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petals. Many of the choicest and most 3. Shrubs and plants allied to the useful fruits belong to this family; such as strawberry, blackberry, &c. In these the the peach, the strawberry, and the apple : fruit is composed of numerous lesser ones while those that do not yield an edible collected into a head, that is more or less fruit, as, for example, the burnet and the round. In some instances the fruit becinquefoil, afford a very excellent fodder comes pulpy, as in the raspberry, where for cattle.
it should be observed that each of the Those examples which are most within small grains is an entire fruit or berry. the reach of observation may with greater Hence we might call these many-grained convenience be divided into six tribes, fruits compound berries. which may be severally, represented by Among the pulpy kinds we have as na. well-known examples.
tives of this country the strawberry, (fra1. Drupaceous trees, or such as pro- garia vesca,) the dewberry bush, (rubus duce a drupe or plum, which contains a cæsius,) the bramble, (rubus fruticosus) nut within a pulp or fleshy covering. Of and the raspberry (R. idæus.) In other this, the following are examples :- instances, the fruit is merely a composi
The almond, or amygdalus, the drupe tion of many smaller seed-vessels. This or fruit of which is composed of a juice is seen in the cinquefoil, (potentilla repless fibrous bark, and a nut pierced with tans,) and in the tormentil, of which we many holes. The bitter and sweet almonds have given a figure that will serve to conare varieties of the same species, the vey to the reader an idea of the rest. amygdalus communis.
The figure represents tormentilla officiThe peach (persica) distinguished by nalis: it bears a pretty little yellow having in the centre of a large fleshy flower, and is very common among furze drupe, a nut roughened with furrow's and and other bushes on heaths, &c. The wrinkles, in a remarkable manner. Of dark lump or knob, to the left of the this there are two species; Persica vulgaris, figure, represents an enlargement of the the peach; and the persica lævis, the stem, just below the surface of the nectarine.
ground. The apricot (armenjaca vulgaris) has The avens (geum urbanum) is very its drupe large and fleshy, covered with a common by the side of hedges; its flowers velvet down, like the peach, but the nut is are yellow, but it may be known very blunt on one side and acute on the other, easily by the hooks into which its pistils and smooth, with the exception of a single are changed when the fruit is ripe: by furrow. The oil of marmots is prepared these hooks it lays hold of our clothes, by pressing the nuts or seeds of a species and thus offers itself to our notice. of apricot, (armeniaca brigantiaca,) which Few bave crossed a heath, or a piece of is a native of Dauphiny, in France. dry pasturage, without seeing the agri
Prunus, a genus embracing the dam- mony, which rises in a single stem, that sons, and various kinds of plum, with the terminates in a long spike of flowers. The sloe, (prunus spinosa,) the bullace, (P. in- bright yellow blossoms are succeeded by stitia,) and the bird's cherry (P. padus) | little conical (shaped like a sugar-loaf) of our hedges. The drupe of this genus fruit, which, by means of hooks, clings to is very smooth, and covered with a fine the stockings of the passenger.
When powder; the nut is flattened and sharp at fresh, these points are clammy or glaneach end.
dular, and will stick to the hands. In The cherry, (cerasus,) the drupe of this genus the numerous little fruits observwhich is round, destitute of powder, and able in others are diminished to a single with a smooth roundish nut or stone. pair, which are closely united into one.
