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AN ORATORY.

tion of the world—provided by God, and bitter herbs. Now, what could more strikaccepted by him, to be the sacrifice for ingly prefigure the dreadful sufferings of our sins. « Behold the Lamb of God," the Lamb of God ? those agonies and that said John the Baptist, “which taketh bloody sweat which he underwent in the away the sin of the world !” This marks garden of Gethsemane and on Calvary, the Redeemer's sacrificial character when his holy soul was exceeding sorrowpoints him out as the sin-atoning Lamb, ful, even unto death; when the billows of prefigured by all the legal offerings—and the Divine indignation against sin overparticularly as the Antitype of the paschal whelmed him, and his heart melted in the lamb, which was Divinely appointed to midst of his bowels? Well might it be commemorate the wonderful deliverance said of him in ancient prophecy, “Bewhich God granted the Israelites, when he hold and see, was ever sorrow like unto brought them out of Egypt: see Exodus, his sorrow, wherewith God afflicted him chap. xii. On that eventful night, in which in the days of his fierce anger ?the angel of the Lord slew all the first-born Reader, did you ever consider what it in the land of Egypt, he was ordered to was that rendered the sorrows and sufferspare the families of Israel, whose blood of ings of the holy, harmless Child of God, the paschal lamb had been sprinkled on necessary ? Think seriously upon it, and the posts of the doors of their houses; and examine what the Scriptures say on this this was a sign or type of the redemption most interesting subject.

J. of mankind by Jesus Christ. The destroying angel recognised the sacred token, and passed over the house thus marked, without smiting any member of the family. Coming to an oratory by the road-side, Now, that all this was typical of the salva- I stopped to copy the following inscription which is by Christ Jesus, is evident tion :-“ The Archbishop of Chambery from the application which the apostle grants forty days of indulgence to those who Paul makes of it when he says, “ Christ devoutly repeat one paternoster and one our passover is sacrificed for us." And is ave, accompanied by an act of contrition.” not the very same doctrine taught us by Who would grudge purchasing such a the Saviour himself when he instituted the period of indulgence at so very cheap a Lord's Supper ? Does he not teach us to rate ? That such conditions should be consider the bread and the wine as symbols gladly accepted need excite little wonder ; of his broken body and shed blood ? but that they should be offered is indeed

Reader, did you ever consider the ana- matter for astonishment. Were it not logy that subsists between the paschal a positive fact, it would appear incredible sacrifice under the law, and “the Lamb of that any, except the most ignorant idolGod,” taking away the sin of the world ?” aters, should imagine that any superior The former, you know, was designed to efficacy can attend prayers because offered commemorate a great deliverance, namely, up on a particular spot. What is this the deliverance of the Israelites from the but to render religion ridiculous in the captivity and slavery of Egypt; but Christ eyes of thinking men, and at the same died for the sins of his people, and by that time to mislead those who blindly rely means ransoms them from the captivity upon such truly irrational forms ? Scripof Satan, the slavery of sin, the curse of ture teaches us that we ought to worship a violated law, and brings them into the God “in spirit and in truth ;” diligently glorious liberty of the children of God. to examine our own hearts, and to seek, The passover was God's appointed means by the aid of Divine grace, to overcome its of safety to the Israelites, and had they sinfulness: but the romish church takes neglected it, their ruin had been inevitable! quite a different view of this importarit Look now at what the gospel says of matter, and lays the greatest stress upon Christ : “ Him hath Goa set forth as a pro- outward formalities, the tendency of which pitiation through faith in his blood.” “We is, not to spiritualize our affections, but are redeemed—not with silver and gold, rather to debase the human intellect, by but wi

the precious blood Christ, as filling the mind with grovelling and conof a lamb without blemish."

temptible ideas of the Supreme Being. It Once more: the paschal lamb was to be may be said, that enlightened roman cathoprepared for food, but by no other means lics perceive and deplore such gross errors than fire. It was to be roasted with fire, quite as much as protestants : the quesand then the flesh was to be eaten with on then is, Why are they countenanced

TIIE JEWISH CHOIR,

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and upheld by their ccclesiastics and choir-service was suited to the genius of prelates ? or is it too much to expect Judaism, a religion full of splendid external that an archbishop should be an enlight- rites; and it must have been an imposing ened catholic ?- Rae Wilson.

