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THE PLANET VENUS.
mà. sin, with new dictates of blas- | Majesty a very extensive, complicated, phemy or iniquity, promulgated in the and heathenish mediation, which, in a name of the Almighty; or to witness the great measure, substituted itself for the trickery of some detestable farce, devised real and exclusive mediation of Christ, to cheat or fright them out of whatever obscured by its vast creation of intercept. remainder the former impositions might ing vanities the glory of the Eternal have left them of sense, conscience, or Being, and thus almost extinguished the property. Here, in fine, there was never
true worship. But how calamitous was presented to their understanding, from such a condition! to be thus intercepted their childhood to their death, a compre- from direct intercourse with the Supreme hensive, honest declaration of the laws of Spirit, and to have the solemn and eleduty, and the pure doctrines of salvation. vating sentiment of devotion flung downTo think that they should have mistaken ward, on objects and phantoms which for the house of God, and the very gate even the most superstitious could not pay of heaven, a place where the power of homage to, without some indistinct sense darkness had so short a way to come of degradation ! from his appropriate dominions, and his agents and purchased slaves so short a way to go thither! If we could imagine THE TELESCOPIC APPEARANCES OF THE a momentary visit from Him who once entered a fabric of sacred denomination with a scourge, because it was made the resort of a common traffic, with what aspect and voice, with what infliction, but the “rebuke with flames of fire,” would he have entered this mart of ini. quity, assuming the name of his sanctuary, where the traffic was in delusions, crimes, and the souls of men? It was even as if, to use the prophet's language, the very “ stone cried out in the wall, and the beam out of the timber answered it,” in The above engraving represents the denunciation; for a portion of the means phases, as they are termed, of the planet of building, in the case of some of these venus, and as described at page 414 edifices, was obtained as the price of dis- (when noticing the planet mercury,) the pensations and pardons.
apparent diameter varies with the absolute In all this, and in the whole constitu- distance from the earth. tion of the grand apostacy, involving in- This planet offers no great peculiarinumerable forms of abuse and abomina- ties of appearance, even when viewed tion, to which our object does not require through good telescopes. The spots any allusion, how sad a spectacle is held which have been observed upon her surforth of the people destroyed for lack of face, from their rare appearance and want knowledge! If, as one of their plagues, of permanence, are supposed to be only an inferior one in itself, they were plun- clouds in her atmosphere ; which, if such dered, as we have seen, of their worldly be the fact, must be extremely dense, goods, it was that the spoil might sub- and it is no ways improbable that such serve to a still greater wrong. What dense clouds exist in the atmosphere of was lost to the accommodation of the mercury and venus, which, frequently inbody was to be made to contribute to the tercepting the solar rays, protect their depravation of the spirit. It supplied inhabitants from the otherwise intense means for multiplying the powers of the glare of their sunshine. Venus exhibits grand ecclesiastical machinery, and con- in succession all the phases of the moon, firming the ecclesiastical despotism of the and occasionally she assumes the curious absolute authorities in religion. Those appearance represented in our right-hand authorities enforced on the people, on figure, where a small portion of her southpain of final perdition, an acquiescence in ern extremity appears detached from the principles and ordinances, which, in effect, rest of the planet; this separation is supprecluded their direct access to the Al- posed to be caused by the shadows of a mighty, and the Saviour of the world; succession of lofty mountains. interposing between them and the Divine As viewed from the earth, venus is
THE PLANET MARS.
the most brilliant of all the planets, and being deprived of the sun's rays, increases may sometimes be seen with the naked in a similar proportion, and they are aleye at noon-day. She is known and re- ways greatest when first seen to be emergcognised as the morning and evening star, ing from the long night of their polar and never recedes far from the sun. The winter. This appearance of mars greatly proportion of light and heat which she resembles what our own globe would exreceives from the sun, nearly twice as hibit to a spectator placed on great as that received on the surface of mercury. The snows in the colder climate the earth.
diminish during the summer, and are renewed in the ensuing winter.