2. This tribe embraces the few genera 4. Plants akin to the burnet, (potewhich are allied to spiræa, the dropwort, rium sanguisorba,) which is occasionally meadow-sweet, &c. It is marked by the seen growing by road-sides, and has been fruit, which consists of 'numerous lesser of late a subject of cultivation with the ones gathered in a circle round an ima- farmer. In this the fruit is composed of ginary axis. This character may be seen only one or two lesser fruits. The flowers in the spiræa cultivated in our gardens, are not always perfect, that is, they have or in the meadow-sweet, (S. ulmaria,) not stamens and pistils in every one of known by a profusion of small white them. But little inconvenience would reblossoms, and a sweet scent Very com- sult from considering the two preceding mon by ditches in the early part of tribes as one, for they are closely allied by 5. Roses. One of the principal marks, where it is said, “ The heart knoweth its is to be found in the “rose-bud,” where own bitterness.” It forms part of a truth we perceive that the parts are folded over still more comprehensive, that every man each other in a spiral direction. The nu- knoweth his own peculiar feelings, and merous little fruits (carpella) seen in difficulties, and trials, far better than he others, are here grown into one, which in can get any of his neighbours to perceive familiar English we call the “hep.” This them. It is natural to us all, that we tribe comprises, at present, only one genus, should desire to engross to the uttermost (rosa,) which contains nearly one hundred the sympathy of others with what is most and fifty species, distributed over most painful to the sensibilities of our own boregions of the earth.
the nature of their fruit, as well as their foliage.
som, and with what is most aggravating 6. Pomaceous, or apple-bearing trees in the hardships of our own situation. and shrubs. This tribe is distinguished by But, labour as we may, we cannot, with its fruit, which comes under the definition every power of expression, make an adeof a pomum or apple; that is, a fruit quate conveyance of all our sensations the texture of which is granular, and has and of all our circumstances into another its seeds within cells that are lined with a understanding. peculiar material, differing from the rest of There is something in the intimacy of its substance. Of this, the hawthorn a man's own perience, which he cannot (cratægus oxyacantha) a specimen, make to pass entire into the heart and which has its seeds of a bony hardness. mind, even of his most familiar compa
Pyrus communis, the pear, and pyrus nion; and thus it is, that he is so often demalus, are examples of the genus pyrus, feated in his attempts to obtain a full and and of the usefulness of this order.
cordial possession of his sympathy. He The mountain ash, one of the prettiest is mortified, and he wonders at the obornaments of our groves in the latter end tuseness of the people around him, that of summer; if the fruit be examined, it he cannot get them to enter into the justwill be found to be an apple in miniature; ness of his complainings, nor to feel the its botanical name, at present, is pyrus point upon which turn the truth and the ancuparia.
reason of his remonstrances, nor to give An elegant ornament of walls, in au- their interested attention to the case of tumn, is the cotoneaster vulgaris, of which his peculiarities, and of his wrongs, nor the numerous red berries are beautifully to kindle in generous resentment along contrasted with the deep green of the leaves. with him when he starts the topic of his
The medlar, (mespilus germanica,) dis- | indignation. tinguished by its pitcher-shaped fruit, and He does not reflect all the while, that the bony covering of the seed.
with every human being he addresses, The last we shall mention is the quince, there is an inner man, which forms a (cydonia vulgaris,) which differs from the theatre of passions and of interests, as apple in having several seeds in each cell, busy, as crowded, and as fitted as his own instead of one, as in the latter.
to engross the anxious and the exercised We have thus given a brief sketch of a feelings of a heart which can alone undergreat and important order, which evinces stand its own bitterness, and lay a correct the special kindness of God, who has not estimate on the burden of its own visitaonly provided for the sustenance of man, tions. Every man we meet carries about in affording corn, the bread-fruit, and the with him, in the unperceived solitude of countless assortment of nutritious roots, but his bosom, a little world of his own; has withal garnished his board with a va- and we are just as blind, and as insensiried choice of delicious and wholesome fruits. ble, and as dull, both of perception and of When a naturalist unfolds the curiosities sympathy, about his engrossing objects and fair proportions of creation, all listen as he is about ours; and, did we suffer with interest; but if he points out their ten- this observation to have all its weight dency to illustrate the special goodness of upon us, it might serve to make us more God, too many give “him audience unto candid and more considerate of others. this word,” and then lock up their at- It might serve to abate the monopolizing tention.
spirit of our nature. It might serve to soften down all the malignity which comes
out of those curious contemplations that THE INTIMACY OF A MAN's Thoughts.