and overpowering spectacle, when the trumpeters and singers were as one, to make one sound in thanking and praising the Lord,” the glorious cloud filled the house,

a sight only inferior to the “ hundred and The Psalms are all of them lyric poems, forty and four thousand,” “on mount Sion," that is, intended to be accompanied with

harping with their harps.”—From Milmusic, and the peculiarity in their structure ner's Life of Dr. Watts. which has been noticed, probably arose from the jewish mode of alternate singing. The temple choir, we know, was divided

NEEDLEWORK. into twenty-four courses; and each band of

NEEDLEWORK has been from the earliest singers took up the strain in its turn, and times an important branch of English female thus answered alternately to one another. education. The Anglo-Saxon women were For instance : when one party began the famous for their needlework; and the Enpsalm thus, Sing unto the Lord a new song;” the corresponding versicle was excellence. An Anglo-Saxon lady had a

glish work was celebrated abroad for its taken up by the chorus or semi-chorus, curtain, on which were worked the actions

Sing unto the Lord, all the earth :” the of her husband. The kind, relating to emone band proceeded, : Sing unto the Lord, broidery and figures, was most in fashion and bless his name;" the other replied: The various kinds practised would astonish “ Show forth his salvation from day to day. The musical poetry of the Jews became curious books of patterns were published,

the most industrious modern fem.ale: many thus divided into a succession of strophes and t is supposed that such books were and antistrophes correspondent to each other—a method of composition which, be- generally cut to pieces, and

used by women coming familiar, insensibly spread from Maids used to work with their mistresses.

to work upon, or transfer to their samplers. their hymns to their other poetical writings: Needlework was also practised by men. But the psalms were not only accompanied The working of flowers was particularly with vocal music; instrumental music, which has been employed in the

religious specified ; and we find one kind said to be services of all nations, which was introduced practised in the manner of a vineyard.into the sacred ceremonials of the Greeks,

Domestic Life in England. was cultivated by the Jews for the same purpose, at the earliest period of their history. The song of Moses and Mirian, after the deliverance of the children of Israel

If the goodness of God is so admirably from Egypt, was accompanied with the seen in the works of nature and the favours timbrel; the silver trumpets were ordered of providence, with what a noble superito be sounded, on the solemn days, over the ority does it even triumph in the mystery burnt-offerings, and many other instru- of redemption! Redemption is the brightments were added by David to the Jewish est mirror in which to contemplate this ritual. In his time there were three mas.

most lovely attribute of the Deity. Other ters who presided over the band of music; gifts are only as mites from the Divine and at their head one chief musician, or treasury; but redemption opens, I had master of the whole choir. That females almost said, exhausts all the stores of his were admitted into the temple choir, is stre- glorious grace. Herein God commendeth nuously denied by the Jewish writers; but his love; not only manifests, but renders it the case of the three daughters of Heman, perfectly marvellous ; manifests it in so who were

“ for song in the house of the stupendous a manner, that it is beyond Lord with cymbals,” 1 Chron. xxv. 5, 6, parallel, beyond thought, and above all some think makes it evident that wo- blessing and praise, Ps.cvii. 2; cxi. 9; cxiii. men were thus employed. This part of 7, 8; cxxxix. 17; Rom, v. 8; Eph, iii. 19. their devotional service the Jews usually --Hervey. performed in a standing posture ;

" the Levites stood with the instruments of

JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London. David;

Price d. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Five a practice which has been fol

Numbers in a Cover, 3d. lowed in most christian congregations. The W. Tyler, Printer, Bolt-court, Fle, t-street.

REDEMPTION.

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THE NORWAY LEMMING,

are terrible, but the increase of these terri(Mus Lemnus, Linn. Georychus Norvagicus.) ble creatures is small; and, after all, what That the smaller, and apparently most in- has man suffered from their incursions, significant of animals, are those from whose compared to what he has suffered from destructive propensities the interests of man hosts of beings of far inferior size and indisuffer more in the aggregate than from the vidual consequence ? Besides, it is easy to inroads of the large or ferocious, is an ob- oppose, and successfully oppose, the one servation which we have often had occasion party, while the other either elude observto make, and which will be borne out by ation till the mischief is done, or baffle atan attentive observation of the data which tempts to repress them by their concealed the naturalist has accumulated. The nu- and subtle habits, and by the unlimited merical ratio of animals, and their tendency extent of their reproduction, which makes to increase, bear an average ratio to their up for man's unassisted means of destrucsize, and numbers counterbalance physical tion. We say nothing of the locust, before inferiority.