It appears evident that mars is surrounded with a very dense atmosphere; for when it approaches a fixed star, the star becomes discoloured before it touches the limb of the planet, owing to the density of the medium through which it is seen. The analogy between mars and the earth is, perhaps, by far the greatest in the whole
Their diurnal motion is
nearly the same; the obliquity of their Mars, being a superior planet, is never respective ecliptics not very different. Of seen in the form of a crescent, but he all'the superior planets, the distance of sometimes assumes the gibbous form, as mars from the sun is by far the nearest shown in our second figure. The spots on alike to that of the earth; nor will the this planet present various appearances, length of the years of mars appear very which, assuming a more permanent figure different from what we enjoy, when comthan those on some of the other planets
, pared to the surprising duration of the the time of rotation on its axis is deter- years of jupiter, saturn, and georgium mined, by observing the intervals between sidus. If we then find that the globe we the successive reappearances and disap- ( inhabit has its polar region frozen, and pearances of the several spots.
covered with mountains of snow and ice, Sir John Herschell considers that the that only alternately melt when exposed to outline of what may be continents and the sun, we may well be permitted to seas can be discerned with perfect dis- surmise that the same causes may have tinctness. The red and fiery colour, by the same effect upon the globe of mars ; which this planet is so easily distinguished that the bright spots shown in our two in the heavens, is supposed to arise from first figures, are owing to the vivid reflecthe colour of the soil, and may be analo- tion of light from the frozen regions; and gous to our red sandstone districts, which that the reduction of the magnitude of may possibly reflect a red light to the in- those spots is to be ascribed to their habitants of the other planetary bodies. being exposed to the sun.. The proportion On the contrary, those parts which are of light and heat which this planet receives considered seas, appear of a greenish tint. from the sun is not quite one half of that Being so much inclined to the ecliptic, received on the earth's surface. Water both the poles of mars come into sight in would become solid on any part of mars, the course of a revolution. When either and even in its temperate zone, spirits of pole, comes first into view, it is observed wine and quicksilver would freeze. to be remarkably brighter than the rest of The planets ceres, pallas, juno, and the disk. This brightness gradually di- vesta, are so small, that they present to minishes, and is generally altogether gone, telescopic vision no other appearance than before this pole goes out of sight, by the that of very small stars. change of the planet's position. The other pole now comes into view, and exhibits similar appearances.
A CLEAR CONSCIENCE. It is conjectured that these brilliant It is most certainly true, that the very spots consist of masses of ice and snow, sting and venom of all crosses and troubles collected at those points. These spots, is sin, and a consciousness of the guilt of when exposed for a considerable time to it. This is that which gives troubles, and the influence of the sun, during that pla- crosses, and calamities their vigour, force, net's summer, sensibly decrease in magni- and sharpness ; it is the very life of them. tude ; while the spot at the opposite pole, / When a man shall be under extreme out
ward calamities, loss of goods, loss of | by many obvious and pleasing ties of liberty, loss of country, all outward hopes affinity. The borage makes its appearfailing, and still greater billows, and waves, ance in many gardens, and why it should and storms, and fears in prospect; and not find a place in all, would be hard to within, an angry, unquiet, avenging con- say, except that it may have been thought science, then, indeed, troubles have their to demean itself, by condescending to perfection of malignity. But if a man, in elope occasionally from the neat enclosure, the midst of all these black and stormy and grow upon a dunghill; for a more appearances, hath a conscience full of lovely colour is not to be found within the peace, and integrity, and comfortable at- whole range of vegetable tints, thạn the testation, this gives a calm in the midst of dye of its blossom, nor a piece of workall these storms. And the reason is appa- manship which exhibits a greater neatness rent; for it is not the tempestuousness or of finish, than the flower of the borago tranquillity of externals that creates the officinalis, or common borage. trouble or the quietness of the man, but it The peculiar features of this family may is the mind, and that state of composure be ascertained by simply inspecting the or discomposure which the mind is put into borage, viper's bugloss, dyer's weed, or occasionally from them. And since there the heliotrope, and forget-me-not, (myois nothing in the world that conduceth sotis.) They consist in a foliage which is more to the composure and tranquillity of rough and harsh, sometimes varied with the mind than the serenity and clearness of inequalities, and often beset with hairs. the conscience, keep but that safe and The colour of the blossom is, with one or untainted, the mind will enjoy a calm and two exceptions, of a lively blue, and tranquillity in the midst of all the storms usually presents the curious phenomenon of the world. And although the waves of undergoing a change from a bright red beat, and the sea works, and the wind to that vivid hue, while its parts are unblows, the mind that bath a quiet and folding themselves to the influence of the clear conscience within will be as stable, sun. If we look at the flower-buds of as safe from perturbation, as a rock in the the forget-me-not, which, during summer, midst of a tempestuous sea, and will be a may be seen in every stream of running Goshen to and within itself, when the rest of water, we shall perceive, that at first they the world without and round about a man is are of a brilliant red, which, as the flower like an Egypt for plague and darkness. opens, passes into the blue, which forms If, therefore, either before the access or such a beautiful characteristic of this order. eruption of troubles, or under their pres. This curious change is supposed to be sure, any thing or person in the world brought about by the loss of some acid solicit thee to ease or deliver thyself by a principle. But whatever may be the breach or wound of thy conscience, know cause, the fact cannot fail to engage the they are about to cheat thee of thy best attention of any inquisitive person, as soon security, under God, against the power as it is pointed out to him, as it needs not and malignity of troubles; they are about the aid of botanical phraseology to make to clip off that lock, wherein, next under the eye comprehendit
. The corolla, or God, thy strength lieth. Whatever, there- coloured, part is remarkably regular; that fore, thou dost hazard or lose, keep the is, has its divisions, which are usually five, integrity of thy conscience both before the exactly of the same size; this is a prinaccess of troubles and under them. It is a cipal cause of that idea of symmetry jewel that will make thee rich in the midst which a view of the flower impresses upon of poverty; a sun that will give thee light the mind. Corresponding with the divisions in the midst of darkness; a fortress that of the corolla are five stamens, which will keep thee safe in the greatest danger, grow out of it, and in the forget-me-not, and that is never to be taken unless thou dyer's weed, and several others, they are thyself betray it and deliver it up.--Sir M. concealed by little valves, or folding pieces, Hale.
