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combination with such a variety of other In like manner, if your mind be wounded, substances, and will be so frequently apply the same remedy. If your enemy brought under our view, that its properties has injured, or your friend deceived you ; need not for the present be more fully if your brightest hopes have been clouded, detailed.

or your reputation blackened, pray for


enemies, and then, up and be doing ! OLD HUMPHREY ON OCCUPATION. Better gather field-flowers, plait rushes, If I were asked, What tends most to weed the garden, or black your own shoes, mitigate earthly sorrow, with the exception than be idle., Occupation will raise your of the comfort derived from divine things ? spirit, while idleness will bring it down to I should unhesitatingly reply, Occupation. the dust. Occupation will blunt the edge

Yes! occupation cures one half of life's of the sharpest grief, keep the body in troubles, and mitigates the remainder. It health, and preserve the mind in comparamatters not of what kind they may happen tive peace. to be: troubles always appear great, and

Ile that is in trouble, must do someour own cares are invariably greater than thing to get rid of it. those of our neighbours; but whether we I have known many a man get to the are afflicted in mind, body, or estate, oc- top of a mountain by resolutely clambercupation is the best prescription we can ing up its rugged sides, who would never take.

have got there at all by sitting down and Suppose you have had a loss, say it is fretting at the bottom of it. And, many five silver shillings, or as many golden. a hardy swimmer has crossed a rapid sovereigns; nay, let it be, if you like, a river, by sturdily buffeting its rushing hundred pounds, or a thousand, for it is waters, who never could have achieved not the amount of our losses that weighs such an adventure, by despondingly aldown our spirits, but our real or fancied lowing himself to be carried along by the incapability of bearing them-suppose you current: something must be done, and have had a loss, I say, why all the sighing done by yourself too, when you are in and the sorrowing, the moaning and trouble; or otherwise, it will stick as close repining in the world, will not bring to you as the skin that covers you. If I back a single sixpence of your money had not been man of occupation, my again, though it may disqualify you for heart would have been broken long ago. making an attempt to recover your loss. I never could have stood up under the You may get friends to condole with you, load of troubles, that God, in mercy, has and make your loss greater by losing your given me strength to sustain. Old time in brooding over it, but occupation is Humphrey is always occupied; his tongue, the only thing to relieve you. It is the most his hands, his head, or his heels, are in likely of any thing to make up your money continual requisition; and, rather than again, and if it do not that, it will engage sit down and do nothing, he would willyour mind as well as your fingers, and ingly break stones on the highway, make keep you from despondency.

brimstone matches, and hawk them about Suppose your body is afflicted; will from door to door. sitting or lying down doing nothing, with Time flies rapidly with those who have your dejected eyes fixed on the wall will more to do in the day than they can acthis, I say, pull out a thorn from your fin- complish; and drags along as heavily ger, or assuage the pain of an aching with all who have no employment to octooth, or cure a fit of the gout ? Not cupy their hours. Occupation is the great a bit of it. So long as pain does not de- secret of cheerful days and tranquil nights; prive you of the power of occupying your for he that is well employed while the self, occupation will be for you the best sun is in the skies, will most likely sleep thing in the world. Let it be suited to soundly when the stars are shining above your condition, and persevered in with him. prudence. A weak body cannot lift a heavy The moment you feel yourself getting burden, nor a confused head think clearly'; moody and miserable, seek Divine supbut do something, whether it be much or port by prayer, and then set yourself a little, hard or easy, so long as you can task immediately; something that will ocwrite a letter, wind a ball of cotton, make casion you to exert yourself, and you

will a spill, read a book, or listen while ano- be surprised at the relief it will afford yon. ther reads it to you, so long as you can do Though old Humphrey advises you to any of these things, you will be mitigating do something of a trifling nature, rather your affliction.

than be idle, he is no advocate for trifling. So long as this world endures, there will fennel, hemlock, &c., and are all of them always be employment enough and to most readily characterized by their mode of spare, for all those who either wish to flowering, and the nature of the fruit guide others to heaven, or to get there which finally separates into two seeds. themselves. If you cannot employ your Among these plants, the Creator has taught body, employ your mind; for, there is a us to establish orders, for they are impressed time to employ it profitably;

with marks of resemblance, that the most A time to reflect on our words and ways; incurious cannot fail to recognise when A time to pray, and a time to praise.

