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a strife and opposition within the breast | having committed it. You, the drunkard, of man.
A heathen poet could say, “I will be at your cups before night. You, see and approve of what is better, I fol- the unclean person, will return again to low what is worse.” And many have your old practices. You, the slanderer, confounded this with the christian con- will set out again on your old round with flict. But it is not the same. The in- some new tale of malice. You, the bad ward opposition, which the unregenerate child, so very sorry when detected, and feel, is between worldly prudence and so full of promises of never doing so appetite, between one lust and another, again, have no real intention of becoming between ambition and sensuality, between the dutiful, obedient, good child. None the judgment and the inclination. Hence among you, all ye unregenerate people, even Herod felt a struggle between his really desire to be delivered from your fear of men bidding him observe his rash sin.' oath and behead John, and his natural But thou, truly wretched man, thou sense of justice bidding him forbear the believer, with thy soul in conflict, thy murderous deed. Hence Pilate had a contest is between that new heart which struggle between his wish to release loves God, and that old nature which Jesus, and his cowardice prompting him would have thee return to sin ; between to give him up to the Jews. Hence indwelling grace and indwelling corrupFelix trembled, and yet delayed repent- tion. Thou hast seen the abominable
All this is not the christian's nature of sin, and therefore thou loathest conflict. It wants this important mark- it. And to find it still with thee, workin the believer, the conflict is between ing to regain dominion,—this makes grace and sin, between the regenerate thee cry with a bitter, piercing, sorrowful and the unregenerate nature, between cry, « O wretched man that I am! who he new and the old man : in him the shall deliver me from the body of this inward man sides with God and holiness. death ?” In the unregenerate, the inward man
a Deliverer appears ! sides with the old man, and the conflict “ Wretched man,” he cries, “I bring is between different natural principles thee good tidings.” Tempted believer, which jar and quarrel with each other thy own heart will recognize his voice. “I just as bad men, living in the same house thank God,” cries the apostle, “ through or neighbourhood, all agree in hating Jesus Christ our Lord.”—Hambleton. God and persecuting righteousness, and yet continually fall out and fight with each other. The regenerate, in short, fears above all things to return to sin:
(Food.-Continued.) the unregenerate secretly means it, and
“ The tree termites, soon contrives it.
when they get within a box, often make This distinction, is most important. a nest there, and, being once in possession, The unconverted often abuse this sub- destroy it at their leisure. They did so to ject, and mistake the compunctions which the pyramidal box which contained my comthey feel in the morning, on account pound microscope. It was of mahogany, of the follies, I mean the sins, of the and I left it in the store of governor Camplast night, for the conflict which St. bell, of Tobago, for a few months, while I Paul describes between the flesh and made the tour of the Leward Islands. On the spirit. But the apostle meant no my return, I found these insects had done such thing. St. Paul would have much damage in the store, and, among plainly told them, in his faithful way, other things, had taken possession of the & You are all flesh, altogether carnal, microscope, and eaten every thing about it, quite destitute of the Spirit. The works except the glass, or metal, and the board of the flesh are manifest,' Gal. v. 19; on which the pedestal is fixed, with the and those are your works. Your con- drawers under it, and the things inclosed. flict, at best, is only between natural con. Their cells were built all round the pedestal science and sensual appetite. You are and the tube, and attached to it on every sorry, but not with a godly sorrow. You side. All the glasses which were covered are afraid of the world knowing it, or of with the wooden substance of their nests, its ruining your health, character, pro- retained a cloud of a gummy nature upon perty: you do not loathe your sin as a them, that was not easily got off, and the vile thing before God, nor yourself for laquer or burnish with which the brass
INSECTS. No. XLV.
work was covered was totally spoilt. An- As the species, however, does not in the other party had taken a liking to the staves preceding case appear to have been curs of a madeira cask, and had let out almost rectly ascertained, it is not improbable that the whole of a pipe of fine old wine. If it may have been an insect of another family, the large species of Africa (termites bel- one species of which, according to Kirby licosi) had been as long in the possession of and Spence, in point of rapidity of execusuch a store, they would not have left tion, seems to surpass all its European twenty pounds weight of wood remaining brethren, and in many cases may be proof the whole building, and all that it con- ductive of more serious injury than any of tained.