that are seated about the mouth or opening of the tube, like a rim or collar. These folding pieces are a pretty object for the
microscope. If we remove the corolla, we BORAGINEÆ.-BORAGE, COMFREY, HOUNDS
find, in general, four apparently naked TONGUE, HELIOTROPE, &c.
seeds, very similar in aspect to those of the Tuis well-defined and interesting family white netile, sage, or savory. The base receives its name from the garden borage, formed by this fourfold base, or “quaterto which its several members are related nion," (Acts xii. 4,) of seeds is sur
rounded by the style, or central column, ļ spermum, officinale,) the seeds of which which terminates at the top in a simple, have a beautiful polish and a pearly whitedivided, or furrowed stigma.
ness, and are nearly as hard as a piece of The above is a familiar outline of this marble. Many are struck with the fruit of highly interesting family of plants, which the egg-plant, but the seeds of the gromwere termed by Ray, and Linnæus who well are still more unlike anything of a vegecame after him, asperifoliæ, or rough- table origin. It would make us think that leaved plants; and, perhaps, a more ap- we had travelled into some fairy land, were propriate designation could not be invented. we to find a plant bearing pearls ; or if a We cannot forbear remarking, on this traveller were to assert that he had seen a occasion, how greatly the patriotism of an plant producing pearls, and had not taken English botanist is flattered at the recol- the opportunity to bring some away with lection of Ray; for with him the idea of him, it would be thought that he was dedistributing the vegetable creation into ceiving us; yet in many places of our iamilies first originated. The soundness own country we find a plant which may and justly applauded excellence of the be said to bear pearls that are whiter than practice have been attested by all the bo- some brought by speculators from the tanists of reputation in the present age, South Seas. It was from the appearance who, with very few exceptions, have uni- of these seeds, that collectors of simples, formly followed in his footsteps. It is before science had brought men to reason also pleasing to remember, that if Ray laid better, conjectured that this plant had virthe first stone of the natural system, some tues to remove calcareous concretions, or of the noblest parts of the superstructure stones
from the human body. The have been reared by Mr. Robert Brown, plants of this family agree in being of a who, by universal consent, holds the first demulcent or softening character, and in place in botanical eminence.
possessing qualities of an inactive nature. We have already intimated that the Though, in a medical point of view, they heliotrope, or turnsole, (heliotropium euro- are of little acceptation, yet in the arts pæum,) is a member of this family: its they assume importance, as many of them most striking character consists in the produce roots which yield a red dye ; parspikes of blue flowers which are bent back ticularly the anchusa tinctoria, or alkanet, in a spiral manner; which, as the ancients the lithospermum tinctorium, echium rubrum, imagined, always turned to meet the sun. and the onosma echioides of this family We may offer a hint here, which we have yield a colouring matter which is identical sometimes given to nurserymen, that a light with that of the alkanet. Such is the sandy soil is most suitable for the helio- diffusive goodness of the Creator, if a trope. The writer has often met with a group of plants do not serve us in one species of this genus growing upon the capacity, they will in another; if they fail most hungry soils, where no friendly shade as food or medicine, they may still yield us was at hand to prevent the escape of all a dye, or some other useful substance in its moisture. On those narrow rings of the arts. The borage, for example, was limestone, called the low islands, in the pnce thought to have virtues of a singuSouthern Pacific, it grows company larly cheering and stomachic nature, so with the tournefortia, a tree belonging to that it was thought worthy of the following this family, which in the colour and dis- rhyme, “ Borage brings courage.” And position of the flowers resembles the helio- although experience does not authorize us trope ; in fact, they seem to be those of to think very highly of the virtues of this that plant upon a larger scale.
