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will not be trumpery. You may never behold the green meadows pied with live in South America; never mind that, daisies : if we cast our eyes along the for there are diamonds to be had here as pathway side in summer, we find the well as there.

dandelion, and cat’s-ear, or the hawk'sSome people add to the number of beard, upon the nearest hedge-bank; or their books, by little and little, until the if we take a peep into a cottager's gar. heap is a great one; but if you give your-den, we see the marigold and the sunself the trouble to examine them, they flower. The dahlia and the African are of a bad quality, they are good for marigold are special objects of the garlittle or nothing. Now, a good book is a dener's solicitude; the housewife collects diamond; get a good book then when the flowers of the feverfew, or lays up you can, whether you are seven years old the strong-scented wormwood to drive or seventy, for its contents may be very away the moth; the farmer roots up the valuable to you, when diamonds shall be thistle and the may-weed, and the chilas dust in your estimation.

dren of the village adorn their clothes Try also to lay up good principles in with the southern-wood and the lavenderyour heart, as well as good books on cotten, upon the sabbath. All these, your shelves ; principles that will preserve and many others, equally familiar to our you through time, and prepare you for recollection, are members of this highly eternity: What is all the trumpery in interesting and populous family. the world to be compared to them ? The eye of the most uninstructed dis

Lastly, add to your wisdom; for laying covers some affinity or mutual relationup folly will be laying up trumpery in- ship in the structure of their flowers, deed. "Get a knowledge of your own though the foliage and the habit may be hearts, and learn to know Him, whom to very dissimilar. The herbage of the know is eternal life. “ The fear of the marigold and the thistle are very unlike Lord is the beginning of wisdom ; a good each other, not only in point of offenunderstanding have all they that do his siveness, but in their form and texture. commandments. Wisdom is the prin- At first sight, perhaps, the blossom of cipal thing, therefore get wisdom; and the marigold, and the rosy head of the with all thy getting, get understanding." thistle, might not strike the superficial

Now, I cannot but hope that you observer as in any way related to each have learned a little from the trumpery- other, their colour and outline being very bag of Old Humphrey.

different. But if the blossom of the forIt may not be very wise in me to let mer be examined with a little attention, you know any of my weaknesses, and we shall perceive that it is compounded perhaps it might have been as well to of a multitude of little flowers or florets, have kept this affair of the trumpery- as it is usual to call them, the whole enbag all to myself, but it cannot be helped circled by a common calyx, consisting of now; and, after all, now I think of it, it numerous leaves, or segments. will be better that Old Humphrey should And if, after dividing the head of a be laughed at for his whimsicalities, than thistle by a cut downwards, we proceed that you should lose the benefit of a to disengage its component parts, we lesson of instruction. At any time that shall find that there are numerous florets you may be passing his way, he will inclosed within a common calyx, whose willingly show you his trumpery-bag, on thorny points are only the terminations condition that you will give over laying of the several leaves which compose it. up trumpery yourselves.

In both cases, therefore, we have a collection of florets bound together by the empalement of a common or general calyx.

If we next examine the dandelion, we

shall meet with many florets surmounted This is a widely extended and highly in like manner by a leafy calyx, which diversified family of plants ; during the contains them within a common circle. months in which nature is in her vigour When we call these little flowers by the and freshness, we can scarcely turn our diminutive term of floret, it must be undereyes in any direction, without meeting stood only in reference to their size, for with numerous examples. If we look in point of structure, they have all the abroad in the opening of the spring, we essentials of the largest and most perfect

BOTANY.-No. XXXI.

COMPOSITÆ, COMPOUND FLOWERS.

a

Rower. In fig. a of No. 1, which repre- from the fork, where the style divides sents the floret of the dandelion, we have into two horns by the anthers. The No. 1.

floret in No. 2, and the floret a in No.3,

have likewise all the parts in perfection, 3

though differing from a No. 1, considerably, in respect of their outline.

