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house in Pall Mall, 1821. Sir Walter Scott, on his visit to London 1826-1827, stayed at the house of his son-in-law, Lockhart, No. 25 Pall Mall. Many entries in his Diary are dated from this house, but the whole frontage has since been altered.

Among the events which Pall Mall has witnessed, one of the most remarkable was the murder of Mr. Thynne, February 12, 1682, by Colonel Vratz and Lieutenant Stern, the hired agents of Count Konigsmark. These mean villains were hanged in Pall Mall on March 10, but the greater assassin was allowed to escape. At the Star and Garter Tavern, William, fifth Lord Byron (d. 1798), killed (1765) his neighbour and friend, Mr. Chaworth, in what was rather a broil than a duel.

June 13, 1782.-As Lady Chewton and her sisters came from the Opera, they saw two officers fighting in Pall Mall, next to Dr. Graham's and the mob trying to part them. Lord Chewton and some other young men went into the house and found a Captain Lucas of the Guards bleeding on a couch. It was a quarrel about an E. O. table : I don't know what. This officer had been struck in the face with a red-hot poker by a drawer, and this morning is dead.-Walpole to Lady Ossory (Letters, vol. viii. p. 232). These quarrels and duels were not the only strange scenes Pall Mall beheld a century ago.

January 8, 1786.- The mail from France was robbed last night in Pall Mall, 1 at half an hour after 8. The chaise had stopped, the harness was cut, and the portmanteau was taken out of the chaise itself. A courier is gone to Paris for a copy of the despatch. What think you of banditti in the heart of such a capital ?Walpole to Mann (Letters, vol. ix. p. 35).

It was in Dalton's print warehouse, Pall Mall, in a building erected for Lamb the auctioneer, and having therefore the advantage of a “great room,” that the Royal Academy had its original home. The building adjoined Old Carlton House on the east. It was here that, at the formal opening of the Academy, January 2, 1769, Sir Joshua Reynolds delivered the first of his fifteen Presidential Discourses. Here the first of the annual exhibitions was opened on April 26, 1769; and here the Academy met and the exhibitions were held till January 14, 1771, when the Academy met for the first time in their new apartments in Somerset House. The building was afterwards occupied by Christie, the picture auctioneer. At the King's Arms in Pall Mall met in 1734 the Liberty or Rump Steak Club, consisting exclusively of peers in eager opposition to Sir Robert Walpole ; there is a list of the club in the Marchmont Papers, vol. ii. p. 20.

There was a club held at the King's Head in Pall Mall, that arrogantly called itself The World. Lord Stanhope then (now Lord Chesterfield), Lord Herbert, etc. etc., were members. Epigrams were proposed to be written on the glasses, by each member after dinner; once when Dr. Young was invited thither, the doctor would have declined writing because he had no diamond ; Lord Stanhope lent him his, and he wrote immediately :

Accept a miracle instead of wit ;
See two dull lines, with Stanhope's pencil writ.

Spence's Anecdotes, by Singer, p. 377. 1 The foreign Post-Office was at this time in Albemarle Street.

At the Star and Garter (1760-1770) used to meet the Thursday Night Club, of which the George Selwyn and Lord March set were members, as was also Sir Joshua Reynolds. Sir Joshua was regular in his attendance, although his bad whist playing, and manners the reverse of fast, caused him to be less highly appreciated here than he was at the Turk's Head. Another noted house was the Smyrna Coffee-house (which see].

O bear me to the paths of fair Pell Mell,
Safe are thy pavements, grateful is thy smell !
At distance rolls along the gilded coach,
No sturdy carmen on thy walks encroach ;
Shops breathe perfumes : thro' sashes ribbons glow
The mutual arms of ladies, and the beau.

Gay's Trivia, B. ii. p. 257.
Yet who the footman's arrogance can quell,
Whose flambeau gilds the sashes of Pell Mell,
When in long rank a train of torches flame,
To light the midnight visits of the dame?

Ibid., B. iii. p. 156. Pell Mell, it will be seen, was the genteel pronunciation of the name in the days of Queen Anne, and so it has continued to be down to the present day.

If we must have a villa in summer to dwell,
O give me the sweet shady side of Pell Mell.

Captain Morris, The Contrast. . This celebrated street was, January 28, 1807, the first street in London lighted with gas, by a German named Winsor. The second was Bishopsgate Street. Observe. On the south side, Marlborough House, now the residence of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales; 69, the London Joint-Stock Bank; 70, the Guards' Club; 71 to 76, the Oxford and Cambridge Club; 86, the War Office; 94, Carlton Club; 104, Reform Club; 106, Travellers' Club; 107, Athenæum Club; 116-117, United Service Club. On the north side, 52, the Marlborough Club (formerly the British Instititution, founded 1805); 36-39, the Army and Navy Club; 29, Royal Exchange Assurance, rebuilt 1884-1885, by George Aitchison, A.R.A. ; 30-35, Junior Carlton Club; and refer to each for particular descriptions. In Pall Mall East, Observe, on north side— United University Club; Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours; and on the south, the Royal College of Physicians, and next to it Colnaghi’s famous print-shop. Here, too, is the bronze equestrian statue of George III. by Mathew Coates Wyatt.

