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and assailed by fresh hands zealous to “confer” with him. Among these was a gentleman who came "for old acquaintance sake,” says Bradford, “ for I was at Muttrel tourney (the battle of Montreuil] a paymaster, in which he was, and had often received money at my hands." Other martyrs in the Marian persecution, such as Bishop Hooper, John Rogers, Bishop Ferrars, Dr. Croom and Mr. Saunders were tried in St. Saviour's Church.

After Westminster Abbey St. Saviour's contained some of the finest specimens of Early English architecture in London. Little, however, of the original work remains. A remarkable and conscientious restoration of the choir and tower was made, 1822-1825, by George Gwilt, architect.

Of the many worthy names which the parish register of St. Saviour's preserves, none deserves honour better than his, For thirty years he fought a difficult battle against ignorance and parsimony, and it is not too much to say that although all was not saved, we owe it to Mr. Gwilt and those who worked with him that all was not destroyed.- Quarterly Review, vol. clxx. p. 407.

The nave was taken down in 1838, and in the following year it was replaced by a very unsightly building, at a cost of £8000, erected from the designs of Henry Rose, the floor being at a higher level than the choir and transepts, from which it is shut off by a partition. It is proposed to remove this portion of the church and to reconstruct the nave as far as possible on the lines of the old one. For the complete restoration of the building, which is projected, the services of Sir Arthur Blomfield, R.A., have been (1890) retained as architect.

The choir is of excellent design, the lancet shaped arch being preserved throughout. On the floor cut in the stone are the names of John Fletcher, Edmund Shakespeare, and Philip Massinger, buried in this church, not implying the actual position of burial but simply the fact. The altar screen (similar to the one at Winchester) was like that one erected at the expense of Bishop Fox. In the string-course is his famous device, the pelican. The choir was restored in 1822, but the altar screen was not discovered until 1833, when a 17th century screen was removed. It was restored under Robert Wallace, architect.

The Lady Chapel was restored in 1832-1834, also under George Gwilt, architect. The woodwork divided off a corner of this chapel, which was used by Gardiner in the time of Queen Mary as a Consistory Court.

The church has always been famous for its bells. In 1612 the great bell was not to weigh less than 50 cwt. At the Restoration of 1737 the weight of all the bells was about 10 tons 15 cwts. This endangered the stability of the tower, but the danger was overcome by the skilful use of iron ties by Mr. Gwilt.

Monuments.—Effigy of knight cross-legged, in north aisle of choir, To John Gower, the poet (d. 1402); a perpendicular monument, originally erected on the north side of the church, in the chapel of St. John, where Gower founded a chantry. The monument was removed to its present site, and repaired and coloured in 1832, at the expense of George Granville Leveson Gower, first Duke of Sutherland. Gower's monument has always been taken care of. Peacham speaks of it in his Compleat Gentleman, p. 95, as “lately repaired by some good Benefactor.”

He [Gower) lieth under a tomb of stone, with his image also of stone over him: the hair of his head, auburn, long to his shoulders but curling up, and a small forked beard ; on his head a chaplet like a coronet of four roses ; a habit of purple, damasked down to his feet; a collar of esses gold about his neck; under his head the likeness of three books which he compiled. --Stow, p. 152. Thomas Cure (d. 1588), founder of Cure's Almshouses. Lancelot Andrewes, Bishop of Winchester (d. 1626); a black and white marble monument in the Lady Chapel, with his effigy at full length. The epitaph, on which Hallam remarks (Const. Hist., vol. ii. p. 63, note, roth ed.), claims for Bishop Andrewes “a superior reward in Heaven on account of his celibacy”—cælebs migravit ad aureolam cælestem, the crown of virginity in fact, was lost in the fire of 1676. When St. John's chapel was taken down his leaden coffin was found, with no other inscription than L.A. (the initials of his name). John Traherne, gentleman porter to James I. (d. 1618); half-length of himself and wife (upright), with two sons and four daughters (kneeling). John Bingham, saddler to Queen Elizabeth and James I. (d. 1625). Alderman Humble and his wife (temp. James I.), with some pretty verses, beginning

Like to the damask rose you see. William Austin (d. 1633); a kind of harvest-home monument, in north transept; this Austin was a gentleman of fortune and importance in Southwark in the reigns of James I. and Charles I. Lionel Lockyer, the famous empiric in Charles II.'s reign (d. 1672); a rueful full-length figure in north transept. The inscription says that his pills, well-known, will

Survive his dust, and not expire

'Till all things else, at th' universal fire. He [a Popish Priest] sells indulgences, like Lockyer's Pills, with directions how they should be taken.-Butler's Remains, vol. ii. p. 143. Abraham Newland, chief cashier to the Bank of England (d. 1807).

