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Vaulx, Field-Marshal of France and Governor of Valence in Dauphiny (d. 1809). Baroness de Montalembert (d. 1808). L. F. E. Camus, Seigneur de Pontcarré,“ premier Président du Parlement de Normandie, Conseiller du Roi en tous ses conseils ” (d. 1810).

Against the exterior of the church, at the south-west end of the nave, is a headstone to William Woollett the engraver (d. 1785) and his widow (d. 1819). In a part of the ground now taken by the Midland Railway Company was a pedestal-like altar-tomb to William Godwin, author of Political Justice and Caleb Williams (d. 1836), and his two wives; Mary Wolstonecraft Godwin, author of A Vindication of the Rights of Women, the mother of Mrs. Shelley (d. 1797); and Mary Jane (d. 1841), in whose name the “Juvenile Library” in Skinner Street was carried on. At this grave, in 1813, when it only contained the body of Mary Wolstonecraft, a remarkable scene took place :

Shelley's anguish, his isolation, his difference from other men, his gifts of genius, and eloquent enthusiasm, made a deep impression on Godwin's daughter Mary, now a girl of sixteen, who had been accustomed to hear Shelley spoken of as something rare and strange. To her, as they met one eventful day in St. Pancras churchyard, by her Mother's grave, Bysshe, in burning words, poured forth the tale of his wild past—how he had suffered, how he had been misled, and how, if supported by her love, he hoped in future years to enrol his name with the wise and good who had done battle for their fellow men, and been true through all adverse storms, to the cause of humanity. Unhesitatingly she placed her hand in his, and linked her fortunes with his own.—Lady Shelley's Memorials, p. 57.

The remains of Godwin and his first wife, Mary Wolstonecraft, were removed in 1851 and laid beside those of their daughter, Mrs. Shelley; in Bournemouth churchyard. It was in Old St. Pancras Church that Godwin and Mary Wolstonecraft were married, March 29, 1797, “Marshal and the clerk of the church being the witnesses. Godwin takes no notice whatever of it in his Diary.” 1

Among the stones was one to “Daniel Tullum, gent., page of the Backstairs to the Queen of the late King James the Second,” “and was abroad with them many years in all their troubles,” and also with “the King's daughter Lewisa, who died in France.” He died, October 14, 1730, in his seventy-seventh year. Others were those of Amy, wife of Cuthbert Constable and daughter of Hugh Lord Clifford (d. 1731); Sir James Tobin (d. 1735); Elizabeth, Countess of Castlehaven, and a few more. The plain headstone to John Walker, author of the Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language and other works (d. 1807), has been replaced by a larger and more conspicuous one erected by the Baroness Burdett-Coutts. The St. Giles's portion of the ground is comparatively modern, having been consecrated in 1803. Here is the large and elaborate tomb of Sir John Soane, R.A., the architect of the Bank of England (d. June 30, 1837), his wife and son; another is that of Sir John Gurney, Baron of the Exchequer (d. March 1, 1845).

The register of burials includes those of Abraham Woodhead (d. May 4, 1678), in his day the stoutest champion of Roman Catholicism.

1 Kegan Paul's William Godwin, vol. i. p. 234.

Wood gives a long account of him, and adds "that he was buried in the churchyard of St. Pancras, about 22 paces from the chancel, on the south side. Afterwards a raised altar-monument, built of brick, covered with a thick plank of blue marble, was put over 'his grave.” Obadiah Walker (d. 1699). He was buried near his friend, Abraham Woodhead, with this short inscription :

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OB. JAN. 31, A.D. 1699, ÆT. 86. The interment of these prominent Catholics might be thought to have induced or favoured the preference shown for St. Pancras churchyard by others of the creed, but it is pretty certain, despite of Strype, that the practice had been for some time in existence.

I told 'em of Pancras church where their scholars
(When they have killed one another in duel)
Have a churchyard to themselves for their dead.

Davenant, Playhouse to be Lett, 1663 (printed 1673]. John Ernest Grabe, D.D. (d. 1711), Orientalist and editor of a valuable edition of the Septuagint. There is a monument to his memory in Westminster Abbey.

Poor Dr. Grabe's receiving the absolution from Dr. Smalridge, the communion from Dr. Hicks, and being buried in St. Pancras church (where the Roman Catholics dying in or near this city have been commonly interred) occasions talk.—White Kennet, MSS., Life of Robert Nelson, p. 221.

Thomas Dungan, Earl of Limerick (d. 1715). Hon. Esme Howard, son of Henry, Earl of Arundel (d. 1728). Edward Walpole of Dunston, Lincolnshire (d. 1740). Elizabeth, Countess of Castlehaven (d. 1743).