pointed out to him. But in the araliaceæ And especially employ yourself in doing the same strong and evident relationship is good, and mitigating the sorrows of others: not found between the several plants that bewhile taking a thorn from the bosom of long to it, which there is among the umbellianother, you will lose that which rankles ferous plants, but we find a resemblance in in your own.

the mode of flowering, besides the various inThousands, who know how much com- stances of agreement which are met with in fort occupation gives, do not know how blossom and fruit. The reader should know, much distress and uneasiness it keeps that he can never understand this science away. Show me two men, who have without studying the plants themselves : equal advantages,-one of them idle, and they will give most instructive lessons, and the other fully occupied, and I will ven- accompany their precepts with many pretty ture to pronounce the latter ten times stories of their history; while they silently happier than the former Care is a sad set forth the wisdom and goodness of their disease, despondency a sadder, and dis- Creator. In old times, it is fabled that content, perhaps, the saddest of them all; Orpheus, by the music of his lyre, brought but, if you wish to be cured of all these trees from mount Hæmus to the shores together, next to seeking Divine support, of the Ægean : in these days the fable is my prescription is—OCCUPATION. reversed; for men, when smitten with the

love of botany, are led by trees and plants

to encounter the perils of robbers, famine, BOTANY.-No. III.

and wild beasts, for the single object of

gaining a knowledge of their history and Of the shrubs and plants which are as- properties. But we do not invite our readers sociated under the general term of araliaceæ, to join us in such wild excursions : we only the ivy may serve as a good sample. With bid them fetch a flowering branch from this well-known garniture of old walls, the the ivy; in doing which they will neither eyes of all persons are familiar ; no bota- have to be hauled on shore, through a nical description is necessary to enable our raging surf, nor find themselves exposed to friends to distinguish it from others. The the hug of a raging bear. When they are presence of an umbel of flowers, which thus provided, let them sit down some odd when ripe produce berries, is the chief half-hour, and leisurely compare the folcharacteristic.

lowing description of each part, with the If we examine the ivy, which flowers in corresponding stalk of the flower and fruit; winter, we see that the flowers are in a and if they do not find more instruction in little cluster ; that several smaller flower this single examination and study, than stalks rise from a single point in the stem, they ever did in all their reading about which distinguishes the umbel from all plants before, let them never take the adother modes of flowering. If we look at vice of a botanist again as long as they the figures of the moschatel and gin-seng, live. It is very pleasing to look at a beauwe remark that the blossoms rise from tiful figure, and read a well-told tale about a single point. This attention to puncti- the curious plant it represents, but if we lious niceties about the position of a blos- would gather a few grains of genuine som, may appear uninteresting to the botanical science, they must be obtained general reader, but amidst the ever-in- from the plants themselves. creasing variety of vegetable objects, we Calyz: -A tube growing to the germen, eagerly grasp any means of throwing them the border or upper edge either entire or into assortments, to relieve the memory divided into teeth. In the ivy, five minute and assist the judgment.

purplish scales may be seen, at the upper In the umbelliferous order several hun- edge of the calyx; each scale is placed dred plants are most conveniently assembled just at the point where two adjacent petals under one head; consisting of the celery, separate. parsley, carrot, parsnip, coriander, caraway, Petals, from five to ten, alternating with



the little teeth of the calyx. The segments the top of the united style in the ivy, with of the calyx are said to alternate with the a magnifier, we discern four or five minute petals, when the middle of the segment of prominences upon it; each of these we the calyx coincides with the edge of the must consider to be a stigma. petal. In the ivy the petals are broad at Berry, which is the ripened germen, the base, and have the medial line raised has from two to fifteen cells, correspondand sharp. By means of this elevated line, ing in number with the divisions of the two adjoining petals, before they expand, calyx, each cell containing only one seed. form a little cavity to afford a lodgment Seeds, angular, erect, with a perisperm for the anther. The reader will be sur- or outer covering, that becomes crustaceous prised at the exactness with which the when the berry is ripe. The texture of anther fills the niche that has been thus any thing is said to be crustaceous when provided. To perceive it, he has only to it is hard, and, when broken, the edges take a neighbouring pair of petals off of the fracture appear to be composed of without separation.

minute grains. Stamens, generally equal in number to that of the petals. In the ivy, they are Adoxa.-Tube of the calyx growing to greenish, and broad at the base. Anthers, attached to the tapering fila- into four or five lobes, which are of an

the germen, leaving its margin divided ment, by their middle. From this cir- oval form. Petals, fiveStamens varying cumstance, and the roundness of their from eight to ten; some of them are alforms, they are said to be peltate or target- ternate with the segments of the calyx; shaped.