Palmer's Village, WESTMINSTER, the name given so late as 1831 (Elmes) to some scattered houses between the grounds of Elliot's brewery and Little James Street. Palmer's Almshou ses, founded by James Palmer, B.D., in 1654, " at Tothill Side, Westminster," are on the north side of Victoria Street. Maitland, writing in 1739, says (p. 675), “Here is a chapel for the use of the scholars and pensioners, wherein the Founder himself, for some time, prcach'd and pray'd

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twice a day to them.” These almshouses were handsomely rebuilt in 1881.

Palsgrave Court, originally PALSGRAVE's HEAD Court, afterwards PALSGRAVE PLACE, in the STRAND, near Temple Bar, was so called from a tavern having for its sign the head of the Palsgrave Frederick, the husband of the Princess Elizabeth, only daughter of James I. There was also a Palatine Head in Soho. William Faithorne, the engraver, lived “at the sign of the Ship, next to the Drake, opposite to the Palsgrave Head Tavern, without Temple Bar.” Here Prior and Montague make the Country Mouse and the City Mouse bilk the hackney coachman :

But now at Piccadilly they arrive,
And taking coach, t'wards Temple-Bar they drive,
But at St. Clement's Church, eat out the back;
And slipping through the Palsgrave, bilkt poor hack.

Prior and Montague, The Hind and Panther Transvers'd. When, 1691, Archbishop Sancroft had to quit Lambeth Palace, he took boat at Lambeth Bridge and went to “the Palgrave's Head, near Temple Bar,” where he remained from June 23 to August 5, when he retired to Fressingfield in Suffolk, his native place. Tokens of the tavern are extant. This court was abolished when the large building called the Outer Temple was built partly on its site.

Pancras Lane, City, runs on the south and parallel to Cheapside, from Queen Street to Bucklersbury. It seems to have been so called after the Great Fire, to perpetuate the memory of the ancient church of St. Pancras, which stood on the north side of it and was not rebuilt. Previously the portion to the west of Size Lane had been called Needelers' Lane, and to the east Pencritch [Pancras) Street, (Stow, p. 98). Here are still the cemeteries of the two churches of St. Pancras and St. Benet Sherehog; the latter is nearest to Bucklersbury.

Pancras (St.) In the fields, a prebendal manor in Middlesex, belonging to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, containing the old parish church, now made a district church, situated on the north side of the road leading from King's Cross to Kentish Town; and a new church, the present parish church, described in a succeeding article.

St. Pancras is so called in the Domesday Survey (Sm. Pancratium). The manor of Pancras belonged to the Dean and Canons or Chapter of St. Paul's; as also did the prebendal manors of Totenhall (Tottenham Court), and Cantelows, now Kentish Town. Ruggemere, or Rugmere, was another prebend in this parish, but the site of the prebendal estate is now unknown. The parish is of great extent, reaching from St. Andrew's, Holborn, and St. George's, Bloomsbury, to Hampstead, Highgate, and Finchley, and including the Gray's Inn, Tottenham Court, Euston and Hampstead Roads, Somers Town, Camden Town, and Kentish Town, Ken (or Caen) Wood, and part of Highgate, a portion of the Regent's Park, and the whole of the extensive London and North-Western, Midland, and Great Northern Railway termini. In 1801 there were 31,779 inhabitants in the parish ; in 1881 there were nearly a quarter of a million (236,209).

Pancras Church standeth all alone, as utterly forsaken, old and weather-beaten, which, for the antiquity thereof, is thought not to yield to Paules in London. About this church have bin many buildings now decayed, leaving poor Pancras without companie or comfort, yet it is now and then visited with Kentishtowne and Highgate, which are members thereof; but they seldom come there, for they have chapels of ease within themselves ; but when there is a corpse to be interred, they are forced to leave the same within this forsaken church or churchyard, where (no doubt) it resteth as secure against the day of resurrection, as if it laie in stately Paule's.-Norden, Spec. Brit., 4to, 1593.

