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EXERCISE.

however, he faithful, even though his re- can well understand the smile that expanas marks bear heavy on himself.

the parent's brow, at the display of precoWhat think ye, my friends ? Do you cious knowledge which his embryo repreknow any to whoin these observations will sentative is thus made to exhibit; but did apply? If so, it may be kind of you to he know the anxious days, the sleepless repeat to them my admonitions; and if you nights, the pains and lassitudes, he lays the yourselves should happen to be faulty in foundation for, by thus straining the tender the thing of which I have spoken, bear springs of life, and thwarting nature in her with me, and endure my reproof. It is efforts to mature the man, his smile would my own settled conviction, after some give place to feelings of a different kind. knowledge of the world, and some ac- In this respect, parents would do well to quaintance with my own heart, that it is a take a lesson from the lower animals, which general failing, to “think more highly of act by the unerring instincts which the Alourselves than we ought to think," and mighty has implanted in their nature, and that sometimes knowingly, and sometimes whose actions must be therefore right. unknowingly, we all crowd what we pos- Witness the gambols, the constant activity, sess into the window, and cry aloud to and the light-hearted cheerfulness of the our neighbours, “We have plenty more in unrestrained young of all animals, and the the cellar."

encouragement to this sportiveness which they receive from their parents : and after having done so, attentively compare the

proportion of cases of bodily deformity By exercise, the stomach is strengthened, amongst them, and amongst men who act the digestion rendered better, the blood by the guidance of reason; and see the imameliorated, and every animal function im- mense superiority which their practice has proved. The mind also becomes more over ours in that respect, and whether it courageous, corporeal sufferings are borne might not be worth our while to profit by with patience, a command of temper, and a the lesson thus afforded us.--Henderson. presence of mind, are acquired and

pre

We consider, from the observations we served undisturbed amidst pain and danger; have made upon the subject, that no hinthe understanding is clear, the imagination derance is thrown in the way of physical untroubled, and the spirits in a fit state for growth, or a happy developement of the the proper and the most vigorous exertion vital energies, by sowing the infant mind of our intellectual powers. By this means, with the seeds of wholesome knowledge, also, disease may often be prevented, and in a way suited to their age and capacity. not unfrequently cured, even when it has taken a very strong hold of the constitution.

Thus, curvature of the spine and deformity of the chest, complaints which are to be met with so very frequently of late years, particularly among girls and young BEFORE We proceed to notice, in succeswomen in the respectable and higher classes sion, the properties of the various substances of society, but seldomer among boys, or that fall within the province of Chemistry, the children of the poor, originate in debi- it is necessary briefly to direct the attention lity of the constitution, by which the bones of the reader to certain remarkable phenobecome soft, and consequently yield to the mena, developed by the action of heat, on force of the strongest mưscles, or to the the bodies to which it is applied, as well weight of the superincumbent pressure. as to a brief consideration of the phenomena The chief, if not the only cause of this de- of combustion. bility, may be traced to the unnatural and Heat pervades all bodies; existing, either absurd systems of infantile education, so in an insensible, or latent form, not being commonly practised at the present time, perceptible to the touch ; or, in a sensible whereby children are mewed up in nur- form, in which state its presence is made series, and other close and heated apart- known by the thermometer. A variety of ments, during the greater part of the day. experiments will illustrate this remark. By By thus being deprived of exercise in the hammering a piece of wrought iron, by open air, their powers of life are directly friction, and other means mentioned in debilitated, and this debility is further in- page 213 of Weekly Visitor, for 1833, lacreased by attempts to strain their undeve- tent heat may be extracted from bodies in loped minds to the coinprehension of things a sensible form. If a portion of sulphuric altogether above their understandings. We acid and nitric acid be mixed together in a

CHEMISTRY.-No. III.