for this reason they are presumed to be Ġermen, growing to the calyx. If, after transformed petals, while others are opabstracting the corolla of the primrose, we withdraw also the calyx, we shall see that posite to the segments, that is, in their

regular position. Styles, four or five; the germen is not affected by the removal thick, and distinct from each other ; their of the last organ. But, in the ivy, the outer separation commences at the top of the covering, which is a continuation of the

germen. little scales before described, is one with seeded. Seeds, each furnished with a

Berry, four-celled and fourthe coating of the germen. This fact is membranous margin. Root covered with worth attending to, for it connects this scales. order with the umbelliferæ, wherein the calyx is in the same predicament, in reference to the germen.

Cells, in the germen, varying in number, from two to several. These vary in the same plant; in the ivy, for example, we sometimes meet with five, but more frequently with only three. The history of this deviation in the number of cells appears, from our observation, to be this ; one or two of the seeds, by their overgrowth, appropriate all the nutriment; hence their less favoured brethren, being deprived of their necessary support, either disappear altogether, or are seen in a very stinted and diminutive condition. No cell has more than one seed within it.

Styles, several, either distinct, diverging, or united into one. In the ivy they are short, and collected into one apparently simple style ; but if we cut it horizontally, and place it under a magnifier of about half an inch focal length, we shall perceive that it is compounded of several. Each Adoxa moschatellina.- Tuberous mosstyle is a tube, and these tubes are obvious chatel. Not unfrequent in groves

and to the assisted eye, and may easily be thickets, and shady lanes, flowering in traced down into the germen.

April or May. The generic name adoxa, Stigma, simple, and forming an undi- inglorious, very aptly expresses the modest vided head to each style. If we look at and unassuming appearance of this little


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plant, as it emerges from its wintry bed of the name of the plant, while the former, withered leaves, to greet the botanist in his which signifies man, is added, perhaps, to herborising excursions in early spring. denote its excellence. Stem is simple, When young, and moist with dew, it has a and terminating in an umbel of flowers, faint smell of musk. The root is peren- which is supported by an involucre of fine nial, and is composed of fleshy imbricated leaflets. It is furnished, at some distance (tiled) scales, from which the fibres are below the flowers, with three leaves, which produced, as well as the runners, which are divided into fingered leaflets. The terminate in fresh roots. Herb, pale green, fertile and barren flowers are upon distinct succulent, smooth, and pellucid. Stem, individuals. The root is spindle-shaped, three or four inches high, angular, having and commonly cleft into two branches. two opposite leaves, some distance below The gin-seng, so renowned for its restorathe flowers. Flowers, five in a head, tive virtues among the Chinese, was long greenish. Fruit never found ripe. supposed to grow only in Chinese Tartary,

Panax. Calyx divided into five teeth. affecting mountainous situations, shaded Corolla with five petals ; stamens, five; by dense woods. But since 1704, when styles, two. It would seem, however, as M. Sarrasin, for the first time, transmitted if three were the regular number, becom- specimens of this plant to Paris, it has been ing twain by a deficiency of growth, since discovered in Canada, Pennsylvania, and in some specimens of the gin-seng three are Virginia, by Latifeau and others, from found, a circumstance which we have whence it is now actually imported into taken care to mark in our figure. Pro- China, and called yang-san, or doubtful, bably, in most instances, an inquisitive gin-seng. search would discover some traces or rudi- Hedera.—Calyx, margin elevated ments of a third. Berry, nearly heart- toothed ; petals, from five to ten, adhering shaped, with an umbilicus, or scar, upon by their tips ; stamens, from five to ten; the crown; cells, two.

styles from five to ten, united into one ; berry, with from five to ten cells.

Hedera helix. Common ivy.—Leaves, heart-shaped, with angular lobes ; footstalk of the leaf compressed into a roundish keel at the base, with the appearance of being gathered into wrinkles upon the part of the stem just below it. There is a peculiar turn in the foot-stalk, so as to render the plane of the leaf nearly parallel to the direction of the stem. If the fruit be pressed, after the falling of the petals, a number of minute drops of transparent liquor will be seen upon the fleshy crown, and studding the little valleys into which it is hollowed.