the armies of which the hopes and prosThe laws of nature, as established by perity of nations have been annihilated, but unerring wisdom, do indeed provide ex- we would bring examples from among the pressly for a destruction of these little pests mammalia to substantiate our statement. in a due proportion to their natural aug. What does not the farmer suffer (at least mentation; and hence, in general, man suf- in many places) from the hares and rabbits fers less than he might otherwise anticipate. which multiply upon his land ? Were these But, after all, a check, not a total stop, is animals allowed to increase ad libitum, no put upon their power. The lion and the tiger band of tigers introduced into our island

VOL. III.

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would bring half such dire calamity. Rats quently gave a more exact account, drawn and mice are annoying and destructive : from his own researches. Other writers scarcely a ship leaves port to traverse the have added but little to our knowledge. ocean, but it carries within it the insidious As its feet indicate, the lemming is a agents threatening its loss; and who can burrowing animal, and it lives in chambers say how many of those ships, the fate of its own excavation. Its food consists of which has never reached our shores, of lichen, roots, &c. Though small and have foundered, in consequence of the in- thickly-set, it is active and vigorous, por juries done by such agents to the timbers of does it want resolution and boldness: if the hulk !

attacked or struck, it defends itself with The hamster and the Cape-jerboa we obstinacy, and will adhere pertinaciously have previously introduced to the notice with its strong teeth to whatever it seizes, of our readers, (see our Numbers cxxxvi. when thus irritated. We have stated the and clxv.;) and now we bring forward an- incursion of the lemming in myriads over other little animal of the same order, whose the cultivated districts to be irregular as to name, in the countries it inhabits, is periods ; it is not a yearly visit, but occurs a watchword of terror and distress. Like at uncertain intervals. Their migration the locust, the lemming pours out in my- once begun, the amy marches suraight riads, which devastate the earth in their forward—the country is covered, fields and passage ; but happily, as with the locust, gardens are laid waste, and the harvest is in this respect also, these visitations are destroyed : in the mean time, their natural at distant and uncertain intervals, and enemies, foxes, sables, hawks, &c, are of the hosts which desolate the country, busy in aiding man to diminish the scourge; none return to the regions where they nor are they themselves less the promoters began their migratory career. Destroying of their own destruction. Their ferocity as they proceed, they proceed to their leads them, when their natural food beown exterinination, they march to their comes scarce, when famine approaches, to fate.

It is this that renders their ap- attack and devour each other. Against pearance uncertain ; for it is the multi- man, dogs, or other animals, they defend plied progeny of those that remained stati- themselves, springing up and seizing their onary in their native fastnesses, (the desert, aggressor with great fury, and uttering at and mountainous regions near the polar the same time a bark, like that of a whelp. sea,) which, forced by necessity, (like the They do not enter houses in their course, Goths and Vandals of old,) will inake the but proceed in array over the open country, next irruption; but, for such an increase, crossing streams and rivers, in which multime of more or less duration, according to titudes often perish. Thinned day by day, circumstances, is necessarily requisite. and week by week, their numbers gradually

The lemming is a native of Norway and dwindle, till at length the host becomes Lapland, and were it not for its formidable utterly extirpated; it is long, however, incursions from its mountain-seats, over before the country recovers from the devasthe cultivated plains and fields, would tation they have made. scarcely have been noticed. In length it The sudden appearance of myriads of is about five inches; the tail is short, the these animals never fails to create alarm ears small, the eyes black and diminutive, and confusion among the peasantry, who the limbs short, the fur close and fine. cannot account for the phenomenon otherThe toes are armed with nails, specially wise than by supposing that they were formed for burrowing; on the fore-paws, brought by the winds, or rained upon the (divided into five toes,) the thumb, or toe earth from the clouds: nor was this idea analogous to it, consists of a thick stout formerly confined to the ignorant; Olaus nail, fat and pointed. The general colour Magnus considered them as either brought of the upper surface is reddish yellow, by violent winds from remote islands, or dashed irregularly with black; the forehead, poured down, the production of feculent neck, and shoulders being of the latter co- clouds, (an ex remotioribus insulis, et vento lour; the under parts are yellowish white. delatæ, an ex nubibus fæculentis natæ ;) he