we are apt to cast on the fancied ease and There is much profound and important prosperity which are around us. It might wisdom in that proverb of Solomon, serve to reconcile every man to his own lot,
THE FIXED STARS AND NEBULÆ.
and dispose him to bear with thankfulness | very beautiful objects even to the naked his own burden; and sure I am, if this eye, but the greater portion of clusters of train of sentiment were prosecuted with stars appear to the unassisted vision like firmness, and calmness, and impartiality, thin white clouds or vapours : such is the it would lead to the conclusion that each milky way, which, as Sir William Hersprofession in life has its own peculiar chell has proved, derives its brightness pains and its own besetting inconve- from the diffused light of the myriads of niences; that, from the bottom of society stars that form it. Multitudes of similar up to the golden pinnacle which blazons detached cloudy spots, called nebulæ, are upon its summit, there is much in the to be seen on the clear vault of heaven; shape of care and of suffering to be found; they have not the sparkling brilliancy that that, throughout all the conceivable va- distinguishes the stars, but have a sensible rieties of human condition, there are trials, diameter, and determinate shape. Most which can neither be adequately told on of the nebulæ have a star in or near the the one side, nor fully understood on the middle, surrounded with a pale light, which other ; that the ways of God to man are is brightest in the middle, and grows more equal, in this, as in every department of faint towards the 'circumference. They are his administration; and that, go to what- of various colours ; white, yellow, rose-coever quarter of human experience we loured, &c. Dr. Herschell, in several vomay, we shall find how he has provided | lumes of the “ Philosophical Transacenough to exercise the patience, and to tions,” has given the places of a vast accomplish the purposes of a wise and a number of nebulæ, with curious descripsalutary discipline upon all his children. tions of their peculiar appearances, and a -Dr. Chalmers.
series of most ingenious and interesting reflections on their nature and constitution :
“ When we reflect that these singular obTHE TELESCOPIC APPEARANCES OF THE jects are not, like the fixed stars, brilliant PLANETS, ETC.--No. IV.
points, which become smaller when seen
through more powerful telescopes, but have Besides the bodies we have already de- sensible and measurable diameter, scribed, forming the solar system, the hea- sometimes exceeding two minutes of a devens present us with an innumerable mul. gree, and when we also recollect that a ball titude of other objects, called stars and of 200 millions of miles in diameter (which nebulæ. Although only about two thousand would fill the whole orbit of the earth stars are visible to the naked eye, yet round the sun) would not form an angle of when we view the heavens with a telescope, two seconds when measured from the neartheir number seems limited only by the est fixed star, what must we think of these imperfection of our instrument. Sir Wil- nebulæ ? One of them is certainly some liam Herschell estimated that, in one hour, thousands of times bigger than the earth's 50,000 stars passed across the field of his orbit.” Although our finest telescopes telescope; this, however, was considered cannot separate this nebulæ into distinct an instance of great crowding: but, on an stars, it is still probable that it is a clusaverage, it is estimated that the whole ex- It is not unreasonable to think, with panse
of the heavens must exhibit about a Dr. Herschell, that this object, which rehundred million of fixed stars, within the quires a telescope to find it out, would reach of telescopic vision.
appear to a spectator placed in its centre, Nothing is known of the nature, the much the same as the visible heavens do distances, or magnitude of the fixed stars. to us; and that this our starry heaven, Of their nature, they are supposed to be which to us appears so magnificent, would suns, each the centre of a planetary system b? but a nebulous star to a spectator, like our own. Of their distances, nothing placed in that nebulæ. can be determined; see Weekly Visitor, No. The human mind is almost overpowered cxl.; the like may be said of their abso- by such a thought. When the soul is lute magnitude, for the cause of their differ- filled with such conceptions of the extent ing so much in apparent ma ude and of created nature, we can scarcely avoid splendour, is the difference of their dis- exclaiming, “ Lord, what
man, that thou tances from our earth.
art mindful of him ? and the son of man, The stars are scattered very irregularly that thou visitest him?" Psalm viii. 4. over the firmament. In some places they Under such impressions David shrunk are crowded together, in others thinly dis- | into nothing, and feared that he should be persed; some of the groups of stars form forgotten amongst so many great objects of
BENEVOLENT PUBLIC MEETINGS.
