing, a sort of harmony between the long of liberal research, has done it infinite in grass, the mouldering stone, the decayed jury, has checked its
monument, and an old man! They tell has
progress, perpetuated errors which gathered 'round it in strange tales of the nothingness of the times of barbarism and ignorance, has made world ; tales that we know to be true when it a mark for the sophistry and ridicule of
we think of them, and that we feel to be the licentious, and has infused a lurking true when we sit reflecting in a churchscepticism into many powerful understand yard. ings. Nor has religion suffered alone. The
In our morning and evening prayers, in whole mind is darkened by the obscuration reading the word of God, in our daily of the central light. Its reasonings and meditations, we are aware that “ life is judgments become unstable through want
even a vapour, that appeareth for a little of this foundation to rest upon. Religion time, and then vanisheth away;" but in is to the whole sphere of truth, what God is
a church-yard, with the memorials of to the universe; and in dethroning it, or mortality around us, the knowledgecomes confining it to a narrow range, we commit
more home to our hearts; we are made very much such an injury on the soul, as
sensible not only that we must all die, the universe would suffer, were the Infinite but also that “the time is short;" that “as Being to abandon it, or to contract his the Lord liveth, and as our souls live, energy to a small province of his creation. there is but a step between us and death.'
I have sat on a tombstone in the grey of the morning, ere yet the rising sun had gilded the weathercock on the spire :
I have mused on the shadowy side of When I was only a child, I was fond the chancel in mid-day: I have peeped of a church-yard. The broad flat stone at the marble knights on the old monuon which I sat; the monument with ments in the church, through the winthe coat of arms on it, surrounded with dows, when the glittering glass seemed on iron palisades, inside of which the net- fire with the beams of the setting suu; tles grew abundantly; the mouldering and I have silently paced along the nar
OLD HUMPHREY ON EPITAPHS.
row path from the little white gate to- | to say, “ Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, wards the belfry, at the midnight hour, but unto thy name be the glory.” when my footfall was the only sound It seems out of character to write words that met my ear; and in all these seasons of flattery over the resting-place of sinful have felt an awful interest, a strange de- dust and ashes ; but let us not be severe, light. I know not whether I make my- let us make allowances; sorrow has more self intelligible; that which yields plea- affection than judgment, and we all set sure to one, often gives pain to another; a high value on the friends we have lost. but if you are fond of a church-yard, you Many a beautiful epitaph have I read, will understand me. The grave is an as well as many an absurd one, both awful thing to us all, especially when we in verse and in prose; but it has ever cannot look beyond it; but when we can, appeared to me that texts from the Scripits gloom is soon lighted up with glory. tures are the most suitable inscriptions for
The inscriptions that are scattered the monuments of the dead. If there be about on the different tombstones, appear any thing in the character of a fellow-sinto be clothed with more meaning and ner, whose dust has been laid in the grave, power than in other places; we read the likely to do good by way of example, it same text with unconcern in the Scrip- may be well to record it in a simple man tures, that strikes our hearts with sudden ner; but I like to see a text on a tombemotion when pondering on it over the stone, and though I have read inscribed there grave. Never shall I forget once in a a hundred times over, “Blessed are the church-yard coming up to an old grave- dead that die in the Lord,” yet the words stone, at a time when my heart was affect my mind more profitably, and send almost fainting within me, about an un- me away with a deeper and more abiding dertaking I had in hand. The words sense of the realities of an eternal world, that were written there seemed as if than the finest inscription on the finest mothey had been just graven by the hand nument in Westminster Abbey. of the High and Holy One, and sent I once read, on a tablet, raised over the down from heaven to catch the eye, and remains of a faithful minister of the gospel, strengthen the heart of Old Humphrey. a glorious epitaph. It described the man They were from the first chapter of the to the life, and the sanctified effect of his book of Joshua, and acted as a cordial labours, in the following words, taken from to my mind.
“ Have not I commanded the eleventh chapter of the Acts of the thee? Be strong, and of a good courage : Apostles:—“He was a good man, and full be not afraid, neither be thou dismayed : of the Holy Ghost, and of faith : and for the Lord thy God is with thee whi- much people was added unto the Lord.” thersoever thou goest.”