them, since it attacks the wood-work of “These insects are not less expeditious piers and jetties constructed in salt water, in destroying the shelves, wainscoting, and and so effectually, as to threaten the rapid other fixtures of a house, than the house itself. destruction of those in which it has estaThey are for ever piercing and boring in blished itself. In December, 1815, says all directions, and sometimes go out of the one of these authors, I was favoured by broadside of one post into that of another Charles Lutwidge, Esq., of Hull, with spejoining to it; but they prefer, and always cimens of wood from the piers at Bridlingdestroy the softer substances first, and are ton quay, which woefully confirm the fears particularly fond of pine and fir boards, entertained of their total ruin by the hosts which they excavate and carry with won- of these pigmy assailants, that have within derful despatch and astonishing cunning: a few years made good a lodgment in them, for, except a shelf has something standing and which, though not so big as a grain of upon it, as a book, or any thing else which rice, ply their masticating.organs with such may tempt them, they will not perforate the assiduity, as to have already reduced great surface, but artfully preserve it quite whole, part of the wood-work into a state resemand eat away all the inside, except a few bling honey-comb. One specimen was a fibres, which barely keep the two sides portion of a three-inch fir plank nailed to connected together, so that a piece of an the north pier about three years since, which inch board which appears solid to the eye, is now crumbled away to less than an inch will not weigh much more than two sheets in thickness : in fact, deducting the space of pasteboard of equal dimensions, after occupied by the cells, which cover both these animals had been a little while in surfaces as closely as possible, barely half possession of it. In short, the termites are an inch of solid wood is left; and though so insidious in their attacks, that we cannot its progress is slower in oak, that wood is be too much on our guard against them : equally liable to be attacked by it. If this they will sometimes begin and raise their insect were easily introduced to new staworks, especially in new houses, through tions, it might soon prove as destructive to the floor. If you destroy the works so our jetties as the Teredo navalis to those of begun, and make a fire upon the spot, the Holland, and induce the necessity of subnext night they will attempt to rise through stituting stone for wood universally, whatanother part ; and if they happen to emerge ever the expense; but happily it seems under a chest or trunk, early in the night endowed with very limited powers of migrathey will pierce the bottom, and destroy or tion ; for though it has spread along both spoil every thing in it before the morning." the north and south piers of Bridlington
Not content with the dominions they harbour, it has not yet, as Mr. Lutwidge have acquired, and the cities they have laid informs me reached the Dolphin, nor an low on terra firma, encouraged by success, insulated jetty within the harbour. the white ants have also aimed at the sove- “ The inhabitants of Bridlington may reignty of the ocean, and once had the believe that this insect was left there a few hardihood to attack even a British ship of years ago by an American vessel, with the line, (the Albion ;) and in spite of the what foundation I know not; but that it is efforts of her commander and his valiant an important insect, and, like the Teredo crew, having boarded, they got possession navalis, not originally a European animal, of her, and handled her so roughly, that seems very probable from the fact, that I when brought into port, being no longer fit can find no description of any species of for service, she was obliged to be broken oniscus at all resembling it, prior to that of up. She was indeed in such a condition Dr. Leach, who seems first to have given from the attack of insects, supposed to be it a name; and it appears highly improwhite ants, that had not the ship been bable, that if it had been a European firmly lashed together, it was thought she species, it should not long since have atwould have foundered in her voyage home. tracted attention, and been described. No
OLD HUMPHREY ON VISITORS.
other remedy against its attacks is known, In another hospitable abode where I than that of keeping the wood free from now and then stop the night, Mary, the salt water for three or four days, in which housemaid, who had heard her mistress case it dies; but this method, it is obvious, read my observations on housewifery, asked can be rarely applicable. In order to as- with great seriousness if it could possibly certain how far pure sea-water is essential be there that any visitor met with so little atto this insect, and consequently what danger tention. “O, you know best, Mary,” reexists of its being introduced into the wood- plied her mistress, "whether you have been work of our docks and piers communicat- negligent or not." Now there never was a ing with our salt-water rivers, as at Hull, more attentive servant than Mary, nor a Liverpool, Bristol, Ipswich, &c., where it kinder and better housewife to me than her might be far more injurious than even on mistress; but these things prove that my the coast, I have, since December 15th, observations have made a little stir. 1815, when Mr. Lutwidge was so kind as It often happens, that in attending to to furnish me with a piece of oak full of one thing, we are neglectful of another, and insects in a living state, poured a not very in the case alluded to, I certainly ought to strong solution of common salt over the have pointed out the errors of visitors, as wood every other day, so as to keep the in- well as of housewives: not having done sects constantly wet. On examining it this it then, I will do that
which I conday, (February 5th, 1816,) I found them fess I ought to have done long ago. alive; and what seems to prove them in as It is a great error to go on a visit without good health as in their natural habitat, num- giving due notice; at least, if we have the bers have established themselves in a piece opportunity of doing so. An additional of fir-wood which I nailed to the oak, and inmate oftentimes renders a change in have, in this short interval, and in winter various household arrangements necessary,
and we have no right to disturb a whole
It is an error not to ascertain and fall in
with the regulations of the family; inattenSome time ago I gave an account of an tion in this respect makes a visitor burdenunexpected visit paid by me,* and I think some : he may be borne with, but his that I made it plainly appear that my company will not be desired. Many visitworthy hostess, in some respects, was in are faulty in this particular. They fault, not in manifesting a want of due atten- rise too late to attend the family devotions ; tion or of friendly feeling, but only a defi- they are negligent of meal hours; and they ciency in those attentions that add to the sit up late, keeping the family and servants comfort of a visitor. Perhaps the observ- from their accustomed repose. ations that I made about the matter bore It is a sad error to give unnecessary rather hard on the good lady, and I am trouble, and yet this is a very common fault
. led to believe that this may have been the Hospitable people will be sure to put themcase, because I have heard that several wor- selves to some pains in pleasing their visitthy ladies have alluded to the circumstance. ors, and they ought not to be trespassed They seem to think that Old Humphrey upon, neither ought the time of servants to might either have given notice of his visit, be trifled with. or, at least, have provided himself with a It is an error to consume the time of those night-cap; and that, in neglecting to do we visit, when it is either unpleasant or in both the one and the other, he brought the convenient to them. A little tact is neces. punishment down on his own head. sary when this is the case, but good feeling
A respected friend of mine some time and consideration will generally succeed in ago slept at the habitation of an acquaint- ascertaining it.
