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November 9, 1637.-There fell out a quarrel betwixt my Lord Philip Herbert, son of the Chamberlain, and the Lord Carr, son to the Earl of Roxborough, at Pall Mall, young youths both. Upon some words my Lord Philip struck him, so they fell to cuffs. It passed no further, my Lord had notice of it who made them friends. -Garrard to Wentworth (Strafford Letters, vol. ii. p. 131).

In September 1635 a grant was made to Archibald Lumsden “for sole purchasing of all the malls, bowls, scoops, and other necessaries for the game of Pall mall, within his grounds in St. James's Fields, and that such as resort there shall pay him such sums of money as are according to the ancient order of the game.”] A piece or parcel of pasture ground called “Pell Mell Close," part of which was planted with apple trees (Apple Tree Yard, St. James's Square, still exists), is described by the Commissioners for the Survey of the Crown Lands, in 1650, and the close must have taken its name from the particular locality where the game was played. And that this was the case is proved by the same Survey, the Commissioners valuing at £70 “All those Elm Trees standing in Pall Mall walk, in a very decent and regular manner on both sides the walk, being in number 140." In the Rate-books of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, under the year 1656, eight names of persons are entered as living in the Pall Mall ;” and in 1657 occurs a heading, “Down the Haymarket and in the Pall Mall.” Pepys (June 10, 1666), relating the dismissal of my Lady Castlemaine from the Court for some impertinent language in presence of the Queen, says that she left “presently, and went to a lodging in the Pell Mell.” The Mall in the present street certainly existed as early as the reign of Charles I., and probably in that of his predecessor. The Mall in St. James's Park was made by Charles II. (See The Mall.]

September 16, 1660.-To the Park, where I saw how far they had proceeded in the Pell-mell, and in making a river through the Park, which I had never seen before since it was begun.-Pepys.

An attempt was made to compliment the Queen of Charles II. by giving the name of Catherine Street to the thoroughfare which led past the residence of Nell Gwynne to the palace of Lady Castlemaine. In the Statute of 1685 the parish of St. James is said to begin “at the Picture shop having an iron balcony at the south side of the end of Catherine Street, alias Pall Mall.” But in the latter part of the same Act this name is dropped and Pall Mall only used. Nor does it ever appear to have come into common acceptation. In descriptions and advertisements, memoirs and letters from this time forward, the street is as far as we have been able to discover invariably called Pall Mall, with one exception. In Letters and Miscellaneous Papers, by Barré C. Roberts, Student of Christ Church, Oxford (4to, 1814), is a letter to Roberts, dated February 1808, from his father, who says

I do not remember old Fribourg : he had kept a shop in the narrow part of Pall Mall, formerly called Catherine Street, in which he was succeeded by Pontet, a Frenchman, who told me he had married Fribourg's daughter. The shop was three

I Cal. State Pap., 1631-1633, p. 286.

or four doors from the Haymarket on the right hand : I was often sent to buy snuff for my father full fifty years ago.

From which it would seem that the name of Catherine Street was occasionally used, or at least remembered, as late as the middle of the 18th century. But on the other hand Dodsley (London, 1761), whose shop was in Pall Mall, makes no reference to its having ever been so called, either under “Pall Mall” or “Catherine Street.” Even in 1685, although so named in the Act of that year, it was not an accepted name.

A tauny more with short bushy hair, very well shaped, in a grey livery lined with yellow, about seventeen or eighteen years of age, with a silver collar about his neck, with these directions, “Captain George Hastings' Boy, Brigadier in the King's Horse Guards.” Whoever will bring him to the Sugar Loaf in the Pall Mall shall have 40s. reward.—London Gazette, March 23, 1685.

One of the scenes in Wycherley's Love in a Wood, or St. James's Park, is laid in the Old Pall Mall. This is what we now call the street; for the first time that Pepys mentions Pell Mell is under July 26, 1660, where he says, “We went to Wood's at the Pell Mell (our old house for clubbing), and there we spent till ten at night.” This is not only one of the earliest references to Pall Mall, as an inhabited locality, but one of the earliest uses of the word “clubbing” in its modern signification of a Club, and additionally interesting, seeing that the street still maintains what Johnson would have called its "clubbable" character.

The writing of that play [Love in a Wood] was the occasion of his [Wycherley's] becoming acquainted with one of King Charles's mistresses after a very particular manner. As Mr. Wycherley was going thro' Pall Mall, towards St. James's, in his chariot, he met the foresaid lady [the Duchess of Cleveland] in hers, who thrusting half her body out of her chariot, cry'd out aloud to him, “ You, Wycherley, you are a son of a whore," at the same time laughing aloud and heartily. Perhaps, sir, if you never heard of this passage before, you may be surprised at so strange a greeting from one of the most beautiful and best bred ladies in the world. Mr. Wycherley was very much surpris'd at it, yet not so much but he soon apprehended it was spoke with allusion to the latter end of a song in the fore-mentioned play :

When parents are slaves
Their brats cannot be any other ;

Great Wits and great Braves
Have always a Punk to their Mother.

