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fashion of the age” 1 - and here he died, May 25, 1812. His very choice collection of books illustrating the Elizabethan drama is now among the cherished treasures of the Bodleian Library at Oxford. Fuseli, the painter, at No. 72, between 1788 and 1792 ; and in 1800 at No. 75.

Queen Anne Street, formerly QUEEN ANNE STREET WEST, CAVENDISH SQUARE—Welbeck Street to Chandos Street. Edmund Burke removed from Wimpole Street to Queen Anne Street, “next door to Mr. Fitzherbert,” in 1760.2 Richard Cumberland was living here in 1770, when his best play, the West Indian, was produced.

I had a house in Queen Anne Street West, at the corner of Wimpole Street, I lived there many years ; my friend Mr. Fitzherbert lived in the same street, and Mr. Burke nearly opposite to me. -Cumberland's Memoirs, 4to, 1806, p. 238.

William Windham was living here in 1782-in March 1794 he was in Hill Street. Boswell wrote to his daughter Euphemia, December 19, 1788, “I have taken a neat, pretty, small house in Queen Anne Street West, quite a genteel neighbourhood." He was at this date busy over his Life of Johnson, and he found his residence in Queen Anne Street West very convenient in preparing it for the press.

February 8, 1790.-I still keep on my house in Queen Anne Street West, having taken it till Midsummer, upon my finding that chambers in the Temple, which I thought I had secured, were let to me by a person who had not a right. It is better that I am still here, for I am within a short walk of Mr. Malone [living in Queen Anne Street East] who revises my Life of Johnson with me.-Boswell to Temple (Letters, p. 319).

Among the imitations in the “Rejected Addresses” is one of a Dr. Busby-much quizzed by the wits of that day, of whom Horace Smith records that on his publishing a translation of the De Naturâ Rerum there appeared a paragraph among the Domestic Occurrences—“Yesterday at his house in Queen Anne Street West, Dr. Busby of a still-born Lucretius."

No. 48 was for nearly forty years (1812-1851) the residence of the greatest of our landscape painters, Joseph Mallord William Turner, and here the finest perhaps of his imaginative works were produced. His “gallery” was on the first floor. He painted in the drawing-room. The house has been rebuilt for the Duke of Portland's Estate Office. No. 31 was the town house of the late Bishop of Chichester, Dr. Gilbert (d. 1870). There was nothing to distinguish it from its plebeian neighbours. It would have been more conspicuous if he had blazoned his “bearing” over the door—"A Prester John sitting on a tombstone, with a sword in his mouth.”

Queen Anne's Bounty Office, and First Fruits and Tenths' Office, 3A DEAN'S YARD, WESTMINSTER.

Queen Anne's Gate. [See Queen Square.] 1 Prior's Life of Malone, p. 300.

2 Prior's Life of Burke, chap. iii.

140

QUEEN ELIZABETH'S GRAMMAR SCHOOL

Streetsion, and the street is styled an

✓ Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, SOUTHWARK. This

school was founded in 1560 by certain inhabitants of St. Olave's parish (Henry Leeke the brewer being worthy of special note), and situated in Tooley Street. It was incorporated in 1571 and named after the reigning Queen. There are in Wilkinson's Londina (vol. i.) two views and a plan of the buildings. The site being required for the approaches of New London Bridge, the building was cleared away in 1830 and a new one erected on the south side of Bermondsey Street. This was also removed in connection with some railway extension, and the present handsome and greatly enlarged building placed in Back Street Horsleydown (now named Queen Elizabeth Street). The institution is styled at present the Grammar School of St. Olave and St. John, and has an income of about £10,000. It furnishes “a liberal and useful education for the sons of parents engaged in professional, trading, or commercial pursuits." Boys are not admitted before seven or after fifteen years of age, except under very special circumstances. A new scheme is (1890) under the consideration of the Charity Commissioners.

Queen Victoria Street, City, from the north foot of Blackfriars Bridge to the Mansion House, forming the continuation eastward of the Thames Embankment. This noble street, one of the finest in the City, was commenced in 1867, and formally opened for traffic throughout, November 4, 1871. It proceeds in a nearly straight line from the Mansion House to Cannon Street, and thence with an easy curve to New Bridge Street, opposite the entrance to the Thames Embankment. Its width throughout is 70 feet, except by Little Earl Street, where it is somewhat narrower. Beneath it runs the Metropolitan District Railway; and along it is carried a subway for gas and water pipes. Through nearly its whole extent it is lined on both sides with large, lofty, solidly built and ornamental buildings, most of them having stone fronts, and several being structures of considerable architectural pretension. Among the larger blocks of buildings there are starting from the Mansion House-on the north, Mansion House Buildings; Imperial Buildings; Queen's Buildings ; Crown Buildings; the New Civil Service Stores ; College of Arms; British and Foreign Bible Society; the church of St. Andrew-by-the-Wardrobe; the Times Advertisement Office. On the south, the remarkable structure built for the National Safe Deposit Company; Mansion House Chambers; Victoria Buildings; Albert Buildings; the Mansion House Station of the Metropolitan District Railway; Metropolitan Buildings, and Balmoral Buildings; besides on both sides many private commercial establishments.