Divine attention. His comfort and ground cause, to set forth, in the best way he is of relief from this dejecting thought are re- able, all things that in his opinion are true, markable: “For thou hast made him a little and honest, and just, and pure, and lovely, lower than the angels, and hast crowned him and of good report. He highly values the with glory and honour.” David corrected public meetings of christian people, and himself by calling to mind how high he therefore is that he speaks in their stood in the scale of God's works. He praise. recognised his own Divine original, and his But do not imagine that Old Humalliance to the Author of all ; and then, phrey, after living so long in the world, cheered and delighted, he cries out, “O knows so little of the human heart, as to Lord our Lord, how excellent is thy name be blind to its errors on these occasions. in all the earth!” Psa, viii. 9.
0, no! there's too much room in the heart of a public speaker, full as it may seem to
be of heavenly and holy things, for earthly OLD HUMPHREY ON RELIGIOUS AND infirmities to dwell there. There is danger
of an eloquent man being too sensibly I NEVER remember an instance of a alive to the approbation of his fellow-mornumber of bad men meeting together with tals; he may have too keen an appetite a bad intention, without their trying to do for human praise; and there is a danger of some mischief, and should as soon expect the assembled multitude forgetting that the to see a red-hot iron thrust into a heap of object of their meeting is to praise God gunpowder without an explosion, as for such rather than man. These are dangers that a thing to take place. If you sow thistle- speakers and hearers would do well to seed, thistles will spring up; if you plant avoid ; but Old Humphrey ought not to be thorns, thorns will grow; and evil intentions, very severe on this point, for he loves to just in the same way, will produce evil honour good men for their work's sake, deeds.
and has often found himself thumping the But if this be true, and true it certainly floor with his cane, by way of commendais, then this reasoning may be applied to tion, when he might have been better emgood as well as to evil. I never remember ployed in putting up a prayer, that 'moth a number of godly men meeting together speakers and hearers might be blessed ot with a godly intention without some good the Most High. effect following, and should as soon expect It sometimes happens, that in meetings that a fruitful vine would bear poison- of a more than ordinary serious character, berries, as that christian men would lay when high and holy things are entered their heads together, willingly to dishonour into, and when the heart ought to be more God, or to afflict mankind.
solemnized than at other times-it someIt is a glorious thing for those who times happens, I say, that the speaker desire to make the world better, and hap- makes a droll remark, very droll, but pier, and holier than it is, by spreading sadly out of place, so that, instead of the wider the kingdom of the Redeemer, to spirit of the hearer being absorbed with refresh themselves with each other's pre- sacred reverence for the Most High, it is sence, opening their hearts freely, and dancing with light-hearted gaiety and turkindling a brighter fame on the altar of bulent mirth. This is not as it should devotion than might otherwise burn there. be. Old Humphrey has before now met
But do not suppose, by what has been with something of this kind in a place said, that I am a speaker in public assem- of Divine worship, when the preacher, blies. No: Old Humphrey never mounts and a christian-hearted, godly, deeply-imthe platforın, but glides into a back seat pressed preacher too, in a moment of inon such occasions, the fittest place for firmity, has scattered abroad the solemn him; he cannot make his eye be “ felt from thoughts, that he had for an hour been afar,” flashing with the energy of his soul; labouring to produce, by one unexpected, he cannot eloquently pour forth his warm ill-timed, comical observation. The preacher wishes for the welfare of a sinful world. has smiled, the hearers have laughed, and No; all that he can do is, to take up that Old Humphrey among them, though he stump of a pen, with which he is now has reflected upon it afterwards with regret noting down his poor thoughts, and, after and shame. supplication at the throne of grace, that Nor must it be denied that public speaka his many infirmities may be so far sub- ers, especially such as are young, now and dued, as to be kept from dishonouring then aim their remarks above the heads, God, or wounding a fellow-sinner without | rather than at the hearts of the people they
" BEHOLD THE LAMB OF GOD!"
