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ON THE HEART, AND CIRCULATION OF most gifted sage boast that he has entered THE BLOOD. —NO. I,
into the arcana of nature ? Can the wisest
man create the meanest insect, or In former numbers of the Weekly Vi- animate its no longer vital frame, or recall sitor we have endeavoured to give a brief and reunite its elementary particles, and description of several interesting organs of say, Live ? No. But there is One who the animal frame : we have dwelt upon can ; there is One who has done this, and the structure and properties of the eye, the more: it is He who said, “Let there be ear, and the hand; and we are now about light, and there was light;" who created to explain, as simply as possible, the me- man, and all living things by his Word, chanism by which the vital Auid is carried that Word, which in the beginning “was through thousands of channels, so as to with God, and was God, and without traverse every portion of the body, giving which was not any thing made that was warmth, health, and animation to our tene- made." ments of clay : “ for the blood is the life But though life, abstractedly considered, thereof." We are, in fact, about to describe must ever remain a mystery, the operations the structure of the heart and blood- of living bodies, upon which their organic vessels, and the general plan of the circu- existence immediately depends, are, to a lating system.
certain point, within our powers of investiLife is a wonder ; the laws of life are gation, and offer, to the reflective mind, based upon a principle which is beyond subjects of the highest interest. One of the sphere of our comprehension, and all these operations of vitality is the circulation the operations of living bodies proclaim, of the blood, to understand which, we in the most direct and forcible manner, must first become generally acquainted the agency of God, who alone could have with the agents by which it is effected. formed, who alone can maintain, who alone These are the heart, the arteries, and the understands that mystery. It is a mysterious veins, the two latter being often denomiprinciple, which, though it eludes the ana- nated, in general terms, blood-vessels. tomist's knife, yet resides in every fibre, In man, together with the rest of the in every nerve, in every globule of blood, mammalia, and in birds, the heart is formed while circulating in the body; it is some- on one general plan; but when we pass to thing which gives the nerves their feel- reptiles, fishes, and the lower orders of ings, the fibres their powers of contraction, animate beings, we find it very variously and which converts the nutriment we take modified. into warm and living blood. Who can ex- Our observations will mainly apply to plain what is life ! The more we try, the warm red-blooded vertebrata, that is, mammore are we lost in wonder. Can the malia and birds.
The heart, then, is a large hollow 9. Descending vena cava bringing back muscle, internally divided into four cavi- blood from upper parts of body, into right ties.
auricle n. In the mammalia it is situated in the The reader will refer as he proceeds to chest, between the lungs, and enfolded in our engraving. a membranous bag, technically called the There is no direct communication, in the pericardium. In birds, there is no chest mature condition of mammalia, between properly so called, and the lungs are not the right and the left cavities of the heart, loose, but attached to the vertebræ and the blood having to pass through the lungs, ribs, filling up the hollows between the from the right, before it can reach the ribs; the heart, therefore, in this order, is left portion of the heart; hence such a not placed exactly in the same relative si- heart is said to be double, in reference to tuation as in the mammalia, and it further what we find it to be in the lower orders differs also in one or two points of struc-of animals. The right portion is called ture. Our
purpose, however, is not to the pulmonic, because from thence the enter into minutiæ, but to generalize as blood received from the body is carried to much as possible.
the lungs; the left, the systemic, because The four cavities of the heart are as fol- the blood returned from the lungs, is lows :-a right auricle, and a right ven- thence sent out to the body at large, for its tricle, a left auricle, and a left ventricle. nutriment, and the maintenance of its or
The auricles are small hollow earlike ganic functions. This, however, will be appendages, with their muscular walls, better understood when we shall have depossessing little strength, or power: they scribed the cavities of the heart a little seem, indeed, to be rather dilatations of more in detail, and followed the course the veins which terminate in them, than of the circulating fluid through the arteries separate and distinct cavities. In our and the veins.