And going up stairs to bed, he It is an error not to be kind and consiheard the mistress of the house calling after derate where there are children in a family, him, “Old Humphrey! Old Humphrey! or to lose any opportunity of doing them you will find a night-cap on the pillow.” good. It is another to make your visit too The good lady would have it that my friend long, as Soloman says,
“ Withdraw thy either was the writer, or an acquaintance foot from thy neighbour's house ; lest he be of Old Humphrey; and if so, she was de weary of thee, and so hate thee,” Prov. termined that he should find no want of xxv. 17. good housewifery in her habitation.
In a word, you will do well when you * See page 175.
visit to bear in mind, among others, the
following rules :-To give proper notice of In that far land they did not forget me. your intended visit-To conform to the re- I have seen before now on a seal the imgulations of the family-To occasion as pression of two doves flying in different little trouble as possible-To be careful in ways, holding in their beaks the opposite consuming the time of your host and ends of a silken cord tied like a true lover's hostess—To be kind and considerate where knot, so that the farther the doves got there are children.—To confine your visit asunder, the tighter the knot was tied. Ft to proper limits; and to do as much good was a pretty device, and I am sure that it while you stay as possible : ay! to master aptly sets forth the increase of affection that and mistress; to children and servants. absence in many cases produces. My reAn attention to these rules will render your latives corresponded with me, they named visit an agreeable thing, you will leave a a tree after me, and often, at sun-set, took favourable impression behind you, and will their tea, or a glass of their own wine, never stand in need of a future invitation.
made from the maple tree, underneath it, Old Humphrey once in his life was so and talked of old times, of old friends, and circumstanced that he was almost com- of their father-land. Sometimes, too, the pelled to lengthen his visit beyond the voice of prayer and psalmody rose from the term to which his judgment and his inclina- place, for the head of the family was as tions would have confined it. There was
a patriarch among them. every attention paid him, and not the slightest Often and often has Old Humphrey indiminution of respect; but, for all that, it dulged the thought, that he should like to was a sore trouble to him, a heavy burden cross the heaving ocean, and surprise them to his heart.
in their solitude. To take bales and packOld Humphrey has paid many a visit, ages of all sorts of things for their comfort, and received many a visitor in his day, and and to steal upon them when they were ali he can hardly tell which is the most plea- assembled under that tree, either refreshing sant-to partake or to practise the rites of their bodies with sustenance, or their souls hospitality
with prayer and praise. If the injunction be given us in holy writ, It seemed an idle dream, but it was a “Be careful to entertain strangers, and given delightful one. to hospitality," it is certainly not a less Well! why am I telling you that which duty and privilege to entertain our friends. may give you no pleasure to know, however The visit of a true christian is oftentimes a full of interest it may be to me? I will great blessing; for many a word fitly spoken inform you: one of my relations is now over by him, and many an observation dropped in England, and he talks of returning in a kindly spirit, is remembered in after shortly: now, if Old Humphrey should days to the edification of many. This is return with him; if, after all, he should especially the case when he acts up to his realize his dream, he would not like to do high profession, setting forth his Lord and so without bidding you farewell. In anMaster, and saying emphatically, by his other week or two, this matter will be conduct, temper, and general behaviour, settled one way or other ; whether I remain “I am a companion of all them that fear in the land of my birth, or visit the Pennthee, and of them that keep thy precepts.” sylvanian log-house, you will still have the
Having thus spoken a word on visitors, warm wishes of Old Humphrey, and he will let me just touch on a subject that has not forget to inform you of his determination. latterly occupied much of my attention.