The first notice given to the world of also adds, that, “falling like locusts, in this remarkable little animal, was by Olaus prodigious multitudes, they destroy every Magnus, (see his Hist. Gent. sept. lib. green thing; and the herbage but touched xviii. cap xx.) whose description served as by their teeth, perishes from the virulence the text for several succeeding writers on of the bite; yet they die the moment they the subject. Wormius, however, subse- touch the renewed verdure. They crowd together in flocks, like swallows about to remember, this is only done in his seatake their departure; but, in a given time, sons of leisure, when he is weary with they either die in heaps with the poison of more important pursuits, and needs a the land, (whence, as they putrify, the air change of employment. There are worse becomes pestilent, producing among the occupations in idle hours than sketching people vertigo and jaundice,) or they fall with a pen. the prey of those animals called lekat or It is astonishing how much a little, hermelin, (ermine,) which get fat upon added to a little, for a length of time, them."

will amount to. The bag at one time The death of the lemming from the eat-contained but very little, but it is now ing of herbage newly sprung, is, if true, a full; so full, that there is a difficulty singular circumstance. Sheffer, in his of putting any more into it. There are “ History of Lapland,” also asserts it; we rude sketches of heads, flowers, ships, would not, however, lay much stress upon and wild beasts; old houses, prisons, it. - Of the habits and manners of the birds, coaches, and outlines of such odd, lemming, in its native territories, its moun- singular characters as I may have met in tain homestead, we have little information. the course of the day; with pillars of To such regions the naturalist seldom pe- different orders of architecture, housenetrates ; nor, perhaps, are the legitimate hold furniture, and a hundred nondedomains of this animal much disturbed by script kinds of things, so that the bag the presence of any human beings; the is now a very pleasant source of amusemountains which border the frozen ocean ment to those who are fond of such hold out but few inducements to man : things. but there the lemming recruits its numbers,

But it is not on account of what and thence pours out its destroying armies, the bag contains, nor of the amusement -armies which return no more.

it may supply, that I speak of it. No; Besides the present celebrated species, it is to set in a clear light a lesson that I the genus includes several others; two want to impress on your minds. are natives of Siberia and Tartary; and The lesson is this that if by adding little Dr. Richardson describes four (the tawny to little, in course of time, such a great lemming, Back’s lemming, the Hudson's heap of trumpery has been obtained, by Bay lemming, and the Greenland lėm- adding little to little of better things, a ming,) as vatives of the high northern great deal of what is valuable may be latitudes of the American coutinent. obtained. Now, if you will act upon

M. this principle, depend upon it, you will

be a great gainer. There is but little to

be got in heaping up waste paper, but OLD IIUMPHREY'S SKETCHES.

much

may

be

got in heaping up treasures There are many things in the world worth preserving. that appear too bad to keep, and too Where was it that I read of two little good to throw away. You must know, girls in South America, who went out one that I am very fond, in a leisure moment,' morning, each with a little basket on her of sketching with my pen on paper, any arm?

The one amused herself with thing that comes into my head. At one picking up pretty little stones, but the time it is a man; at another a house ; other was more particular; she put into sometimes it is a tree, and sometimes a her basket nothing but diamonds, and of tiger. It amuses me, it relieves my mind, course had but few. When they returned it is like unstringing the bow, and thereby home, the one had a full basket, but then rendering it the more serviceable when it was only a basket full of trumpery, not strung again. Now, these sketches, or worth a tenth part so much as the smallest etchings, or whatever they may be called, diamond the other had obtained. Grownare often of the character just spoken of up people may learn something from these -too bad to set any value on them, and children. If Old Humphrey had acted like too good to destroy. I have therefore the prudent little South American, he set up what I call a trumpery-bag, and would now have something in his bag into this bag I put such things as I have worth looking at, instead of a heap of described.

things that he could put behind the fire, You may smile at the thought of Old without grieving after them. Humphrey being employed in so trifling You may not be fond of sketching with an occupation as that of scrawling and your pen, but that does not matter; scratching with his pen on paper; but, whatever you do, do it well, and then it

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