M. sketch above, they are marked as follows :-n. the right, r. the left. The ventricles constitute the great mass of this
MEDICAL PROPERTIES OF ARALIACEOUS organ; their walls are thick and muscular,
PLANTS AND SHRUBS. but not in an equal ratio ; the parietes of the right ventricle (which has only to The Aralia, or angelica-tree, the type send the blood to the lungs) being the or representative of this order of plants and weakest, while those of the left ventricle shrubs, received its latter name from the (whence the blood is sent to the uttermost resemblance which its round clusters (umparts of the body) are of enormous strength bels) have to those of the angelica. The and thickness. The ventricles are not se- fruit, however, is not a twin seed, as in parated externally, in so distinct a manner the angelica, but a five celled berry, which as are the auricles, but the boundary line is striped or marked with indented lines, between them is marked by veins and and, being surmounted by a permanent arteries, which may be observed running calyx, it affords a ready mark for discrimidown the heart to its point or apex. The nation, independent of other notes of differventricles are marked as follows :-6. the ence between a shrub and an herbaceous right, a. the left.
plant. Several species of this genus are, The remainder of the parts to be noticed by the natives where they grow wild, in the sketch of this organ are as follows: treated as simples, and have obtained some
c. e.f. The aorta, arising from left ven- reputation for their efficacy in dropsical tricle.
diseases. g. h. i. Arteries branching from it, going The Aralia Palmata, or palmate-leaved to the head and neck; g. the artery inno- angelica-tree, a native of China, produces merata; h. and i. the left carrotid, and sub-a bark which is used by the Chinese as a clavian.
medicament in dropsies and diseases of the k. The pulmonary artery;
skin. This shrub climbs like the ivy; 1. l. Its branches on the lungs.
bears palmate, or five-lobed leaves, (so as m. m. Pulmonary veins, bringing back to have a certain resemblance to the hands the blcod from the lungs into left auricle r. when the fingers are spread out,) and a
0. Ascending vena cava, bringing back cluster of white flowers. the blood of the lower parts into right au- Aralia Nudicaulis, or naked-stalked anricle n.
gelica-tree, is a native of Canada or Virp. Veins entering the cava.
ginia. It has a very short stem, with “ If you
leaves elegantly divided; the fowers are greenness when most other shrubs sicken in clusters, like those of our common ivy. | from the inclemencies of winter; for wine, The inhabitants of Canada use the roots in the flustered imagination of a drunkard, of this species instead of sarsaparilla, the imparts youth, health, and beauty, with root of which has been proved, by many every goodly and prosperous gift
. The trials, to have a good effect in cases where burden of jovial songs is, that while the sharpness or acrimony of the fluids sober-minded persons are fading with care, occasions a derangement of the external the lover of wine is always green and fresh. surface of the body. There appears to be a Such wretched dupes of their own deceivstrange correspondence between that state ings are the votaries of jollity and good-felof the system which produces dropsy, and lowship. The ivy was not the only material the state of the skin. One of the Sandwich in the composition of this crown, but the Island Chiefs, who was a sincere friend to vine branches and various kinds of flowers religion and the missionaries, was afflicted were employed for the same purpose. If with this malady, and subject to an un- the reader will be pleased to turn to Isaiah sightly disorder in the legs, which is en- xxviii. 1, he will find an allusion to this demic or local in that group. As the practice ; and, in the following verses, a setime for affording a temporary relief by the vere reproof to wine-bibbers. Porcius Cato, customary operation drew near, the sores who fought, at the age of seventeen, in the upon the legs broke out, rankled, and dis- war against Hannibal, and was himself the charged, and presented a most“ lazar- pattern of domestic economists, teaches us, like” and revolting appearance. But within in rule cxi. in his work on rustic affairs, a short time after the operation, the legs, how to find by experiment when wine which had so lately offered a piteous illus- has been diluted with water. tration of Isaiah, i. 6, were healed, and would know,” says he, “ whether water has only reminded us of their former condition been put to the wine or not, make a by discoloured patches, powdered with a small vessel of the wood of the ivy, then scurfy whiteness. We have told this short pour that wine which you suppose has story, as it proves, without any pathological water into it. If it has water, the wine will or recondite reasoning upon the subject, flow out, the water remain; for a vessel that the same medicine may be useful made of the ivy wood will not hold wine." among the inhabitants of one place for the Porcius Cato most likely gave this recipe dropsy, where it is common, and in an- upon the credit of others, without an expeother, for a disease of the skin, from the riment; for since his time, Olaus Wormius connexion that is seen to obtain between actually put the precept to its trial, but it them. We are therefore justified in saying, was found that not only wine leaked through that these two plants just mentioned have the spongy wood, but the water also, to nearly, if not entirely, the same effect; bear it company. The ivy yields a gum which is worthy of remark, for in stem and resin, which is sometimes imported and foliage they differ greatly, but in the nature sold in the shops. It is obtained in the of their flowers they are essentially the usual way, by wounding the stem, when the
gum resin oozes out, and congeals about the The virtues of the Panax Quinquefolium, wound. If the top of the germen or unor Gin-seng, have been already alluded to, ripe fruit be examined while it is in flower, under that head, in No. III.
