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instrument is, to determine exact time; it, and was rewarded for his labours by another is, to determine the right ascen- discovering, in his researches, the aberra
tion of the fixed stars, and the nutation of the earth's axis; two of the most splendid scientific discoveries of the last century.
We have now brought the account of our great national Observatory to a close; hoping that our humble efforts may have done something more than merely beguile the time of our readers. Ours is, as far as we are aware, the first attempt at making public any thing like a connected account of this establishment, and much of the information we have been able to communicate has never before met the public eye. In a country like ours, the commercial relations of which are so extensive, and whose ships, conveying the lives and property of our countrymen to distant climes,
are daily trusting for safety and guidance sion of all the heavenly bodies, which,
across the pathless waters, to the researches together with their declinations found by of the astronomer, the maintenance of such the mural circles, fixes their relative si- an establishment is of the highest importtuations, (a corresponding problem to that Also, by the same researches new in geography, the determination of the light and information continually break latitude and longitude of places,) and ce
upon us, bringing us to a nearer acquaintlestial maps can be constructed from the ance with the vastness of the power and results.
wisdom displayed in the creation and The last instrument of great import- government of the mighty universe ; leadance we shall notice, is the zenith micro- ing us in humility to adore and praise that meter epresented below. It was erected Almighty Being, who upholdeth all things
by the word of his power.
Creative arts new faculties supply,
And piercing optics more than eagle's eye,
SCRIPTURE EXPLANATIONS.No. XXII.
the people with the oath: wherefore he put forth
showing by what slight causes great results in July, 1833; it is twenty-five feet long, are sometimes produced. We have often and was designed to measure with ex- reflected upon the fact mentioned in the treme accuracy the zenith distance of the text, and were not a little delighted, while star y Draconis, with a view to determine | looking over the recipes for various culinary the amount (if any) of its annual parallax, preparations in a Latin work, De Re Cuand hence its distance from the earth ; this, linaria, which some ascribe to Apicius however, appears to be altogether inap- Cælius, who lived in the reign of Augustus preciable; consequently, any thing like the and Tiberius, to find that honey was the correct distance of the fixed stars is chief ingredient in a confection to stay the likely still to remain unknown.
stomach, and prolong the bodily strength The question of parallax has long been during periods of necessary abstinence. It a subject of great interest amongst astrono- is recommended in that recipe, that pepper mers ; Dr. Bradley devoted much time to be pounded in a mortar with honey, and
the foam be removed, from time to time, Of the expansion of the silk-worm, an during that process. The addition of a interesting account is given by Malpighi. little wine is also suggested, to correct the "At length,” he says, “ within four days, alterative effects it may have upon the sys- the heart of the silk-worm continues moving tem. This preparation is entitled Con- slowly, and the body growing bigger, having ditum Melizomum, and by the latter term, thrown off the outward skin like a slough, simply intimates, that it is a seasoning made the pupa appears a new creature. The with honey. A story is told of Democritus, throwing off the old, and assuming the new says Athenæus, that, growing weary of old form, is completed in the space of one miage, he determined to withdraw himself from nute and ten seconds; and it is thus done, this life, by abstaining from his daily food. as I chanced to see it. The motion of the It happened, however, that the Thes- heart is very quick at first, and the whole mophoria, a public festival, was about to frame of the body appears convulsed; so be celebrated : the females of his household, that the several circular folds of the segtherefore, besought him to drop the inten- ments emerge, and by the transverse contion of dying till after the anniversary, that traction of the sides, the external skin is they might not be prevented from keeping separated from the inner ; hence, upon the feast. The philosopher yielded to their making an effort, and thrusting the body, entreaties, and ordered a pot of honey to be which now appears particularly thick toset near him, by the simple use of which, wards the head, the skin is driven backward he is said to have prolonged his existence a and downward, and the portions of the sufficient number of days to let his domes- windpipe being separated from their extics enjoy the customary solemnities of the ternal proper orifices, are thrown away with festival, without any interference from the the skin, which is then cast off. By this required rites of mourning for the dead. motion, a cleft or opening is made in the Democritus, it is said, was always fond of back near the head, and through the aperhoney, and when asked how a man might ture the body makes its way, the skin enjoy good health, he replied, If he moistens being by degrees drawn back towards the the inside with honey, and the outside with tail. This process is greatly assisted by a olive oil, The diet of the Pythagoreans yellow kind of ichor, which exudes from was bread with honey, as Aristoxenus tells the cavities of the skull
, and the pupa apus, who adds, that those who use them, pears then free and disengaged. surpass others in living exempt from dis- “While the insect is making its passage
And Lycus says, that the inhabit out, the antennæ are separated from the ants of Corsica formerly attained to a great body of the pupa, and are torn, as it were, age, through the constant employment of out of two cavities of the skull; and their honey. All substances containing sacchar- length, as they become unfolded, occupies ine matter, or sugar, are highly nutritious the same place which the two muscles of and of easy assimilation. When the writer the mandibles formerly occupied. The was staying at Oahu, one of the Sandwich wings, also, and the legs, appear to be cirIslands, the fresh juice of the sugar-cane cumscribed in their limits; the wings being was recommended as an excellent resort to drawn from their situation near the fore-legs, stay and soothe the stomach, when the tone and the legs from the lateral parts of the was reduced by long fasting; and its good back. But as these unfolded parts are yet effects were more than once experienced. mucous, they easily stick to each other,
and, insensibly growing dry, they become
so closely united, that the pupa appears (Their Expansion, continued.)