Dennis's Letters, 8vo, 1721, p. 215. The Pail Mail, a fine long street. The houses on the south side have a pleasant prospect into the King's Garden; and besides they have small gardens behind them, which reach to the wall, and to many of them are raised Mounts, which give them the prospect of the said Garden and of the Park. --Strype, B. vi. p. 81.

Eminent Inhabitants.Dr. Sydenham, the celebrated physician. He was living in the Pavement (on the south side of St. James's Square, and overlooking Pall Mall] in 1658, and in Pall Mall from 1664 till his death there, December 29, 1689. He is buried in St. James's Church. Mr. Fox told Mr. Rogers that Sydenham was sitting at his window looking on the Mall, with his pipe in his mouth and a silver tankard before him, when a fellow made a snatch at the tankard and

ran off with it. Nor was he overtaken, said Fox, before he got among the bushes in Bond Street, and there they lost him.' Sydenham's executor was Thomas Malthus, afterwards apothecary to Queen Anne, and also a resident in this street. Thomas Robert Malthus, the writer on Population, was his great-grandson. Nell Gwynne, in 1670, on the “east end, north side," next to Lady Mary Howard; from 1671 to her death in 1687 in a house on the “south side,” with a garden towards the Park—now No. 79; but the house has been twice rebuilt since Nell inhabited it. The “south side, west end,” was inhabited in 1671 as follows :

Mrs. Mary Knight [Madam Knight the Singer—the King's mistress),
Edward Griffin, Esq. [Treasurer of the Chamber),
Maddam Elinor Gwyn,
The Countess of Portland,
The Lady Reynelogh,
Doctor Barrow.2

March 5, 1671.-I thence walk'd with him (Charles II.] thro' St. James's Parke to the gardens, where I both saw and heard a very familiar discourse between [the King] and Mrs. Nellie, as they cald an impudent Comedian, she looking out of her garden on a terrace at the top of the wall, and [the King) standing on ye greene walke under it. I was heartily sorry at this scene. Thence the King walk'd to the Duchess of Cleaveland, another lady of pleasure and curse of our nation.—Evelyn.

My friend Dr. Heberden has built a fine house in Pall Mall, on the Palace side ; he told me it was the only freehold house on that side ; that it was given by a long lease by Charles II. to Nell Gwyn, and upon her discovering it to be only a lease under the Crown, she returned him the lease and conveyances, saying she had always conveyed free under the Crown, and always would ; and would not accept it till it was conveyed free to her by an act of Parliament made on and for that purpose. Upon Nell's death it was sold, and has been conveyed free ever since. I think Dr. Heberden purchased it of the Waldegrave family. - W. F. Ewin to Rev. James Granger (Granger's Letters, p. 308).

Henry Oldenburg, first Secretary of the Royal Society, in a house for which he paid little more than £40 a year. Sir Isaac Newton directed a letter to him (March 16, 1671-1672), “At his house about the middle of Old Pell Mail in Westminster, London." Mary Beale, portrait painter (d. December 28, 1697). Sir William Temple, in 1681, two doors eastward of Nell Gwynne. Hon. Robert Boyle, about 1668,“ settled himself for life in London" in the house of his sister, Lady Ranelagh, in Pall Mall, next door to Sir William Temple, and three from Nell Gwynne. He wrote from here to Hooke in 1680, declining to be made President of the Royal Society. He died here, December 31, 1691, within a week of the sister, with whom he had lived many years, and was buried near her on the south side of the chancel of St. Martin's Church. Countess of Southesk, on the south side, in 1671. This is the celebrated Countess of De Grammont's Memoirs. Duke

1 The story is told with fuller particulars in glimpse of this locality: “One, two, or three Seward's Anecdotes, vol. i. p. 52

houses, about the middle of the Pall Mall, on the 2 Rate-books of St. Martin's.

Park side, with Gardens and Mounts adjoining 3 Nell stood on a mount to speak to the King to the Royal Garden, to be sold or let by long The following advertisement from the Postman lease. Enquire at the 2 Golden Balls, in the newspaper of April 1703 affords an interesting Pall Mall over against St. James's Square.”

An

of Schomberg (d. 1690), in the large brick house known as Schomberg House, now occupied by Nos. 81 and 82 as part of the War Office. [See Schomberg House. The great Duke of Marlborough, who built Marlborough House. George Psalmanazar had lodgings here on his first arrival, and here he was visited as an inhabitant of Formosa. Swift writes, October 1720, to the Hon. Sir Thomas Hanmer, Bart., at his house in Pall Mall. Lord Bolingbroke was living here in 1726.

October 22, 1726.—I hear that Lord Bolingbroke will be in town, at his house in Pall Mall, next week.—Gay to Swift.

June 4, 1727.—You will find me just returning to Crauford from the Pall Mall. -Bolingbroke to Swift.

Bubb Dodington, Lord Melcombe, the Bubo of Pope. “Mr. Dodington” wrote Horace Walpole, “built the house in Pall Mall which is now in front of Carlton House.”