a number of minute drops will be seen Hedera Helix, common ivy. The ivy, upon it, as we have stated in our descripaccording to Dioscorides, is useful in all tion of this shrub. See Hedera, No. III. kinds of ulcer. The leaves boiled in wine The dew just described is doubtless a gum are good for a discoloured and sun-burnt resin, and offers a connecting link between skin; properties very similar to which we the araliaceous and umbelliferous plants. have just seen the Canadians ascribe to an associate of the ivy, the aralia nudicaulis. The powdered berries of the ivy, when
MUSICAL TALENTS OF SAMUEL WESLEY. ripened to dryness, were formerly exhibited in large doses, as a remedy against the SAMUEL WESLEY gave some astonishing plague. The same authority quoted above, proofs of his love for music when quite a recommends it in diseases of the nostrils, and child. The following is abridged from the as an antidote against the bite of the taran- Methodist Magazine, where some anecdotes tula. The ivy was worn in a wreath about of his early life are given as stated by his the head by bacchanalians, doubtless on father, the Rev. Charles Wesley. account of its flourishing in bloom and While his brother Charles was playing,
Samuel used to stand by, with his childish up at court, yet without a courtier's serfiddle, scraping and beating time. The vility.” first tunes he aimed at, were the King's In addition to the above, the Hon. Daines Anthem and Fischer's Minuet, which he Barrington gives some further particulars picked up from the street-organ players, respecting this extraordinary boy. He first when he was about three years of age. saw him when he was nearly ten years of
Whenever Mr. Kelway came to teach age ; and he states, that he was then able Charles, Sam constantly attended, and ac- to execute the most difficult lessons for the companied Charles on the chair. If his harpsichord at sight, and that his fingers brother ever began playing his lesson before never wanted the guidance of the eye in the Sam was called, he would cry and roar as most rapid and desultory passages. if he had been beaten. When Mr. Arnold could execute the most crabbed composition heard him at the harpsichord, he said, “I at sight: his abilities in this way were once set down Sam for one of my family.” When- put to a severe test. An old composition, ever he heard his brother begin to play, he supposed to have been composed by Queen could tell whose music it was, (whether Elizabeth, which none of the harpsichord Handel, Corelli, Scarlatti, or any other;) masters could perform, was taken to him. and what part of what lesson, sonata, or Samuel immediately placed it on his desk, overture.
and, although he allowed that there were When he was about eight years of age, two or three passages which he could not Dr. Boyce called on his father, saying, play at sight, as they were “so queer and
Sir, I hear you have got an English Mo- awkward,” yet he said he had no notion zart in your house;" adding, that he had of not trying. He boggled at these “queer been told wonderful things of him. A and awkward parts” the first time, but piece of music of Samuel's composition executed them clearly at the second pracwas shown to the doctor, who looked over tice. it very carefully, “ These airs are certainly His judgment as to the merits or defects some of the prettiest I have seen. This of musical composition, was also very acute boy writes, by nature, as true a bass as I and correct. Lord Mornington once said, can by rule and study.”.
that he always wished to consult Master After this he was much taken notice of, Wesley upon any difficulty in composition, playing voluntaries on the organ; delight- as he knew no one who gave such immediate ing many companies for hours together and satisfactory information. with his own music, and playing the first An instance of the delicacy of his feelviolin at private concerts. He was, also, ings may now be stated. He had been every where as much admired and loved desired to compose an easy melody in the for his behaviour, as for his skill in music. minor third, for an experiment on little
“If he loved any thing better than Crotch ; and that he would go to hear what music, it was regularity. He took to it that very extraordinary child was capable himself. Nothing could exceed his punctu- of. Crotch was not in good humour; and ality. No company, no persuasion, could Master Wesley submitted, amongst other keep him up beyond his time. He never things, to play upon a cracked violin, in could be prevailed on to hear any concert order to please him; the company, howby night. The moment the clock gave ever, having found out who he was, pressed warning for eight, away ran Sam, in the him very much to play upon the organ, midst of his most favourite music. Once which Sam constantly declined. As this be rose up, saying, “ Come, mamma, let was contrary to his usual readiness in us go home, or I sha'nt be in bed by obliging any person who had the curiosity eight.” When some talked of carrying him to hear him, he was afterwards asked what to the queen, and I asked him if he was might be the occasion of his refusal ; willing to go, “Yes; with all my heart,” when he said that it would look like wishhe answered; “but I won't stay beyond ing to shine at little Crotch's expense. eight."