We have already shown that the circumstance of many florets within a common calyx, is an obvious and remarkable feature; but, in this particular, it

agrees with dipsacee, or the teasle and b

scabions of Botany, No.xiii., p. 302. We must therefore look for some other characteristic, which is peculiar to the family under consideration. And this we find in the anthers, which are united together by their sides or edges, so as to form a tube or pipe, through which the pistil or central thread passes. This peculiarity

is exhibited in fig. c of No. 1, where the (at the base) the germen or incipient bent threads at the lower end of the tube fruit, that is crowned at the top with a represent the filaments, which are free No. 2.

and disengaged from each other, where they grow out of the tube of the corolla. Fig. c of No. 3, this union of the anthers is again shown, where the lines are drawn with greater prominence than they are seen in nature, to bring this curious and distinguishing peculiarity under the eye of the student. This union of the anthers is indicated in the modern language of botanists, by calling this family

synantheræ, or the order of comprising ruff of fine threads, or down, which is the plants with united anthers. The term calyx, in this curious state of transforma- composite was applied to them, because tion. The corolla is very conspicuous in one large flower is composed of many the shape of a strap or ribbon; in No. 2, lesser ones. and fig. a of No. 3, its form is regular, For the sake of easier reference and No. 3.

contemplation, we may consider this order as distributed into three principal sections. The first (cichoraceæ) oomprehends all those compound flowers, which resembl the succory or the dandelion. They are distinguished by having all their florets like figs. a and b of No. 1, which are lengthened out on one side into a strap or ribbon, while the five segments seen in No. 2, are dwindled into five little teeth at the

upper

end. Fig. b, No. 1, represents a similar floret taken from the cat's-ear (hypochceris vadicata,) which resembles the dandelion, and, like that, is seen on every piece of grassy sod during the summer. The ininute speckled leaf below it called the chaff, because of its thin and chaffy

nature. The presence of this chaff is a and its border is divided into five teeth generic mark of the hypochoris. These or segments. At the top of a No. 1, is little specks seem to be unnatural exa little horned process, which is the style crescences, though the writer of these reand stigma, embraced a short distance / marks has never seen a flower of the cat's-car without them. In fact, they | an example; while the milk-thistle, known form a pretty object, as their brown by its magnificent leaves, variegated with colour is contrasted with the yellow spots of a milky whiteness, will illustrate ground on which they grow.

the latter. On dry grassy banks, which are ex- The woolly thistle (onopordon acanposed to the sun, we often meet with thium) is another curious example, somethe mouse-ear hawkweed, forming a times seen growing among rubbish, or on large patch which, for a considerable old banks of gardens and small enclosures. space of ground, excludes all other plants. It happens, in this instance, that the name The leaves are small, hairy, and of a pale woolly thistle," for the purpose of knowash beneath, so that they have a fanciful ing the plant, is equivalent to a long resemblance to the ear of a mouse, description. whence its name. The flowers which Among the useful members of this divihere and there rise upon a solitary stem, sion is the artichoke, (cynara scolymus,) out of this leafy sheet, are of a bright whose calyx leaves swell into such a reyellow, and have a sweetish smell. markable size, that the head forms a prin

Among the useful plants belonging to cipal dainty in the list of culinary vegethis division, we may reckon the garden tables. lettuce (lactuca sativa,) and the endive, The third division contains such as have (cichorium intybus,) the utility of which is two kinds of floret in the same flower, the too well known to render it necessary to strap-shaped or radial, fig. a, No. 3, and be insisted upon in this place,

the regular, fig. b. The central ones are The plants of this division are often generally perfect, or have stamens, as well milky; of this we find examples in the as a pistil; the radial have only the pistil, dandelion, (leontodon,) and sow-thistle, and are in some instances even destitute of (sonchus oleraceus,) not excepting the that, as in the sun-flower. Our figure full-grown plant of the lettuce, which represents the florets of the fleabane, exudes a whitish liquor when broken. (inula dysenterica,) a yellow-flowered,

A few years ago, the dried leaves of strong-smelling plant, often found by the coltsfoot (tussilago farfara) were used road-sides. Of this division, the marias a substitute for tobacco, and esteemed gold, daisy, feverfew, and the aster and as good for the stomack.

chrysanthemum, with a multitude of others, The second division (cynarocephalæ) may serve as examples. Among the useful embraces the various kinds of thistle, may be reckoned, the chamomile, (anthemis and is distinguished by having the florets nobilis,) and the groundsel (senecio vulall regular and perfect, as represented garis,) the erigeron of the ancients. The in fig. No. 2. It is the floret of the latter, when allowed to remain some time common burdock, a large and sturdy in hot water, forms an excellent wash for plant, bearing numerous burs,” which, the hands, when chapped by cold. by means of their hooked calyx leaves, lay hold on the clothes of the unwary passenger, and thus transport themselves for propagation, far off from the parent." There are half a dozen varieties of has left us a few interesting particulars of