If the fruit at this stage be taken, a part of the crown cut off, and then a thin slice be shaved off with a razor, and the piece thus removed be submitted to a magnifier of one-eighth of an inch focal length, an appearance, of which we here give an imperfect delineation, will present it

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Barren Flower. C Fruit. d Embryo.

e Stem. von Bud of Stem for following year. Panar quinquefolium gin-seng-or, as

self. In the centre is seen a contini ait is spelt in Dr. Morrison's dictionary, tion of the five united styles, forming a Jin-san. The latter syllable seems to be central column. Immediately surround

No. III.

ing it is a cellular substance, full of large | THE ROYAL OBSERVATORY, GREENWICH openings, perforated by five tubes, or rather, masses of fine cellular substance,

(Continued from page 55 with a tube in their centre, communicating UPON the demise of Dr. Bradley, the apwith the style and the seed. At a distance from them, and towards the margin, are ferred upon Mr. Bliss, who survived it but

pointment of astronomer royal was connumerous tubes, which, it would seem, two years; and, in 1765, he was succeeded give passage to the clear transparent liquor, by Ďr. Nevil Maskelyne, a first-rate astrothat oozes out when the fruit is pressed.

nomer and mathematician of his day. He was born in London, in 1732, and very

early made considerable progress, both in THE RESOLUTIONS OF THE PENITENT. his classical and scientific pursuits. In

“I WILL arise, and go to my father !” 1758, he was elected a fellow of the Royal Luke xv. 18. With a soul in such danger, Society, and soon after was appointed to go with such a God and Father, such a Sa- to the island of St. Helena, to observe the viour, so great a salvation offered, I cannot transit of Venus over the sun's disk, on June hesitate, I must, I will go: I will take with 6, 1761; which was to determine the me words: I will say in secret to Him who important point relating to the sun's paralseeth in secret, Great and glorious God, lax, and consequently its distance and magpity a vile sinner! Lo! bring thee a nitude, and hence that of all the other plaperverse heart, I lay before thee a gift which nets. The day there unfortunately happened

myself abhor : yet look upon this loath- to be cloudy, which prevented the necessary some thing; have compassion upon this observation from being made; but other guilty soul! Father, take it: Jesus, pre- astronomers were more successful, and, sent it: cleanse it first in thy own blood, therefore, nothing was lost, except the concreate it anew by thy Spirit, transform it, firmation that it would have added to the chasten it, do with it what thou wilt, only other results. It was during this voyage pity, pardon, save my poor soul! Re- that he practised the lunar method of indpentance begins before saving faith, yet is ing the longitude at sea, which he afterimproved and deepened after it

, and by it. wards promoted to the utmost of his power Let us go, and in secret humble ourselves by the publication of the Nautical Almanbefore God, thankfully acknowledging re- ack, which owes its origin to his recompentance as a gift, and earnestly praying mendation and advice. Hle published the for grace that we may bring forth fruits British Mariner's Guide, and many very meet for repentance.

valuable astronomical tables, besides makBrethren, there is joy heaven over ing a vast number of observations of the one sinner that repenteth. Has there been, heavenly bodies, during a period of fortyshall there be joy, over you? If angels six years, in which he held his important pause upon their golden harps, to make si- office. He died on the 9th of February, lence for music sweeter than their own, it is 1811, having discharged the duties of his when the sorrowful sighing of a soul re- situation with the greatest credit to himself, penting ascends to the ear of God, through and much honour and advantage to the the mediation of Christ. Have you given scientific interests of his country. them that joy? If Jesus, surrounded as Mr. Pond, the present highly esteemed he is with praises, and glorious in hap- astronomer royal, was appointed the sucpiness, feels a new satisfaction thrill his sa- cessor of Dr. Maskelyne. This highly accred bosom, it is when he again sees of the complished gentleman, at the commencetravail of his soul, in another sinful soul ment of the present century, was possessed repenting at the view of God, presented in of a very superior altitude and azimuth inhis cross.

Has he that satisfaction in you? strument, the construction of that justly Is yours the soul repenting? I leave that celebrated artist, the present aged Mr. question on your conscience.-Hambleton. Troughton, which was set up at Westbury,

where Mr. Pond formed a catalogue of the

principal fixed stars ; perhaps the best, next Divine MERCY.-Men's sins are innu- to the present Greenwich catalogue, that merable, yet they are but cyphers to the ever was made. Upon comparing this catavast sums of grace which are every day logue with that of the same stars observed expended, because they are finite; but at Greenwich with the old mural quadrants, mercy is infinite. Rom. v. 20, Ps. ciii, 17. made by Graham and Bird, before spoken -Charnock.

of, he was led to the inference that those

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