It would appear, also, that this youthful The praises bestowed so lavishingly upon musical genius was able to sing at sight him did not seem to affect, much less to from the time of his first knowing his notes. hurt him; and whenever he went into the We shall conclude our notice with an aneccompany of his betters, he would much dote related of him by the Hon. Daines rather have stayed at home; yet, when Barrington :among them, he was free and easy; so that “ He was desired to compose a march some remarked, “He behaves as one bred / for one of the regiments of guards; which
he did to the approbation of all that ever Being a stranger to the place, I asked heard it; and a distinguished officer of the a by-stander the cause of the crowd, when royal navy declared that it was a move- he significantly pointed to the roof of the ment which would probably inspire steady large building, exactly opposite the throng. and serene courage when the enemy was It was Horsemonger Jail, on the top of approaching. As I thought the boy would which was erected a gallows, ready for the like to hear this march performed, I car- execution of a murderer on the morrow ried him to the parade at the proper time, morning. when it had the honour of beginning the Thus, on the sabbath-day, with the military concert. The piece being finished, gallows before their eyes, whereon, in less I asked him whether it was executed to his than twenty-four hours, a wretched being satisfaction; to which he replied, ' By no would end a guilty life by enduring a mimeans.' I then immediately introduced serable death, this throng was assembled him to the band, (which consisted of very together in all the thoughtlessness of untall and stout musicians,) that he might subjugated mirth, and the hardiness of set them right. On this Sam said to them, the most obdurate impiety. “Lord, what • You have not done justice to my compo- | is man!” sition. To which they answered the urchin with both astonishment and contempt, by, *Your composition !'. Sam, however, replied with great serenity, ‘Yes, my composition !' which I confirmed.
“I will be with him in trouble." Ps. xci. 15.
They then stared, and severally made their excuses, by Many remarkable facts are recorded in protesting that they had copied accurately Scripture, verifying the truth of this profrom the manuscript which had been put mise. God was with faithful Abraham to into their hands. This he most readily al- comfort and sustain him under all the lowed to the hautbois and bassoons, but trials of his pilgrimage, and encourage him said that it was the players on the French “to look for a city that had foundations:” horns that were in fault ; who making the he was with Daniel in the time of exsame defence, he insisted upon the original tremity, to stop the mouths of lions: he score being produced, and, showing them was with Job, so that he exclaimed, “I their mistake, ordered the march to be know that my Redeemer liveth :" he was played again; which they submitted to with David, and enabled him to say, with as much deference as they would " though I walk through the valley and have shown to Handel."
shadow of death, I will fear no evil.'
He has been to his people in all ages that are past, and he will be in those which are to
come, "a very present help in time of HORSEMONGER JAIL,
trouble.” This is the christian's privilege, It was on the sabbath day, that, passing that this God is his God, and he will by the end of a street, a crowd engaged guide him in life's intricate path—he will my attention. Thinking it probable that be a refuge for him in the day of adversome one was preaching in the open air to sity-he will be his solace on the bed of the multitude, I moved towards the throng, affiction-and in death he will be with but soon found that the people assembled him, to calm the swellings of Jordan-to together were of a very different descrip- dispel the gloom, and to animate bim tion to those who hear the word gladly, with the blessed hope of celebrating for or hunger and thirst after eternal life. A ever the praises of God and the Lamb in reckless crowd of persons, mostly young, the realms of bliss and immortality. was assembled, and the loud laugh of
STUDIOSUS. thoughtless folly, the horrid oath of the daring blasphemer, and the coarse ribaldry of the profane, were blended together. How to LIVE.-Live not so much upon There were some persons, apparently, the comforts of God, as upon the God of drawn to the spot by mere curiosity; but comforts, Psalm lxiii. 3. they formed an exception only to that concourse of sabbath breakers, who, by turns, chaffered with the Jew-boys for JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London.. their oranges, played at leap-frog, excited Price fd. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Five their dogs to fight, or quarrelled with each
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