HEAT AND COMBUSTION.

cup, and the mixture poured into another below the freezing point. But a furnace cup, containing a small quantity of oil of has been constructed, by which an intensity turpentine, so violent an action is produced, of heat, equal to 25127° of Fahrenheit has that the whole will burst forth into a bril- been exhibited. But even this heat is far liant flame. This arises from the circum- below what may be produced, by means of stance, that the compound has less capacity a Galvanic apparatus. for heat, than the component substances The phenomena of combustion, or the before they were united. By the applica- process commonly called burning, is but tion of heat, the bulk of all bodies, whether imperfectly understood. Many ingenious solid, liquid, or aeriform, is extended; and theories have been offered by different phiby extracting it from them, their bulk is losophers, who have closely investigated proportionably diminished. This might be the subject, but even now, there is some illustrated by many simple experiments. A diversity of opinion respecting it.

The knowledge of the theory of the thermometer theory of Lavoisier, an eminent French is sufficient to furnish a satisfactory illus- chemist, has, of late years, attracted most tration of this fact. Heat is, in fact, the attention, and appears most accordant with antagonist of cohesion; and it is this pro- facts. In his theory, combustion is deperty that renders it the most important scribed as the combination of any body with agent to the chemist, in his examination of oxygen. There may be, however, so many different substances. There exists a larger instances adduced, wherein combustion quantity of latent heat in fluids than in evidently takes place without the presence solids, and a still greater quantity is pos- of oxygen, that serious objections are urged sessed by the gases. The heat requisite against this theory; It appears an unwarto preserve a body in a liquid state, is rantable practice adopted by some chemists, called the caloric of fluidity; the quantity to apply the term combustion only to those required to preserve a gaseous body in its processes of burning in which oxygen is particular form, the caloric of vaporization. presented; but in all other cases, (and there Whenever, therefore, a fluid is converted are as many instances on one side as the into a solid, or a gas into a fluid, the addi- other,) to apply the term deflagration. tional heat it possesses escapes in a percep- Professor Donovan, in his treatise on tible form. In the slaking of lime, the Chemistry in Lardner's Cyclopædia, obwater that is used loses its fluidity, and serves, " that it is perhaps the safest, beforms a powder with the lime, and during cause the most comprehensive idea for the this process, the hot steam that arises from student to entertain of combustion, that it the mixture, is the result of its passing is the emission of light and heat from bofrom fluidity to solidity. On the contrary, dies in the act, generally, of combining, but when a fluid is converted into a gas, heat sometimes of separating ; that the heat is is withdrawn, and cold is produced. If a part of the combined, or latent caloric of thin tube be wrapped round with muslin, the combining bodies; that the light may and the muslin be repeatedly moistened also proceed from them, although it seems with the substance called ether, in process chiefly dependent on one of them,—the of time, the water in the tube will be frozen. / combustible.” In the phenomena of comThe cold is produced by a part of the ether, bustion, we have an illustration of the forepassing (by evaporation) from the state of going remarks, respecting the heat that is à fluid to that of a gas.

evolved from a gas when in the act of comAnother important property of heat is, to bining with another substance, and losing accelerate the solution of salts. Two ounces its gaseous form. When the oxygen, or of Glauber's salts (sulphate of soda) put other gas, is absorbed by the combustible into a tea-cup of cold water, will not en- body, the heat that escapes is thus explained. tirely unite with the water; but by apply- “Combustion, therefore, like all other cheing a sufficient degree of heat, the whole mical processes, may be explained by the will be dissolved. It is not necessary that laws of chemical affinity. The combustithese remarks should be further extended ble having a greater affinity to oxygen, than on the subject of heat, as its properties oxygen has to heat, the oxygen gas is have already been more fully stated in the disengaged, and combines with the igWeekly Visitor for 1833, (pages 213, 258.) nited body, while its caloric, becoming It may, however, be interesting to the free, produces the heat which is diffused reader to know, that we are enabled to ex- I among the surrounding bodies. As the cite a much greater degree of heat, than o oxygen unites with the combustible, it becold. The greatest cold produced, is 122° comes more dense than when in the state of