This interesting little church, partly of Norman, but in the main of Early English date, had in the course of time been greatly altered and covered with plaster. It consisted of a nave and chancel, and at the west end a tower, on which in 1750, when Chatelain's view was taken, was a short shingled spire, but which somewhat later was superseded by an odd sort of dome. In 1847-1848 the church was almost entirely rebuilt in the Norman style (Messrs. Gough and Roumieu, architects), and enlarged, with a tower on the south side at the east end of the nave. It was reopened for divine service, July 5, 1848. Whatever was of interest in the church has passed away, but the monuments deserve examination. The church was restored internally in 1888, when a chancel-screen and choir stalls were added. The old sedilia were discovered on removing the plaster from the walls. The appearance of the interior was somewhat improved, but it is still very heavy in consequence of a gallery which runs round three sides of the nave portion. Observe. -Against the north wall of the nave a monument, much defaced (circ. 1500), but without name or inscription ; recesses for brasses alone remaining. In the south-east corner of the nave at the entrance to the chancel is a tablet, surmounted by a palette and pencils, to Samuel Cooper, the miniature painter (d. 1672): the arms are those of Sir Edward Turner, Speaker of the House of Commons in the reign of Charles II., at whose expense it is probable the monument was erected. And on the south wall of the church a monument, with two busts, to William Platt (d. 1637), the founder of an important charity, and wife, repaired at the expense of St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1743, and removed hither from the chapel at Highgate in 1833. In the churchyard have been interred an unusual number of remarkable persons. This has been in a great measure owing to its having been for a long series of years the chief burial-place for Roman Catholics resident in London, though the eminent persons buried here are by no means confined to the professors of that faith. “Of late," says Strype, writing at the beginning of the 18th century, “those of the Roman Catholic religion have affected to be buried here."1 Till the churchyard was closed for interments, it continued to be a favourite Roman Catholic cemetery. For this preference various reasons have been assigned. A

1 Strype, App., P. 136.

VOL. III

popular tradition was that it was the last London church in which mass was performed. Roman Catholics, said Dr. Johnson, “chose St. Pancras for their burying-place because some Catholics in Queen Elizabeth's time had been burnt there." Lysons was told that it was because “masses were said in a church in the south of France, dedicated to the same saint, for the souls of the deceased interred at St. Pancras in England.” Mr. Markland dismisses all these reasons without ceremony. “I learn,” he says, “from unquestionable authority, that it rests upon no foundation ;” but is “mere prejudice.”] This may be; but even the prejudice must have had an origin. The probable explanation is, that it having been, from accident of residence, chosen as the burial-place of some distinguished member of the church, others of a like faith wished to be laid near him, and there being no recognised Roman Catholic burial-ground in London—the prejudice would every year extend and strengthen, as more and more of those who were regarded with veneration came to be laid there. These interments include many prelates and priests, members of old Catholic families, Howards and Arundels, Cliffords, Blounts, Tichbornes, Doughtys, Constables, Honars, many Jacobites and Nonjurors, and a large number of French emigrés, victims of the first French Revolution, who took up their residence in Somers Town.

The French Revolution tended materially to fill St. Pancras churchyard. Writing in 1811, Lysons says that “about thirty of the French clergy have on an average been buried annually at Pancras for some years past; in 1801 there were forty-one; in 1802 thirty-two."2 Among them were several prelates and other dignitaries of the church : Angelus Franciscus de Talaru de Calmazel, Bishop of Coutance (d. 1798). Augustinus Renatus Ludovicus Le Mintier, Bishop and Count of Treguier (d. 1801). Louis André Grimaldi, Bishop of Noyon (d. 1804). Arthur Richard Dillon, Archbishop of Narbonne (d. 1806). Jean François Comte de la Marche, Bishop of St. Pol de Leon (d. 1806). The Rev. Arthur (“Father"] O'Leary (d. 1802). Father Nicholas Pisani, of the Order of St. Anthony (d. 1803). Louis Charles, Comte D'Hervilly, Field - Marshal of France, MajorGeneral in the Russian, and Colonel in the British army, died of a wound received at Quiberon (1795). Lieut.-General Comte Montboissier (d. 1797). François Claude Amour, Marquis de Bouillé, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the French islands in the West Indies (d. 1800). Louis Charles Bigot de St. Croix, “ dernier Ministre de Louis," as the now illegible inscription on his monument recorded (d. 1803). Marie Louisa d'Esparbes de Lussan, Comtesse de Palastron, “ Dame de Palais de la Reine de France” (d. 1804). Antonio Moriano Domenico Mortellari, the musical composer, “pensioner of Louis XVI., whom he served eighteen years.” Henry Marquis de Lostange, “Grand Seneschal de Quercy, Mareschal des Camps et Armées de Roi de France” (d. 1807). Claude Joseph Gabriel, Viscomte de Note to Croker's Boswell, p. 840.

2 Lysons, vol. ii. p. 619, note 40.

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