Eminent Persons buried in, and graves unmarked. Sir Edward Dyer, the poet, in the chancel, May 11, 1607; he lived and died in Winchester House, adjoining. Edmund Shakespeare, “player" (the poet's youngest brother), buried in the church, December 31, 1607. Lawrence Fletcher, one of the leading shareholders in the Globe and Blackfriars Theatres, and William Shakespeare's “fellow,” buried in the church September 12, 1608. Philip Henslowe, the manager, so well Ķnown by his curious Account Book or Diary; buried in the chancel, January 1615-1616. John Fletcher (Beaumont and Fletcher), buried in the church, August 29, 1625. “Philip Massinger, a stranger” (the dramatic poet), buried in the church, March 18, 1638-1639.

The houses in Dodington Grove, Kennington, were built some of them over earth removed during the renovating and rebuilding of St. Saviour's; there probably, if anywhere, is the sacred dust of the great people buried at St. Saviour's, serving as foundations for the tenements of those who probably never heard of them.

Among notable chaplains of the parish may be mentioned Sutton, who in his sermon on the Romans, delivered in 1616 from St. Saviour's pulpit, inveighed against certain people “who dishonour God, living upon usurie, by dicing houses, and by penning and acting of playes.” He was very sharply answered by Nathan Field, an actor whose name appears in the list at the beginning of the first folio of Shakespeare (1623). Moreton, fellow of Emmanuel, friend and executor to the Harvards. Crodacott, a puritan divine deprived on St. Bartholomew's Day. Sacheverell, the incendiary preacher of Queen Anne's time, who, in his famous sermon, preached St. Paul's, November 5, 1709, described himself as Fellow of Magdalen, Oxford, and Chaplain of St. Saviour's, Southwark. Thomas Jones, of the Wesley School, and much esteemed by earnest religious people; he died young, of fever caught in visiting the sick.

Registers are well preserved and of considerable interest. Those of St. Margaret, before it became one with St. Mary Overy, begin 1538 ; other records of the same parish of a hundred years or so before, but in a very fragmentary state, still remain. 1553 the name of St. Saviour appears instead of St. Margaret. In these registers, among the births, marriages, and deaths, may be found names of note connected with the Shakesperian stage, and before that.

Token-books.—These at first sight appear like waste-books of some common chandler's shop—long and narrow books of common paper, in brown paper covers ; they are nevertheless valuable manuscripts, containing names of all parishioners above fifteen; of streets, courts, rents, and houses in regular order; of the pence given in each case in receipt of a sacramental token of lead, having some suitable inscription, cast by the warders for the purpose of ensuring attendance at the parish church when the sacrament was administered, under penalty for neglect. The names of some sixteen of the actors of the 1623 folio appear in these books as taking the sacrament at St. Saviour's. These token-books, containing names of people in that illustrious and stirring time and in a notable district, are very valuable, but they are not cared for as they ought to be, considering that the parish contains many rich people, and that the cost of putting them in order and binding them would be triling; to show their value as records of the past, in no other way

but by these books could the actual birthplace of that pilgrim father (as he may perhaps be called), John Harvard, founder of the great University of New England, have been discovered.

From the Church warden's Accounts St. Saviour's, March 30, 1613 :It.For another quire of pap to make the token booke

iiijd For writinge the borough side token booke

iijs iiijd For writinge the bankside token booke .

iiijs 4800 tokens, £60. In this case the contribution was at 3d. each, and the money was generally given to the poor.

Among other burial-places belonging to St. Saviour's now entirely disused was one at the corner of Union Street and Red Cross Street, known as the Cross Bones, having an emblem of the name over the gateway. This was “the single women's churchyard,” an unconsecrated place of burial appropriated, with scarcely a doubt, to the women of the stewes.

In the vestry minutes, December 1786, it is noted of the Cross Bones that some persons had dug up bodies there for dissection, that they had put them into a coach and got away with their spoil. A reward of five guineas was offered and some strong language was used in the vestry. It turned out that the sexton of the place was concerned in the traffic.