as

As aro

gas; consequently, it has less capacity for pared to listen to us, while we proceeded caloric than it had; a portion of it, there to state, that their texture, and genera, fore, must be given out before the oxygen history, as well as their useful properties, can combine with the new substance that were matters of anxious curiosity with us. attracts it from its former combination."* In the same way, we are going to call the When a body has combined with the mind of the reader to the study of the greatest portion of oxygen, or other sup- umbelliferous plants, by showing what porter of combustion that it will absorb, it reference many members of this order is termed an incombustible body.

have to the well-being of man; that those It is by combustion that substances are who are not affected by the native grace converted into acids and oxides, two classes and propriety of knowledge, when unacof bodies to which we shall afterwards de companied by profit

, may be induced to vote more particular attention. A close think well of the science, for the sake of examination of all that takes place in sub- its utility. stances during the process of burning, will Angelica Archangelica, garden angeprove the fallacy of a common opinion, lica. - This plant is a native of Lapland, with those who are unaccustomed to philo- diffused over all the hilly parts, near sophical pursuits, that in this way bodies streams of water. The Laplanders, as are destroyed. It is a remarkable Linnæus informs us, entertain a high opiserting, in an eminent degree, the con- nion of the utility of angelica, and employ summate wisdom of the Creator, in esta- it both as a food and medicine. blishing such a provision, that no particle matic plants are rarely found near the of matter is in this way destroyed; but polar regions, it is easy to account that the several component parts of any for the high character which it has obsubstance are merely separated, and thus tained among them; for its root has a prepared to unite with other bodies, and fragrant, agreeable smell, and a warm, form new compounds. We have abun- aromatic taste. Lewis says, that “on dant reason to believe, that it is beyond the wounding the fresh root early in the power of man to annihilate one particle of spring, it yields from the inner part of the matter, and that all the varieties of form in bark an unctuous, yellowish, odorous juice, which matter may be presented, arise from which, gently insiccated or dri retains the successive changes through which those its fragrance, and proves an elegant aroindestructible atoms pass, of which the matic gummy resin. On cutting the dry earth was originally constituted; directed root longitudinally, the resinous matter, by the simple and comprehensive laws our in which the virtue and flavour reside, all-wise Creator has established.

appears concreted in little veins.” Rectified spirit will extract the whole of the virtues of the root; while water, which happens in many other instances of the

like nature, will take up but a very small If plants engage our attention by cu- part of its peculiar qualities. If the root riosity of structure, and the beauty of be distilled with water, a small portion of their form, they become doubly interest- an essential oil, with a very pungent taste, ing, when we regard them as yielding may be obtained. either food for our sustenance, or medica- Angelica sylvestris, wild angelica.ments for the restoration of our health. Found in marshy woods and hedges. It All can easily comprehend why we should possesses the properties of the archanoccupy ourselves in the search after plants gelica, but not in so high a degree; and or simples, when experience shows, that it is not so easily met with, since the they may be made to minister to our other is commonly cultivated in our garcomfort or our necessity. When the dens. writer was travelling in South America, Phellandrium aquaticum, fine-leaved he was often asked by the uninstructed water hemlock. This plant may be disnatives, why we devoted so much time tinguished by the unusual size of the stem, and attention to gathering wild flowers; the fineness of its leaves, and the position of but, when he introduced the explanation its branches, which are nearly at right anof our views by saying, “para los reme- gles to the stem from which they proceed. dios,” that they were for pharmaceutical The seeds, according to Dulange, when or medical purposes, we found them pre- taken in large doses, produce a remark

able sensation of weight in the head,

MEDICAL PROPERTIES OF UMBELLIFE

ROUS PLANTS.