Queen's Arms Tavern, Bow-IN-HAND Court, between Nos. 77 and 78 CHEAPSIDE. The second floor of the houses which stretched over the passage leading to this tavern was the London lodging of John Keats, the poet. Here he wrote his magnificent sonnet on Chapman's Homer, and all the poems in his first little volume.

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Queen's Arms Tavern, St. Paul's CHURCHYARD.

Garrick kept up an interest in the city by appearing, about twice in a winter, at Tom's Coffee House in Cornhill, the usual rendezvous of young merchants at 'Change time ; and frequented a Club, established for the sake of his company at the Queen's Arms Tavern in St. Paul's Churchyard, where were used to assemble Mr. Samuel Sharpe the surgeon, Mr. Paterson the city solicitor, Mr. Draper the bookseller, Mr. Clutterbuck a mercer, and a few others; they were none of them drinkers, and in order to make a reckoning called only for French wine. These were his standing council in theatrical affairs.—Hawkins's Life of Johnson, p. 433.

Here, after a thirty years' interval, Johnson renewed his intimacy with some of the members of his old Ivy Lane Club. There is no

Queen's Arms in St. Paul's Churchyard now. ✓ Queen's College, 43 and 45 HARLEY STREET, so named by royal

permission and under royal charter, for general female education of a high class, and for granting to governesses certificates of qualification. Incorporated 1853.

Queen's Gardens, BAYSWATER, are built on the exact site of the old Pest House. See Roque's Map, 1745.

Queen's Gardens, KENSINGTON, Thomas, tenth Earl of Dundonald, better known as Lord Cochrane, died at No. 12, October 31,

1860, in his eighty-fifth year. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. v Queen's Head Alley, now Queen's Head Passage, PATERNOSTER

Row to NEWGATE STREET, was so called from an inn or tavern with such a sign, wherein were lodged the canonists and professors of spiritual and ecclesiastical law, before Doctors' Commons was provided for them, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. (See Doctors' Commons. ] In this alley, in the reign of Charles II., Richard Head, author of The English Rogue, followed the profession of a bookseller. Here, No. 8 on the west side, was Dolly's Chop House. (See Dolly's.]

Queen's House, another name for Buckingham House, so called after Queen Charlotte, Queen of George III., on whom it was settled

by Act of Parliament in 1775. ✓ Queen's Library, THE STABLE Yard, St. James's PALACE, so

called from having been built by Caroline, wife of George II. It was pulled down by Frederic, Duke of York (second son of George III.), to make way for his new house. (See Stafford House.] It is described as a noble room, designed by Wm. Kent, 60 feet by 30 feet, and 30 feet high. It was furnished with a choice collection of 4500 handsomely bound volumes in the various modern languages. The books were placed on the shelves in 1737.

The King George II.), the Duke [of Cumberland), and Princess Emily saw it (the Celebration of Peace by fireworks in St. James's Park] from the Library, with their Courts; the Prince and Princess (of Wales) with their children, from Lady Middlesex's ; no place being provided for them, nor any invitation given to the Library.- Walpole to Sir Horace Mann, May 3, 1749.

1 Boswell, by Croker, p. 45.

2 Winstanley's Lives of the Poets, p. 208.

Queen's Prison, BOROUGH ROAD, SOUTHWARK, constituted pursuant to 5 and 6 Will. IV., C. 22 (1835), and there described as “ The prison of the Marshalsea of the Court of King's Bench; a prison for debtors, and for persons confined under the sentence or charged with the contempt of his Majesty's Court of King's Bench.” By this Act the King's Bench, the Fleet, and Marshalsea Prisons were consolidated, and called “The King's Prison," changed on the death of the King in 1837 to “The Queen's Prison.” All fees, the liberty of the rules and day rules, were abolished by the same Act. “The Brace Public-house” was abolished by the same Act. [See King's Bench Prison.] An Act was passed in 1862 “for discontinuing the Queen's Prison and removal of the prisoners to Whitecross Street Prison."