Old Humphrey has now said enough I love to read the epitaphs of older about epitaphs; for perhaps you may not and better men than myself, who have be so fond of church-yards and tombstones passed before me, along the thorny path- as he is; however this may be, we shall ways of this world's pilgrimage, who have each of us do well to put up the prayer, finished their course with joy, and found Lord, make me to know mine end, and the end to be eternal life; for often in such the measure of my days, what it is; that I seasons I find, before I am aware, that my may know how frail I am. Behold, thou tongue has begun to speak the desires of hast made my days as a handbreadth, my heart :-“Let me die the death of the and mine age is as nothing before thee : righteous, and let my last end be like lis.” | verily every man at his best state is alto
Have you never sat under the hollow gether vanity," Psa. xxxix. 4, 5. yew-tree in a churchyard ; nor stood leaning against the old time-worn sun-dial; nor mused on the new brier-bound grave ? If you have never done these things, I am When our Lord died, the veil of the afraid that my words will pass by you like temple was rent in twain from the top to “ the idle wind that you regard not.” the bottom, Matt. xxvii. 51. The veil was
Sometimes the dead are sadly bespat- that which divided the most holy place tered with praise, and this is to be regret- from the rest of the tabernacle, Exod. xxvi. ted; for if God in his mercy has taught us 33 ; and in that most holy place were conany thing of our own hearts, we know that tained the mysterious types, the ark of the our sinful nature has nothing to boast of; covenant and the mercy-seat ; and within and if He has taught us in addition any this veil only the high-priest entered once thing of his grace, we shall be ready a year, when he made an atonement for the
THE RENDING OF THE VEIL.
people and for the tabernacle, Lev. xvi. I tried the experiment of growing an acorn 33; Heb. ix. 7. And now at our Saviour's in a hyacinth glass; it was suspended in death this veil was rent from the top to the the end of November, and the germ made bottom; and it imported divers very great its appearance in January. In autumn the mysteries. 1. That now our great High- stem was about nine inches in length, and priest was entering into the most holy, with covered with leaves: the root was not his own blood, having thereby made the the least curious part of the plant, and atonement for us ; “By his own blood he proved very long and abundant. The water, entered in once into the holy place, hav- which had formerly retained its clearness, ing obtained eternal redemption for us,' had in autumn become of a bright brown Heb. ix. 12. 2. That the means whereby colour. It forms a curious, and at the he entered into the most holy place was by same time a beautiful ornament. rending of his humanity, his soul from his body, typified by the rending of that veil; and therefore his flesh, that is, his whole
THANKSGIVING. human nature, was the veil; “ Consecrated through the veil, that is, his flesh,” Heb. Our whole life should speak forth our X. 20. 3. That now by the death of Christ thankfulness; every condition and place we all those dark mysteries concealed formerly are in should be a witness of our thankfulin the most holy, the ark of the covenant
ness: this will make the time and places we and the mercy-seat, are rendered open, and live in the better for us. When we ourselves their meaning unfolded. Christ, the Medi- are monuments of God's mercy, it is fit we ator of the covenant, and the seat of mercy should be patterns of his praises, and leave and acceptation unto all believers, who are monuments to others. We should think founded and seated upon him, is now clearly life is given to us to do something better revealed ; life and immortality are now
than to live in : we live not to live ; our brought to light through the gospel, 2 Tim. life is not the end of itself, but the praise of i. 10, and the veil being rent in twain, the the Giver. God hath joined his glory and our meaning of the mysteries and types under happiness together: it is fit that we should the law is discovered. 4. That now the refer all that is good to his glory, who hath use of the ceremonial law is at an end. The joined his glory to our best good in being greatest and most sacred mystery of the glorified in our salvation, Ps. 1.14; cxvi. 17. tabernacle, and indeed of the whole cere- Praise is a just and due tribute for all God's monial law, was this that was within the blessings; for what else do the best favours veil, the most holy place, wherein were the of God especially call for at our hands ? most holy and reverend mysteries, the ark How do all creatures praise God but by our and the mercy-seat; but now the veil is mouths ? It is a debt always owing, and rent, the use abolished, the covenant of the always paying; and the more we pay, the people is given, the body of Christ, typi- more we shall owe: upon the due discharge fied by the temple, separated ; and so the of this debt, the soul will find much peace. use of the other temple, tabernacle, and A thankful heart to God for his blessings is the holy places, vessels, instruments there the greatest blessing of all. Were it not for of, ceased.
5. That now the kingdom of a few gracious souls, what honour would heaven, the most holy place, is open unto God have of the rest of the unthankful all believers. Christ
, our High-priest, is world? which should stir us up the more to entered in with his own blood, and has not be trumpets of God's praises in the midst closed the veil after him, but rent it in of his enemies; because this, in some sort, sunder, and made and left a passage for all hath a prerogative above our praising God believers to follow him, with our prayers in heaven : for there God hath no enemies and access to the glorious God, and here- to dishonour him, Ps. cxlv. 10-12; after in our person :
Having, therefore, cxlviii; cl.-Sibbs. boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way, which he hath consecrated for us, through DIVINE LOVE makes the soul better at the veil, that is to say, his flesh, let us obeying than disputing. draw near with a true heart," Heb. x. 19, 20.- Sir M. Hale.
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