. Parkes.

accompanied with giddiness, intoxication, and an acrid biting taste. Competent &c., and therefore may be deemed ca- judges are of opinion, that the galbanum of pable of proving an active medicine. the shops, which is generally imported Pliny, who is followed by Doronæus, from Turkey or the East Indies, is not the states, that the seeds are efficacious in the production of the plant before the reader, case of calculus, and other disorders of a but of some other species of the same similar origin. But, in looking over the genus. This drug comes to us in large catalogue of maladies in which this plant softish, pliant, and pale-coloured masses, is said to be useful, we find that incohe- which, by keeping, acquire a brownish rence which makes us suspect the authority yellow appearance. These masses are inof our forefathers; for diseases of an en- termixed with distinct clots or tears, which tirely opposite character, and, of conse- are accounted the best part of them. We quence, requiring treatment as different, find, the colour of the galbanum was are to be cured, according to them, by a favourite among the Romans, so that administering one and the same remedy. galbana rasa, or the hue of galbanum,

Enanthe crocata, hemlock water drop- when scraped, is reckoned by the Roman wort.—Dr. Poulteney has borne his tes- satirist among the marks of an excessive timony to the efficacy of the juice of this fondness for dress and fashionable display. plant in disorders of the skin, but its ap- Carum Carui, common caraway:plication was attended with the most This plant is a native of Britain, growing alarming symptoms, as it is allowed to be in low meadows, where it flowers in May the most fatal of vegetable poisons that and June. The properties of the seeds, are found in this country. Various me- which are so familiarly used for econolancholy instances attest the virulence of mical purposes, are too well known to make this poison; and it is mentioned here, it necessary for us to enlarge upon them. chiefly to caution persons gathering wild It is, however, remarkable, that in distillasalads, against its use. If we cannot tion with water, that is, if the seeds be put teach our country readers to distinguish into water, and that water be made to evathis weed from the rest of its related porate, the steam carries away all its aroplants, we can deliver a very safe and un- matic part, without leaving any bitterish or erring rule, which is—Never to meddle, ungrateful matter in the water ; proving but for purposes of inspection, with any that nothing unwholesome is mixed up plant growing in the water, that resembles with the agreeable and useful qualities of parsley or celery, for they generally this condiment. possess active, and very often poisonous Ferrula Assafoetida, assafætida giqualities.

gantic fennel. -- This plant is a native The Cicuta virosa, or water hemlock, of Persia, and was first cultivated in which

may be distinguished by having its England by Dr. Hope, in the botanical clusters of flowers opposite to the leaves, garden at Edinburgh, in 1814. Kæmpfer and the wide foot-stalk of the latter, is was the first who obliged the world with poisonous, and is supposed by Haller to an accurate description. The stalk, which have been the hemlock of the Greeks; is two or three yards high and upwards, of which the fickle Athenians adminis- and six or seven inches in circumference, tered-a fatal dose to Socrates, their greater together with the rest of the herbage, master of morals. It grows in pools and sends forth a strong smell of garlick, but ditches, and flowers in July and August. it is from the root the juice is obtained,

Bubon Galbanum, lovage-leaved bu- which, after becoming concrete, is known bon.-From this plant the galbanum, used in our shops by the name of assafætida. in medicine as an anti-spasmodic, is sup- Koempfer thus describes the manner in posed to be derived. The bubon galbanum which it is procured on the mountains in is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, and the provinces of Chorasan and Zaar in was first introduced into Britain by Mr. Persia. At that season of the year when John Gerard, in 1596, and is now culti- the leaves begin to decay, the oldest plants vated in the King's Garden, at Kew. The are selected. First, the earth which surstalk is shrubby, several feet high, slender, rounds the root is rendered light, by purplish, and covered with an ash-coloured digging, and part removed, so as to leave exudation. It is round, bending, and a portion of the root bare; the leaves and knotted, towards the bottom woody and stalk are then twisted off, and employed, naked. The whole plant presents a smooth with other herbs, in constructing a screen appearance, and has an aromatic smell, to defend it from the sun. In this state,

ment.