Sir Thomas Mackworth, Bart. (d. 1744). Jeremy Collier (d. 1726), the writer against the immorality of the stage in the time of Dryden. Ned Ward (d. 1731), author of the London Spy. He kept a punch-house in Fulwood's Rents in Holborn. His hearse was attended by a single mourning coach, containing only his wife and daughter, as he had directed it should be in his poetical will, written six years before he died. Bevil Higgons (d. 1735); he wrote against Burnet's History. Lewis Theobald (d. 1744), the hero of the early editions of the Dunciad, and the editor of Shakespeare.2 Lady Henrietta Beard, daughter of an Earl of Waldegrave, widow of Lord Edward Herbert, and wife of Beard, the singer (d. 1753). Pope's Martha Blount (d. January 12, 1763, aged seventy-three) and Theresa Blount (d. October 7, 1759, aged seventy). Henry Racket (d. 1775) and Robert Racket (d. 1779), Pope's nephews, and mentioned in his will. S. F. Ravenet, the engraver (d. 1764). In this church (February 13, 17181719), Jonathan Wild was married to his third wife ; in this churchyard he was buried in 1725.

After his execution his body was carried off in a coach and four to the sign of the Adam and Eve near Pancras Church, in order to be interred in the churchyard there, where one of his former wives was buried.—Defoe, vol. iii. p. 392.

1 Ath. Or., ed. 1721, vol. ii. p. 618. 2 Nichols's Ilustrations, vol. ii. p. 745.

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A few nights afterwards the coffin was dug up and flung in the roadside near Kentish Town. James Leoni, the architect and editor of Palladio and Alberti (d. 1746). The Hon. Thomas Arundell, Count of the Holy Roman Empire and son of Henry, fifth Lord Arundell of Wardour (d. 1752). Peter Van Bleek, the portrait painter (d. 1764). Peter Pasqualino, a famous player on the violoncello, who first brought that instrument into fashion (d. 1766). Robert Paxton, the noted English player on that instrument (d. 1787). Thomas Mazzinghi, unrivalled in his day as a violinist (d. 1776). Maria Teresa, Duchess of Wharton (d. 1777), widow of the famous Philip, Duke of Wharton. Baron de Wenzel, the eminent oculist (d. 1790). Count Ferdinand Lucchese, Neapolitan Ambassador (d. 1790). The Duke of Sicigniano, Neapolitan Ambassador, who committed suicide at Gregnier's Hotel, May 31, 1793, shortly after his arrival in England. Count Filippo Nupumecceno Fontana, formerly Ambassador from the Court of Sardinia to that of Spain. Peter Henry Treyssac de Vergy, the opponent of the Chevalier D'Eon, died October 1, 1774, but not buried till March 3, 1775; and that anomalous personage himself,

Charles Genevieve Louis Auguste André Timothée D'Eon de Beaumont, died May 21, buried May 28, 1810, aged eighty-three years," for so the entry stands in the parish register. The French Revolution having deprived him of his pension, D'Eon's last years were spent in extreme penury.

General Pasquale de Paoli, “died February 5, 1807, aged eightytwo years, buried 13th.” His remains were exhumed on August 31, 1889, and conveyed to Corsica. Edward Edwards (d. 1806), Professor of Perspective in the Royal Academy, and author of the dull but useful Anecdotes of Painters, which he wrote as a continuation of Horace Walpole's lively work with a nearly similar title. Henry F. J. De Cort, the landscape painter (d. 1810). Thomas Scheemakers, sculptor, the junior of that name (d. 1808). Mrs. Isabella Mills, as Miss Burchell, a famous vocalist (d. 1802). John Hayman Packer (d. 1806), an actor of celebrity in genteel comedy. Peter Woulfe, an eminent chemist (d. 1803). Tiberius Cavallo, F.R.S., a distinguished writer on physics (d. 1809). James Peller Malcolm, F.S.A., author of Londinium Redivivum (d. 1815).

It is greatly to be regretted that when the churchyard was converted into a garden, means were not taken to indicate the graves of the more remarkable of the persons interred here, and to renew, while renewal was possible, the inscriptions on the tombs and headstones. A memorial was erected by the Baroness BurdettCoutts in the St. Giles's portion of the ground, on which a list of such names is inscribed—but too high and in too small characters to be read by ordinary eyes. It forms, however, a pleasing object in the garden. St. Pancras has long ceased to be “in the Fields.” “Brother Kemp,” says Nash in Queen Elizabeth's time to Kemp the actor, “as many alhailes to thy person as there be haicocks in Iuly at Pancredge:"1 and Norden has left a description of the St. Pancras in 1593, which De Foe has confirmed, more than a century after, in his History of Colonel Jack.