like one entire garment. Now, as these It seems from Reaumur's description, parts are peculiar to the moths, and are that the wings of some flies, instead of the destined for their use, the nature of the straight, transverse folds of others, have an
moths seems to bę, to emerge sooner from gular, or zigzag folds, which equally shorten the state of the caterpillar than is comthe wing. Others have wings without
monly believed, and also to be earlier im
any nervures, except the marginal. It is, pro
planted in it; for, evidently, in the silkbably, that these are more simply folded, worm, the beginnings of the wings may be so as to render their expansion more easy; body, before the texture of the web. The
seen under the second and third rings of the but, even in these wings, there are often tracheæ, which appear as spurious nervures, skull; and the web being finished, they
antennæ are likewise delineated on the and help to effect the purpose we are con- have their own termination ; nor will it be sidering.
improper to suppose, that the new kind of are fully expanded and fit for flying. These life in the pupa, is only a mask or veil of genera quit the pupa at the surface of the the moth, which is already perfect within, water; from which, after resting upon it the intent of which is, that it should not be for a few moments, they take flight; but struck or destroyed by external injuries, this would evidently be impracticable, and but might grow strong and ripen.”
death would result, were not the general There is now produced a violent agi- rule in their case departed from. tation in the fluids of the little creature, so Some species of the ephemera are disthat they are driven from the internal ves- tinguished by another peculiarity, unparalsels through the tubes in the wings, which leled, as far as is known, in the rest of the inare likewise supplied with air from the sect world. After being released from the windpipe. The insect, besides, labours puparium, and making use of their exviolently with its legs; and, all these mo- panded wings for flight, often to a considertions concurring with the growth of the able distance, they have yet to undergo anwings, the tender skin which covers it gives other change. They fix themselves by their way, by bursting in four distinct and re- claws, in a vertical position, on some object, gular pieces. As the legs become disen- and withdraw every part of the body, even gaged, they greatly assist in freeing the the legs and wings, from a thin pellicle, body and other parts that are yet bound which has inclosed them, as a glove does up; at the same time, the skin on the back the fingers. It is easy to conceive how the flies open, and uncovers the wings and body, and even legs, can be withdrawn from shoulders. After this, the insect remains their cases ; but it is not so easy to imagine for some time in a state of rest, with its how the wings, which seem as thin, as wings drooping down like wet paper, and much expanded, and as rigid as those of a its legs fixed in the skin which it has just | Ay, can admit of having any sheath stripped cast off, together with the lining of the wind- from them; much less how they can be pipe and breathing spiracles. This enables withdrawn, as they are, through a small the insect to take more air into its body, opening at the base of the sheath. The and thereby renders it the better able to fly, fact seems to be, that though the outer and perform the other functions dependent covering is rigid, the wing inclosed in it, on a good supply of air. In consequence notwithstanding it is sometimes more than of this, the wings expand so rapidly, that it twenty-four hours before the change ensues, is is by no means easy to trace their unfold- kept moist and pliable. In proportion, thereing; for, in the space of a few minutes, fore, as the insect disengages itself from the they increase in dimensions about four-fold. anterior part of the skin, the interior or real Their spots and colours at the same time, wings become contracted, by a number of previously so small as to be scarcely dis- plaits, into a form nearly cylindrical, which cernible, become proportionately extended; readily admits of their being pulled through so that, what appeared but a few minutes the opening lately mentioned ; and as soon before as a number of confused and in- as the insect is released from its envelope, distinct points, acquires many varied beau- the plaits unfold, and the wing returns to ties of colour and form. From the sudden its former shape and dimensions. extension of the wings, their soft, wrinkled The body of newly-disclosed insects comappearance is, in less than half an hour, no monly appears, at first, of its full size ; but longer visible, and the insect becomes fitted the aphis-eating flies, and some others, in
about a quarter of an hour after leaving the The operation of expanding their wings, pupa, become at least twice as large as in by far the greater number of instances, they were at their first appearance. This takes place gradually; and according to apparent sudden growth, Reaumur found their size, is ended in five, ten, or fifteen to depend on the expansion of the previminutes ; in some butterflies, it occupies ously cornpressed segments of the animal, half an hour, in some even an hour. A few by means of the included air. species require several hours, or even a day, for this operation; and, from the distance to which they creep before it has taken place, a considerable degree of motion seems requisite for causing the necessary impulse of the expanding fluids. In a few
process is so rapid and instan- A CHINESE mandarin, who had the chief taneous, that the wings are scarcely dis- command of the royal troops in Cochinengaged from the wing-cases, before they | China, perceiving one day, near the court,
THE TESTIMONY OF A PAGAN MAGIS
TRATE TO THE EXCELLENCY OF
a number of men beneath the canga, (an in