CONTRADICTIONS.

the root is left for forty days; after which, juices of plants, and to approach in obvious the covering is removed, and the top of properties to animal milk, from which it the root cut off; it is then screened again differs widely in chemical composition. for forty-eight hours, when the juice that There is no cream or caseous (cheesey) has exuded upon the wounded surface is matter; I kept a little of the milk until our collected by means of a proper instru- arrival at Trinidad, eight weeks after my

This operation is repeated three procuring it, when it was sent to the admitimes at the end of successive periods of rally. Some, which I had myself, had forty-eight hours. After the third time, then separated into a sourish milky water the root is suffered to remain unmolested and a white solid mass, which, when taken for eight or ten days, when a similar pro- out and dried in the air, was a white inflamcess for collecting the juice is again re- mable substance, not softening at the tempeated. Its qualities are highly stimulat- perature of the body, melting at 143°, ing, and it is of great service, especially tasteless, insoluble in water or spirits, and in cases of torpid digestion.

resembling white was more than any other Imperatoria Ostruthium, the common substance to which I could compare it. It master-wort, is a native of Scotland; as burned with a bright agreeable flame, withit was found several times by Mr. Light out smelling, and was neither greasy nor foot, growing wild upon the banks of the resinous; I am, therefore, inclined to conClyde. It is cultivated in our gardens; sider it a species of wax.” but the shops are generally supplied from To complete the marvels of this tree, we the Alps and the Pyrenees; as that which must mention, that it affords the most valugrows in the southern countries is much able timber for ship-building, and that it is superior to what is produced among us. so used in the dock-yards at Para.– From The bare denomination of this plant, Webster's Narrative of Foster's Voyage in master-wort, the master herb, intimates the Chanticleer. to us the high character, for healing qualities, it was once supposed to possess. But the estimation for almost supernatural, “divinum," qualities, has dwindled by time and discovery into that of simply aro

In unclear and doubtful things, be not matic.

pertinacious, as the weakest minds are readiest to be upon seeming reason, which, when tried, will possibly fall to nothing;

yet they are most assured, and cannot sufTHE PALO DE VACA.

fer a different thought in any from their The Palo de Vaca, which flourishes in own. There is naturally this popeness in Para,in South America, is among the loftiest every man's mind, and most, I say, in the trees of the forest, growing to the height of shallowest; a kind of fancied infallibility a hundred feet and upwards. It bears a in themselves, which makes them contendelicious edible fruit, which has the united tious, contrary to the apostle's rule, “ Let flavour of strawberries mixed with cream, nothing be done through strife or vainand its trunk yields as fine bowls of milk as glory,” Phil. ii. 3, and as earnest upon difthose from cow !

fering in the smallest punctilio, as in a high “It seems rather startling,” says our au- article of faith. Stronger spirits are usualthor, “to talk of a tree yielding milk, but ly more patient of contradiction, and less such is the fact ; and it is drunk by the violent, especially in doubtful things ; and people in large quantities, and was used by they who see furthest, are least peremptory us, at the gun-room table, for mixing with in their determinations. The apostle, in tea, in lieu of cow's milk, from which it is bis second epistle to Timothy, hath a no ways distinguishable in general use. phrase, “ the spirit of a sound mind :" it is The milk is a rich, white, bland fluid, a good, sound constitution of mind, not to without odour, and of the taste and flavour feel every blast; either of seeming reason, to of common milk. It mixes readily with be taken with it; or of cross opinion, to be tea or coffee, without curdling or under-offended at it.-Leighton. going any change, and in every respect seems like cow's milk. Boiling water does JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London. not alter it. It keeps unaltered six or seven Price 14. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Five days in the temperature of 850 * * * * It

Numbers in a Cover, d, appears to differ from all the known milky W. TYLER, Printer, 4, Ivy Lane, St. Paul's.

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