address, and use such lengthy words, Old Humphrey would not willingly say and such high-flown illustrations, that a ill-natured things; but he verily believes, plain man wonders what they are after, that if it were not for public meetings, one and in what it will all end. I once heard a half of the supporters of religious and beneworthy young minister address a country volent institutions would go to sleep with congregation from the words, “And they the Bible in their hands. He judges by all with one consent began to make ex- his own heart, which, in sacred and charicuse.” One would not have thought that table things, is often more like a lump of these plain words of Scripture could be ice than a ball of fire. Let us, then, as made plainer, but the minister seemed to far as we can, secure the advantages of think differently; for he told us that “with public meetings, by encouraging in our one consent” meant "unanimously.” Now, own hearts humility, zeal, and christian if the plain countrymen present could not affection; and avoid their evils, by waging comprehend the words of Scripture, it was war with vanity, selfishness, and a worldly not very likely they could comprehend the spirit. explanation of the preacher. The great object in addressing an assembly is to inform the understanding, to convince the This was the voice of John the Baptist judgment, and to affect the heart; but to the people of Judea, when he saw Jesus sometimes this is forgotten.
of Nazareth passing by, John i. 36. Whatdid With all these disadvantages, public he mean by it? Doubtless it was to direct meetings are of great value; and Old their attention to the distinguishing features Humphrey's heart has warmed within him, of our Lord's character, and to the great over and over again, while some zealous end and design of his manifestation in the servant of the Redeemer, with a heart full flesh. In the holy Scriptures, as perhaps of love, and a tongue touched with holy in every known language of mankind, the fire, has declared the mighty acts of the lamb has been selected as the popular King of kings, and Lord of lords.
symbol of innocence and of patience. Now, Oh, it does one good to see and to hear these were qualities which in an especial men more gifted than ourselves devote their manner distinguished our Lord and Satime and their talents to God's glory and viour Jesus Christ. He was a perfect patman's benefit; and if we feel a little hum- tern of innocence. He did no sin, neither bled that we are not able to do as much as was guile found in his mouth. He was they do, we feel at the same time anxious holy, harmless, undefiled, and separate to do more than we have done. Men's from sinners; and this purity of his nature hearts are, in such seasons, just like the eminently qualified him for the all-imwood laid ready on the altar for a burnt portant office of “High Priest” of his sacrifice, and the hallowed zeal of the church, such a one as is needed by us guilty christian-hearted speaker kindles the holy rebels. And then his patience was as flame.
conspicuous as his innocence. Speaking It is a pleasant thing to read the re- of the ends of his mission into our world, cord, printed on paper or written with he declares, that “the Son of Man came the pen of a ready writer, of what is going not to be ministered unto, but to minister, forward in the christian world ; but how and to give his life a ransom for many." much more delightful is it to listen to the He was led as a lamb to the slaughter, account poured forth by one whose eye and as a sheep before her shearers is sparkles with joy, whose heart runs over dumb, so he opened not his mouth. with gratitude to the Father of mercies, “ When he was reviled, he reviled not and whose tongue richly abounds with again, but committed himself to Him words fitly spoken; such as are, in Scrip- that judgeth righteously :” and when ture language, likened to “apples of gold taken, and by wicked hands crucified in pictures of silver.”
and slain, he died, praying for his murThere are hundreds, yea thousands, who derers—“ Father, forgive them, for they return home from public meetings doubly know not what they do!" But when interested to what they were before, in the the Baptist directed the attention of the spread of religion, and the increase of Jews to Jesus of Nazareth, he doubtless works of mercy; and though worldly cares had a distinct reference to the end and or worldly pleasures may afterwards abate design of his manifestation in the flesh. their zeal, yet are they, on the whole, He pointed him out to them as the Lamb more friendly to the christian cause, and destined in the eternal councils of Heamore abounding in deeds of charity. ven, and fore-ordained before the founda