family, we find a useful dye, which seems The viper's bugloss is found on heaths calculated to teach the chemist a new and by road-sides, and may be always lesson, and to enlarge his catalogue of siinknown by its bright blue flowers, red sta- ple substances; for the French and German mens, rough foliage, and spotted stem. experimenters have been led to regard it as Its beauty would fairly entitle it to a nook something unlike any element they were in our gardens, but we are too apt, not previously acquainted with. only in reference to flowers, but in other We may just mention use to which it matters of greater importance, to overlook seems likely they will be applied ; which the advantages which a kind Providence is as a fodder for cattle. The comfrey has has thrown in our way, and to covet those been cultivated in Scotland, and is very that are placed beyond our reach. readily eaten by cattle; it has the advantage
One of the most curious, perhaps, of of yielding an abundant crop. the whole family is the gromwell, (litho
OLD HUMPHREY ON THANKFULNESS. all
gone ; thankful when they are all We sometimes think that we are i gone, that the Father of mercies is able thankful, when we have very little cause to provide more : thankful when afflicted to take credit on this account ; for when with gravel, that it is not the stone : our minds are at ease, our bodies in thankful with a broken arm, that it is not health, and our property seemingly se
a broken leg: thankful whether high or cure, when every want is well supplied, low, rich or poor; in health and in sickand every reasonable wish gratified, what ness; in life and in death; being fully percause can we have for unthankfulness ? suaded that, neither “death, nor life, nor It is one thing to be thankful for a well- angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor spread table, and another to be thankful things present, nor things to come, nor for the table crumbs. It is one thing to height, nor depth, nor any other creature, be thankful when we have all we want, shall be able to separate us from the love and another to be thankful for whatever of God, which is in Christ Jesus our God bestows.
Lord.” So long as God's dealings fall in with our inclinations and add to our pros- RESURRECTION OF THE BODY. perity, we may not repine; but when the
This corruptible part of ours shall tryer of the heart and reins puts forth his put on incorruption ; our natural bodies hånd and touches us ; when he abridges shall be made glorious bodies, though our comforts, afflicts our bodies, and we have lain a long time in the grave burdens our minds with care, matters are and bosom of the earth, mouldering and sadly changed: too often impatience and consuming away. unthankfulness take possession of our We all know that every night is the hearts.
day's funeral; and what is the morning, It is an old remark, that we bear no but the day's resurrection again ; or like affliction so patiently' as the afflictions of the setting of the sun at evening, which others. Oh, there is much truth in this. the next morning shall rise again ? And We think ourselves wondrously patient, we all know, that when we set or put and contented, and thankful, when we
a root into the ground, that it must hear others complain, without considering lie all the winter, and appear as dead; that we
not smarting under the but, in the spring-time, we hope to see it scalding drops of affliction that agonize revive, and show itself by virtue of the their hearts.
Just so will it be with us at the Now the degree of thankfulness that a day of our resurrection ; for it is a most christian should try to attain, I take to certain argument, that he that can do be this : To have such a sense of God's the greater work, can also do the lesser ; wisdom and goodness in all his dealings for God, who did make the world and as to rest fully satisfied that what He also man at first of nothing, can, at the does, must be for the best ; so that come day of our resurrection, make us perfect what will, we can be thankful. God made bodies again of something. Therefore the sun to gild the earth and skies with O Lord, I beseech thee, prepare me for glory, and he made the clouds also to the day of my death; and whether it shroud his beams. God made the rose to shall be by the messengers of death, or burst forth in fragrance and beauty, and by the trumpet of thy judgments, that at the same stem that it grows on, he has the last day, when I shall rise again, I set with prickly thorns. His are the sun may behold thy glorious majesty, with and flowers. His also are the shadows all the royal army of holy martyrs and and the thorns. Never do we err more blessed angels ; that I may not be found than when we make our desires the test with a distracted and guilty conscience, of God's mercies; we would have flower
nor with the reprobates, call to the hills ets and sunbeams for ever, and thorns to cover me, nor unto the rocks to fali and shadows make us unthankful.
upon me; but that I may taste of thy Thankfulness is a hard lesson to learn, endless mercy, and so be received into unless the Father of mercies is our in thy heavenly mansion.-From Samuel structor. That is the right sort of thank- Smith's Great Assize. fulness which is thankful for all things; believing that “all things work together for good to them that love God." Thankful CHRISTIANITY AND INFIDELITY. for much and for little : thankful when WHERE but in the gospel will you
find comforts are lessened that they are not relief under the innumerable ills of the