THE KINGDOM OF CHRIST. strument of torture,) said, “ Where have The hand of Providence has been visithey seized on so many thieves at a time?" ble in many important events, which have It was answered, that they were not thieves, distinguished these latter ages; all conbut christians, whose religion the king had curring mutually to promote each other, forbidden under pain of death. How," and ail seeming uniformly to tend to the replied he, "condemned for being chris- same point. The revival of learning, arts, tians! Can their religion be any crime and sciences; their progress westward ; against the government? Do they not pay their great increase among those who were taxes as well as others? Do they not assist at able to diffuse them most widely, and to the public works? Do they not bear arms ? carry their influence to the most distant Do they not go to battle? Do they not parts; the invention of printing ; the refollow our standard from north to south ? formation of religion in Europe ; the disWhat more can be required of them? Why covery of the long-hidden continent of should we concern ourselves about their America, the opening of a new passage to religion, provided they prove good and the east; the improvement of navigation ; faithful subjects? It is we, the disciples the extension of commerce ; the continual of Phat and Confucius, and especially we addition of new regions to the known parts mandarins, who know no other law than of the world, and the communication renour own wills, nor rule of life but our own dered more safe and easy between the most concupiscence, that seize, without scruple, remote : all these bearings and tendencies the gardens and fields of the poor ; that indicate a general effort, under a superior violate, without shame, the wives of others, direction, towards a union and comprehenand carry off their daughters by force; sion of the affairs of mankind in one great whereas the christians confine themselves to system ; not a system of civil policy, not one wife, without daring to approach the of universal temporal dominion; for no wives or daughters of others. In a word, such shall ever arise : the only universal they are an upright and simple people, who kingdom, which shall henceforth be estado no injury to any one.
blished upon earth, is the spiritual kingdom " When I was very young," continued of Christ. “ To him shall be given domihe, “ there was a libertine with whom I nion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all was acquainted, who became a notorious people, nations, and languages, should thief. His family left no means untried to serve him : his dominion is an everlasting reclaim him from his wicked course of life. dominion, which shall not pass away; and He had often been severely whipped, impri- his kingdom that which shall not be desoned, and even threatened with death by the stroyed.” Dan, vii. 14.-Bishop Lowth. heads of the village, but to no purpose, for nothing could intimidate him. At length, after an absence of many years, I met him by accident, and was astonished beyond measure at the alteration I perceived in
This is the strongest and most binding him, being now neither a libertine, a gam
reason that can be used to a christian bler, nor a thief. I asked him the reason of so surprising a change. To which he mind, which hath resigned itself to be replied, that he had married a christian governed by that rule, to have " the will
of God” for its law. Whatsoever is rewoman, who by her exhortations and example, had converted him to her religion; refuse. Although it cross a man's own
quired of it upon that warrant, it cannot he no longer dared to persevere in his wicked course of life, because it was for heart be subjected to the will of God, he
humour, or his private interest, yet if his bidden by that religion. Behold,” added will not stand with him in any thing. One the mandarin, “ what the magistrates could word from God, “I will have it so," not effect by the force of their authority, a
silences all, and carries it against all opwife has accomplished by the influence of her religion! Ought a religion, therefore, position.-Leighton. which has the power of putting a stop to such disorders ; ought a religion, which can convert a thief into an honest man ; JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London, ought such a religion to be proscribed Price fd.each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Fi ve or condemned ? I defy," continued he,
Numbers in a Cover, 3d. yours or mine to do as much.”-Ameri
W. TYLER, Privter, 4, Ivy I ane, St. Paul's. can Baptist Journal.
THE WILL OF GOD.
The above sketch will afford some idea thirty-three gallons. Ten of these lavers of the form and nature of the brazen were made by Hiram, king of Tyre, lavers made by Solomon for the gorgeous 1 Kings vii. 40. They were all alike in temple which he built, (see 1 Kings vii. size and workmanship; and five were 27—39.) They were vessels borne by placed on the right hand, and five on four cherubim standing upon bases or pe- the left, of the first temple, between the destals, mounted on brazen wheels, and altar of burnt-offerings and the steps which furnished with handles, by which they led to the porch of the temple. were drawn about the temple wherever The use of these lavers was to acthey might be wanted. These lavers were commodate the officiating priest with a double, that is to say, composed of a basin supply of water for those frequent washthat received the water which fell from ings and purifications enjoined upon the another square vessel above it, from which Jews in their typical worship; which they drew water with cocks. The whole washings were strong similitudes of that of the work was of brass ; the square spiritual washing and purification of the vessels were adorned with the heads of a heart of man, by the grace of God, through lion, an ox, and a cherub. Each of these which alone he can be restored to the favour lavers contained forty baths, or nearly of his offended Creator, and be enabled to