Savoy (The), in the STRAND, a house or palace on the river side (of which the chapel alone remains), built in 1245 by Peter, Earl of Savoy and Richmond, uncle unto Eleanor, wife to King Henry III. The Earl bestowed it on the fraternity of Montjoy (Fratres de Monte Jovis, or Priory de Cornuto by Havering at the Bower, in Essex), of whom it was bought by Queen Eleanor for Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, second son of King Henry III. (d. 1295). In 1293 a license to castellate was obtained. 1 Henry Plantagenet, fourth Earl and first Duke of Lancaster, repaired, or rather new built it,” at a cost of 50,000 marks, and here John, King of France, was confined after the battle of Poictiers (1356). The King, not long after his release, died on a visit to this country in his ancient prison of the Savoy. Blanche Plantagenet, daughter and co-heir of Henry, first Duke of Lancaster, married John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son of King Edward III. ("Old John of Gaunt "); and while the Savoy was in his possession it was burnt and entirely destroyed by Wat Tyler and his followers (1381). Mention is made in the Accounts of 1393-1394 of the annual loss of £4:13:4, “ the rent of 14 shops belonging lately to the Manor of the Savoy annexed, for each shop by the year, at four terms 6s. 8d., the accomptant had nothing, because they were burnt at the time of the Insurrection, and are not rebuilt.” In the Accounts the Insurrection is spoken of as “The Rumor” (or popular murmuring, post rumorem). The Symeon Tower was repaired this year, as were also the “Great Gates of the Manor,” and the Water Gate ; and 10s. were paid "for making one hedge for the protection of the Garden opposite the said manor of the Savoy.” The “fruits and profits” of the garden were let for 139. 4d. “Paid to divers labourers for making 2 perches of the wall on the west side of the garden, called 'mud-wall' between the Savoy and the Inn of the Bishopric of Carlisle, each perch at gs. = 18s.; and paid for covering 10 perches of a certain old wall on the same western side, at 18d. a perch, 155. Mem. for the Steward to inquire whether the burden of making this wall of right belongs to the Lord or not.” Also "for 82 lbs. of iron, bought and worked into the form of a lattice and placed in the wall of the aforesaid [Symeon] tower, inclosing the window towards the east, for the safe keeping of the prisoners in the said tower, at 2d. the pound, 135. 8d.”1 The writer of the accompt received ad. a day for wages.

1 Thirty-first Report of the Deputy K'ecper of the Records, Appendix 1, p. 17.

The Savoy lay long neglected after this, nor would it appear to have been rebuilt, or indeed employed for any particular purpose before 1505, when it was endowed by Henry VII. as a Hospital of St. John the Baptist, for the relief of 100 poor people. The King makes particular mention of it in his will. At the suppression of the hospital in 1553, the beds, bedding, and other furniture were given by Edward VI. to the Royal Hospitals of Bridewell and St. Thomas. Queen Mary re-endowed it, and it was continued and maintained as a hospital till the first of Queen Anne (1702), when it was finally dissolved. Fleetwood, the Recorder of London, describes the Savoy in 1560 in a letter to Lord Burghley as a nursery of rogues and masterless men: “The chief nurserie of all these evell people is the Savoy, and the brick-kilnes near Islington.” Queen Elizabeth, when taking the air “at her woode nere Islyngton was environed with a number of roges," and sent word to the Lord Mayor and Recorder, who took summary measures for the apprehension of all rogues and masterless people. But the master of the Savoy Hospital was unwilling to allow of their apprehension in his precinct, as he was “sworne to lodge claudicantes, egrotantes, et peregrinantes ;” but in spite of his

curtese letter " they were “all soundly payd” before they were sent back. The Savoy, long after sanctuary was legally abrogated, continued to be a refuge for debtors and disorderly persons, and the chapel was the last place in which the so-called Fleet marriages were performed in defiance of the law. (See St. Mary le Savoy.]

At the Restoration the meetings of the commissioners for the revision of the Liturgy took place in the Savoy (April 15-July 25, 1661); twelve bishops appearing for the Established Church, and Calamy, Baxter, Reynolds, and others for the Presbyterians. This was called “The Savoy Conference,” and under that name is matter of English history. Fuller, the author of The Worthies, was lecturer at the Savoy, and Cowley, the poet, a candidate at Court for the office of master. 'Savoy missing Cowley” is commemorated in the State Poems of that time. The successful candidate was Dr. Killigrew, the father of Anne Killigrew, who is buried in the chapel, and who still lives in the poetry of Dryden. King Charles II. established a French church here, called “ The French Church in the Savoy.” Now removed to Bloomsbury Street. The first sermon was preached by Dr. Durel, Sunday, July 14, 1661. The sick and wounded in the great Dutch War of 1666 were lodged in the Savoy. On the night of April 16, 1763, the recruits for the East India Service, temporarily confined in the Savoy, made a determined attempt to escape. They disarmed the guard and obtained possession of the keys, but before they could force the outer gate a detachment of soldiers arrived, and after a sharp struggle the 1 Archäologia, vol. xxiv. p. 299.

2 Ellis's Letters, vol. ii. p. 285.

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