Dodington's house in Pall Mall stood close to the garden the Prince had bought there of Lord Chesterfield ; and during Dodington's favour the Prince had suffered him to make a door out of his house into his garden, which, upon the first decay of his interest, the Prince shut up-building and planting before Dodington's house, and changing every lock in his own to which he had formerly given Dodington keys. —Lord Hervey's Memoirs, vol. i. p. 434.

He flattered Walpole at Whitehall

And damned him at Pall Mall. Sir Robert Walpole had a freehold house in Pall Mall, which he gave to his son Edward. In it lived Lady Waldegrave and Sir Edward Walpole.

Robert Dodsley, the bookseller, opened his shop in Pall Mall in 1735, under the patronage of Pope, with the sign of "Tully's Head,” and dying in 1764 was buried at Durham.

To be spoke with every Thursday at Tully's head in Pall Mall, Adam FitzAdam.— The World, No. 1.

William Hunter, on his first arrival in London in 1741, took up his residence with Dr. Smellie in Pall Mall, but soon left it for the house of Dr. Douglas, the Horatian enthusiast, and owner of the “soft obstetric hand” celebrated by Pope. Smellie and Douglas were rival man-midwives, and in a paper war which arose between them the former was accused of degrading the profession by hanging out from his house in Pall Mall a paper lantern inscribed “Midwifery taught here for five shillings.” The young Pretender, on his furtive visit to London in September 1750, held a secret meeting with about fifty of his friends at his lodging in Pall Mall.2 William, Duke of Cumberland, the hero of Culloden, in Schomberg House in 1760.

October 28, 1760.—The Duke of Cumberland has taken Lord Sandwich's [house] in Pall Mall.—Walpole to Montagu (Letters, vol. iii. p. 353).

In Sir Joshua Reynolds's pocket-book for 1762 is noted an appointment, “ July 17, at six with Miss Nelly O'Brien in Pall Mall, next door this side the Star and Garter,” which is represented by the

i Horace Walpole, Account of my Conduct. ? Lord Stanhope's Hist. of England, vol. iv. (Letters, vol. i. p. lxxix.)

p. 8.

divideamemorate Gai been placed

present 43 A. Gibbon wrote iu solroyd, Pall Mall, December 25, 1769; and again in December 1772 immediately before he took his house in Bentinck Street. On his brief visit to England in 1787 he once more took lodgings here, and wrote to Lord Sheffield, “ Virtue should never be made too difficult. I feel that a man has more friends in Pall Mall than in Bentinck Street.” Sir John Pringle (President of the Royal Society, 1772-1778) frequently received the Fellows of that Society at his house until his death in 1781. Thomas Gainsborough, the painter, in the western wing of Schomberg House, from 1777 to 1783. A tablet has been placed by the Society of Arts in the house to commemorate Gainsborough's residence. David Astley, the painter, divided Schomberg House into three, and fitted up the centre in a fantastic manner for his own use, and after his death, in 1787, it was occupied by Cosway the miniature painter, whose pretty wife gave parties that were for a while extremely fashionable. In 1779, when Admiral Keppel was acquitted, and all London was illuminated, his prosecutor, Palliser, was living in Pall Mall.

February 12, 1779.—My servants, who have been out this morning, tell me that about 3 o'clock the mob found their way into Palliser's house in spite of the guards and demolished every thing in it. ... P.S.-The mob entirely gutted Sir Hugh Palliser's house, but the furniture had been removed.-Walpole to Sir H. Mann (Letters, vol. vii. p. 176).

In 1782 Lord Rodney's prisoner, the Count de Grasse, took up his abode in the Royal Hotel, Pall Mall. Lord Chancellor Erskine dates a codicil of his will from “Carleton Hotel, Pall Mall, October 2, 1786." Mr. Angerstein lived at No. 102. Five doors east of it died the Right Hon. William Windham, June 3, 1810.

Windham is a Moloch among the fallen ambassadors, I was at his house on the day when the Peace procession passed in Pall Mall, and was highly gratified with his grotesque affectation of laughing at the triumph of his enemies. He laughed, but it was a laugh of agony.- Thomas Campbell to J. Richardson, 1802.

Lord Brougham has portrayed him under a different aspect.

His manners were the most polished and noble and courteous, without the least approach to pride, or affectation, or condescension ; his spirits were, in advanced life, so gay that he was always younger than the youngest ; his relish of conversation was such that, after lingering to the latest moment he joined whatever party a sultry evening (or morning as it might chance to prove) tempted to haunt the streets before retiring to rest. How often have we accompanied him to the door of his own mansion, and then been attended by him to our own, while the streets rang with the peals of his hearty merriment, or echoed the accents of his refined and universal wit. -Brougham, in Edinburgh Review, October 1838, p. 237.

November 18, 1805.--Wasn't you sorry for Lord Nelson ? I have followed him in fancy ever since I saw him walking in Pall Mall (I was prejudiced against him before) looking just as a hero should look.—Charles Lamb to Hazlitt.

David Wilkie opened at No. 87, on May 1, 1812, an exhibition of his pictures and finished studies, twenty-nine in number. He lost money by it, and did not repeat the experiment, but it helped to extend his reputation. The witty, wilful Mrs. Abington died, March 4, 1815, “at her apartments in Pall Mall.” Sir Charles Bunbury died at his

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