Queen's Road, BAYSWATER, in Roque's Map, 1745, appears as Westbourne Green Lane. At the south-west corner was Shaftesbury House. Mr. Whiteley's immense establishment now occupies a part of the road.

Queen's Walk is the path along the east side of the Green Park, connecting St. James's Park and Piccadilly. It appears in a map of 1783 but not of 1763. From this it might be inferred that it was named after Queen Charlotte, but it is more likely that it was after Queen Caroline, whose library overlooked it. [See Queen's Library.]

Queenhithe, in UPPER THAMES STREET, a short distance west of Southwark Bridge, a common quay for the landing of corn, flour, and other dry goods from the west of England, -originally called “Edred's hithe” or bank, from “Edred, owner thereof,” — but known, from a very early period as Ripa Reginæ, the Queen's bank or Queenhithe, because it pertained unto the Queen. King John is said to have given it to his mother, Eleanor, Queen of Henry II. It was long the rival of Billingsgate, and would have retained the monopoly of the wharfage of London had it been below instead of above bridge. In the 13th century it was the usual landing-place for wine, wool, hides, corn, firewood, fish, and indeed all kinds of commodities then brought by sea to London, and the City Records afford minute details as to "the Customs of Queen-Hythe," and the tolls ordered to be taken there by Edward I. But while the Queen's bailiff was authorised to take Scavage (or custom's toll) upon all goods landed there “in the same manner in which the Sheriffs of London take Scavage for his lordship the King in London elsewhere," it was declared that “all assizes of the City at the Hustings provided and enacted for the amendment of the City are to be enacted and observed ” here. As an illustration of the nature of the regulations we may cite the directions laid down for the measurement of corn :

Every chief master-meter of all the serving people at Queen Hythe, shall find a quarter, bushel, half-bushel, strike (or strickle for smoothing the surface when the

1 Liber Albus, B. ii. pt. i., and Riley's Memorials.

measure is full], and one horse. And there shall be eight chief masters, and each of such eight masters shall have three associates standing there ; and each of such three so standing there shall find one horse and seven sacks, etc. . . . And of right there ought to be at Queen Hyde eight chief (or standard) measures for the measurement of corn. ... None of the said horses [of the master-meters and their servants) shall be taken by the Sheriffs, or by any other persons in their names from the performance of their duties. . . . Also that no one of the said meters shall mete for any stranger without leave of the Bailiff of Queen Hythe. . . . Also that no meter, or any servant of theirs shall interfere between buyers and sellers, etc. 1

For their meterage and carrying they are strictly forbidden to take “more than according to ancient custom ought to be taken,” which is stated to be “for the measurement, porterage, and carriage of one quarter of wheat," as far as Westcheap, the church of Anthony in Budge Row and the like, "one halfpenny farthing," as far as Fleet Bridge, Newgate, Estchepe, and Billyngesgate, one penny, and for all streets and lanes beyond “as far as the Bar of the suburbs," one penny farthing. For measuring and carrying salt “no one of the meters shall take beyond one farthing more than for corn, and that according to the limits prescribed for corn.” “And the Bailiff of Queen Hythe shall not take more than five shillings of a chief meter of corn and salt, or of his servant more than two shillings as his fee.” For other merchandise the regulations are equally precise and stringent. No vessel was allowed to lie at anchor or be moored elsewhere than at Billingsgate or Queenhithe between sunset and sunrise, nor be placed near the Bankside of Southwark, on pain of the owners and masters losing the vessels and being sent to prison. The sixth charter of Henry III. confirms a grant by the Earl of Cornwall of the customs of Queenhithe to the City of London in consideration of a farm rent of £50 per annum.? When shipping began to stay below bridgeprobably in part owing to the use of larger vessels and the difficulty of carrying them safely through the bridge—the decline of Queenhithe was rapid. Fabyan says that in the reign of Henry VII. the tolls barely amounted to £15 per annum.

Peele's chronicle-play of King Edward I. (4to, 1593) contains, among other things, “ Lastly the sinking of Queen Elinor, who sunck at Charing Crosse and rose again at Pottershith, now named Queenhith.” When accused by King Edward of her crimes, she replies in the words of the old ballad :

If that upon so vile a thing

Her heart did ever think,
She wish'd the ground might open wide,

And therein she might sink !
With that at Charing Cross she sunk

Into the ground alive ;
And after rose with life again,

In London at Queenhith. It is here written “Queenhith,” but our old dramatists almost always wrote it “Queenhive.” Stow says nothing about “Pottershith.” 1 Liber Albus, p. 212,

Norton, p. 320.

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