Many years ago, some of my relations embarked for America, and settled on the
BOTANY.-No. XXXIII. banks of the Ohio, in the state of Pennsyl- AMENTACEÆ.—WILLOW, OAK, PLANE, vania. There were thousands of uncul- This family includes many of our timber tivated acres around them when they first and ornamental trees, and hence its memset about building their log-house. They bers generally predominate in the word had to fell the trees, to clear away the and the forest. The lofty and imposin brush-wood, to cultivate the ground, and to stature of the oak and the elm, forms a produce order from the existing chaos. remarkable contrast to the small size of Industry is seldom without its reward, and their flowers, which are individually miin course of time, comfort smiled around nute, though, in the latter, they are conspithem; the thorn and the brier gave place cuous in spring, from their numbers. The to the olive and the myrtle; and the wilder- flowers are never provided with a corolla ness blossomed as the rose.
to give them beauty, and the calyx is
frequently a single scale. They obtained | in a point, which lodges in a furrow, holtheir name from amentum, or a catkin, a lowed to receive it. This point is the term applied to the mode of flowering, as radicle, or that part which, in vegetating, in the birch and willow, where a series of sends forth the root. In all the members flowers are closely set together upon a of this family it is straight, as we may simple stem, so as to resemble the end of a also see in the nut of the hazel and the rope, or the tail of a cat. The fruitful and chestnut. And, if we compare them togebarren flowers are generally in different ther, their similarity in nature and intercatkins, as in the birch, and sometimes in nal conformation will be apparent, and caikins upon different trees, of which the wil. show how consistent it is with the diclow furnishes a ready example; in a few in- tates of nature, to consider the oak, the stances, the same flowers produce both the hazel, and the chestnut, as belonging to stamens and the fruit, as in the elm, which the same family. may be seen in flower some time before the THE CHESTNUT.-The genus to which season of leafing commences. The calyx, the chestnut belongs, includes two species, which forms the principal part of the flower, the sweet chestnut, ( fagus castanea,) and since the corolla is absent, is seldom more the beech, (fagus sylvatica,) and is chiefly than a little scale, which bears one or more discriminated by the long spikes of flowstamens in its bosom. To examine them ers and the fruit, which is completely with some degree of accuracy and satisfac- invested by a thorny calyx. Here again, tion, a lens of a small power is necessary though the flowers, from their vast numto render the parts distinct, which often, at bers, form a conspicuous object in the the first glance, seem to be placed in a chestnut, yet it is better to have recourse confused manner. After this brief allusion to the fruit, where in the calyx we find a to their leading peculiarities, it will, per- mark, which cannot be easily mistaken or haps, be more convenient, as well as more overlooked. These trees are recominstructive, to consider the several genera mended to our notice, not only by the which compose this family, each one by peculiar beauty of their spreading foliage, itself.
but by the utility of the wood in one, The OAK.-In the oak, (quercus robur,) and of the fruit in the other. the barren flowers are found sitting about a The HORNBEAM.–Of this genus, we common stem or peduncle, and consist of have only one species a native of this five calyx-scales, which are united toge- country, (carpinus betulus,) or common ther, and form a small circle or empale- hornbeam tree. In the barren catkin, ment, including ten stamens. In the fer- the calyx-scale is nearly round, and tile flowers which are ranged upon a com- fringed, bearing from eight to ten stamon peduncle, in a similar way, we meet
In the fertile one it is the same, with that well-known calyx or cup, which and contains a small nut, so that the subsequently contains the acorn. The rough, catkin, which possesses a distant resem. dense, and bark-like nature of this organ, blance to a pine-cone, is a collection of is the great and distinguishing peculiarity small nuts, which are very remarkable of the oak, while there is a great variety in winter. This tree is distinguished for among the numerous species of this genus retaining its withered leaves through the (quercus) in the shape and size of the rest dreary succession of inclement changes, of the acorn.
to remark till they are displaced by the buds in the in this place, that while some degree of following spring. indistinctness seems to exist in the barren THE HAZEL.- The catkins of the coflowers, the fertile ones are so distinct in rylus avellana, or common hazel-nut, form and nature, as in all cases to furnish begin to appear in autumn, and are, we a characteristic of the genus.
may see, composed of a multitude of We have, on one or two occasions, al- scales, laid one over the other, like the luded to what are called the seed-lobes, or tiles upon the roof of a building. Each cotyledons, and, as they are exhibited with of them, as they separate, is seen to be great distinctness in the acorn, it will be cleft into three divisions, and contains useful to bespeak attention for them on about eight stamens. But the obvious this occasion. If, after removing the shell and peculiar feature of the hazel is found of the acorn, we peel off the inner covering in the two large tattered leaves of the of the seed, we shall find that it parts from calyx, which invest the base of the nut, below into two halves, which are jointed as we see in the filbert. In winter, the together at the top. This joint terminates / red pistils make their appearance from