And although this place be as it were forsaken of all, and true men seldom frequent the same but upon devyne occasions, yet it is visyted and usuall haunted of roages, vagabondes, harlettes, and theeves, who assemble not ther to pray, but to wayte for praye, and manie fall into their hands clothed, that are glad when they are escaped naked. Walk not ther too late. - Norden (in 1593), “MS. Account of Middlesex," quoted by Ellis, in Norden's Essex, p. xiii. Bishop Burnet, describing the locality in which Sir Edmond Berry Godfrey's body was discovered, tells us it was found "in a ditch, about a mile out of the town, near St. Pancras Church.” The exact locality, as we should now describe it, was the field beyond Primrose Hill. When Burnet wrote, near St. Pancras was the best description he could give. In his lines to “Inigo Marquis Would be,” Ben Jonson recommends the great architect to

Content thee to be Pancredge Earl the while,

An earl of show. It were to be hoped St. Peter would let them dwell in the suburbs of heaven ; whereas, otherwise, they must keep aloofe at Pancridge, and not come neer the liberties by five leagues and above.-Nash, Pierce Penilesse, 1592.

No churchyard in London possessed so much interest as that of St. Pancras, and none has been subjected to greater outrage. After having been closed for interments it was grievously neglected. In July 1863 the Midland Railway Company, who were then planning their London extension, obtained an Act of Parliament authorising them to construct piers for carrying a viaduct across the churchyard. Further powers were granted in July 1864 enabling them to construct a tunnel underneath to join the Metropolitan Railway at King's Cross, and notwithstanding a clause in the Act restraining them from coming within 12 feet of the surface, an enormous trench about 50 feet wide was cut through a crowded portion of the ground and the tunnel built within it. In 1874 the Company sought to obtain powers to acquire the whole of the ground, including the church as well as the St. Giles's cemetery. Public indignation was thoroughly aroused, and the Bill was thrown out. Subsequently the Vestry of St. Pancras acquired the ground for the purpose of a public garden and recreation ground, and it was formally opened by the Baroness Burdett-Coutts on June 28, 1877. The St. Giles's portion was encroached upon in 1887 for the erection of a range of buildings connected with the St. Pancras Workhouse, including a mortuary and rooms for post mortems. complete the story the Midland Railway Company, in 1889, acquired a large portion of the St. Pancras ground lying in the south-east corner, the boundary of the churchyard in that direction being the iron viaduct already mentioned. For this they paid £ 12,000, and in addition agreed to purchase a row of houses fronting St. Pancras Road, including the site of the old Adam and Eve Tavern, to be laid out and added to the recreation ground.


1 Almond for a Parrot,

Neglect and a London atmosphere have done their work in obliterating the inscriptions, and in a few years none will be legible. Fortunately many have been preserved by Mr. Cansick, in a book which he published when the graveyards were taken over by the Vestry of St. Pancras. But notwithstanding this the period is rapidly approaching when the ancient burial-ground will become a mere "open space,” with a few decaying stones here and there to remind the spectator of what it once was. All the registers were transferred to the new church in the Euston Road when it became the parish church. The prebend of Pancras was held by Lancelot Andrews in the time of James I., and by Archdeacon Paley in the reign of George III.

Pancras (St.) New Church, Euston Road and EUSTON SQUARE, was designed by William Inwood, with the assistance of his son, Henry William, the Greek traveller. The foundation stone was laid by the Duke of York, July 1, 1819, and the church consecrated by the Bishop of London, April 7, 1822. The exterior is an adaptation of the Ionic temple of the Erectheion on the Acropolis at Athens, the tower being modelled from the Horologium, or Temple of the Winds, in that city. The projecting building, with the caryatides on each side of the church, and which were intended to form covered entrances to the catacombs, are adaptations of the south portico of the Pandroseion at Athens. The church is built of Portland stone, and the ornaments are chiefly of terra cotta, by C. and H. Rossi. Messrs. Inwood's model for the interior body of the church was the Erectheion. The whole structure was erected at a cost of £76,679:7:8. The pulpit and reading-desk are made of the celebrated Fairlop oak, which stood in Hainault Forest, in Essex, and gave its name to the fair long held under its branches. It was blown down in 1820. Messrs. Inwood took the greatest possible pains to make the several parts of the church accurate reproductions of the originals, as far as the difference of the materials allowed. The present elaborate chromatic decoration of the interior was carried out by Mr. J. G. Crace in 1866.

Pancras (St.), SOPER LANE, a church in the ward of Cheap, destroyed in the Great Fire, and not rebuilt. Stow describes it as “a proper small church.” The name is preserved in Pancras Lane. The living is united with that of St. Mary-le-Bow, Cheapside. Abraham Fleming (d. 1607), the earliest translator into English verse of the Bucolics and Georgics of Virgil, was rector of this church. ,

Pannier, or Panyer Alley, NewGATE STREET to PATERNOSTER Row.

Panyer Alley, a passage out of Paternoster Row, and is called of such a sign Panyar Alley.-Slow, p. 128. From a passage in Ben Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, Pannier Alley would seem to have been in his day inhabited by tripe-sellers; at an

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