Joun AUBREY, an antiquarian writer, this plant, which differ from each other his period, which are preserved in the Ashin the structure of the burs; in some they molean Museum, at Oxford. He says, are very handsome. Among the quack “ Before the Reformation, youth were geherbalists it is called cockle, and is said nerally taught Latin in the monasteries, to possess extraordinary virtues; the writer and young women had their education, not was assured, a few days before writing at Hackney,* as now, 1678, but at nunnethis, that for some disorders, thing existed in the world, 'than a wash ries, where they learnt needlework, conmade of its leaves, when young.' The

fectionary, surgery, physic, (apothecaries

and thistles afford examples ever at hand, and writing, drawing, &c. Old Jacquar, now

surgeons being at that time very rare,) should be studied, as consisting of two ge- living, has often seen from his house the nuns nera or kinds. The one (cnicus) as having of St. Mary, Kingston, in Wilts, coming down, which, when held between the eye forth into the Nymph Isay with their rocks and the light, resembles a feather; the other as having the down smooth (carduus.) • It would appear from this note that Hackney Of the former, the common large road-side has been known for the great number of its schools thistle (cnicus lanceolatus) may serve as England.

MANNERS IN FORMER TIMES.

from the earliest records of such establishments in

kneel upon,

and wheels to spin, sometimes to the num- ears that he was a sinner, that he must ber of threescore and ten; all whom were die and come to judgment, and without not nuns, but young girls sent there for another state of heart, must be miserable; education.” Again, “ The gentry and citi- “ but," added he, “I cannot part with zens had little learning of any kind, and my worldly schemes. I must again be a their way of breeding up children was suit- man of business ; I have just laid a founable to the rest. They were as severe to dation for success; and if I give way to their children as their schoolmasters, and these apprehensions, there is an end of their schoolmasters as the masters of the my prospects. This I own to be the cause house of correction : the child perfectly of all my gloom, and if I could put anloathed the sight of his parents, as the slave other world, and my own preparation his torture. Gentlemen of thirty and forty for it, out of sight, I should again be a years old were made to stand like mutes happy man." and fools. bareheaded before their parents ; I immediately perceived, that although and the daughters (grown women) were to he felt some conviction of the truth, he stand at the cupboard-side, during the whole was contending against it. I set betime of her proud mother's visit, unless (as fore him the danger of resisting such the fashion was) leave was desired, forsooth, impressions; the folly of preferring an that a cushion should be given them to avaricious life of gain to the immortal

ught them by the serving interest of his soul; and the superior man, after they bad done sufficient penance wisdom of subordinating all our worldly by standing. The boys had their foreheads | labours, views, and hopes to our eternal turned

up,
and stiffened with spittle." well-being. I endeavoured to show him

his true state, his need of another heart,

the danger of his being left to a most TIIE MISERABLE INFIDEL.

ruinous blindness, and to eternal misery. Taken from the Connecticut Evangelical Magazine. After much solemn conversation, we

A man who possessed reason and sa- parted. gacity above the common proportion, and Nearly a year from this time, we had about the age of thirty, fell into such a another opportunity for free discourse. It state of debility as rendered him incapable was sought by himself, with an evident of much attention to business. Before design to confront and reproach me for this he had discovered an inordinate at- the exhortation I had given him with the tachment to property, and omitted neither most friendly intention. I instantly saw diligence, nor art, nor parsimony, to obtain that his seriousness had departed, and that it. His state was called hypochondriac by his conscience was seared. By his own achis neighbours; for a certain recluseness count, he continued several months longer of temper prevented his communicating in that state of apprehension and resistance to them the distracting feelings of his to the truth, which has been described; mind. When he was in this state, I acci- when he came to the rash opinion, that dentally passed a day in his company: the whole of his past feelings were but After a short conversation, I discovered an hypochondriac gloom, and supported marks of a wounded conscience, and told himself by the following argument: him my suspicion, that his whole disorder “ You know that hypochondriacism is a proceeded from anxiety on spiritual ac- false imagination of the mind; and within counts. Finding I had detected his feel- one week after I detected my folly in ings—he made a frank acknowledgment, being so anxious for another world, I beit was the case; but solicited that it might came well and happy, and have so conreinain a secret with me. He told me

tinued.” He further added, " I now think of sundry times, in his past life, when, for that all the notions that I have had conshort seasons, his conscience had conti- cerning the holiness of God, and the renually accused him. He had seen him- wards of another world, are false. As to self to be a sinner, if there were any truth sin, it is evident there can be no such in the Scriptures; and he dreaded an ap- thing; nor shall I any more exist after pearance before God, as the most awful this body dies, than those trees beof all events; still he could not bear to fore us will exist hereafter, and be happy think of another kind of life, and of part- or miserable.” " But,” replied I, “ is it ing with those worldly designs which had not a gloomy thought, that your existgoverned his past conduct. He said he ence will cease when your body dies ?” had been many months in this situation; “ As for that,” he answered, “I cannot and something continually sounded in his help it; and we must make the most of

excess.

a

what we have.” I perceived that he was known his previous opinions, that he cerdetermined not to think, lest it should tainly should exist; and that the future make him unhappy ; and on my solici- being of men was indicated by nature, and tously urging him to review the momentous made sure by scriptural evidence, an aspect subject, he became peevish, and said I was of still greater horror settled on his countetrying to give myself importance in the nance; and, after a pause of a minute, he world, by all I said concerning religion. replied, “ If those Scriptures are true,

His life, for several years after this, eternity will be more dreadful to me than was such as might be expected from his the loss of being. I will not believe them; principles. Riches were his idol. His yet, how dreadful the idea of sinking into parsimony preserved him from licentious eternal, thoughtless night!” This struggle

Honest men detested the princi- of feeling lasted but a few minutes before ples by which they saw him to be go- this miserable man sunk, not into the eterverned. His unprincipled associates were nal sleep which he dreaded, but to open afraid of falling under his power. There his eyes in an eternity to him more dreadwas something in his countenance inde- ful! scribable, that marked him for another Such are the dying comforts of impiety Cain: and while many, through necessity, and infidelity. Thus, at last, will the exresorted to him for assistance, there was cuses and pleas of irreligion torment those not a man on earth that loved him. who adopt them in their lives to quiet an

Passing over several parts of his conduct, accusing conscience, and resist the warnings which evidently proceeded from an end of the Holy Spirit. deavour to erase from his mind a sense of moral obligation, of sin, and a state where impenitent sinners shall receive a

A CHRISTIAN SPIRIT IN A SLAVE. reward according to their deeds, I shall now come to his death-bed. A just Pro

It is related in an American paper that vidence forbade him a long state of lin- poor

christian negro, being in the congering illness, as a season of admonition fidence of his master, accompanied hini and preparation for eternity. An awful to the purchase of twenty able-bodied accidentin a moment placed him in a hope- slaves. On entering the market, he fixed less state, and within two days of his exit on one poor, old, decrepit slave, and told from this world. This accident, though his master he must be one. So useless fatal, did not immediately affect his head, was the first object of his choice, that the and the powers of reason were in full slave-dealer gave him into the bargain strength.

with the twenty. The care which the Now, behold the man who exploded confidential slave bestowed on the old moral obligation, denied the existence of negro, feeding him at his own table, laysin, determined there was no future life, ing him on his bed, and lavishing upon and consequently there was no punish him every kindness, excited the curiosity ment for him; and all this for the sake of of his master, who concluded he must be gaining and enjoying this world, without his father, or brother, and inquired to that the molestations of his own conscience. effect. He replied, “No! massa, he not True it is, that, in this awful moment, he my broder, he mine enemy! He sold me was left to a great degree of judicial to the slave-dealer ; but Bible says, 'If blindness concerning another world, the thine enemy hunger, feed him!'• This nature of hopeful preparation for death, man knew what it was to forgive the and the just and eternal reward of sin; trespasses of another. but misery and dismay rose upon him from a quarter he did not expect. His beloved scheme of ceasing to exist at death, became his terror. « And have I

The promises of eternal blessedness now,” said he, “ done with existence ?

are not given to the strength of faith, Shall I presently cease to think, to see, to

but to the truth of faith ; not to the defeel ? Am I to exist but a few moments filled with pain, and then lie down to be grees of faith, but to its reality. nothing for ever? I am pained for the fruits of my labour; I have laboured for JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London. nothing; I cannot bij farewell to the Price £d. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Five , earnings of so many years."

Numbers in a Cover, 3d. On being toid, by one who had not W. TYLER, Printer, Bolt-court, Fleet-street.

BLESSEDNESS.

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