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recruits were forced back and secured, but not till three of their number had been killed and "several mortally wounded.” 1

This Savoy House is a very great and at this present a very ruinous building. In the midst of its buildings is a very spacious Hall, the walls three foot broad at least, of stone without and brick and stone inward. The ceiling is very curiously built with wood, and having knobs in due places hanging down, and images of angels holding before their breasts coats of arms, but hardly discoverable. On one is a Cross gules between four stars or else mullets. It is covered with lead, but in divers places perished where it lies open to the weather. This large Hall is now divided into several apartments. A cooper hath a part of it for stowing of his hoops and for his work. Other parts of it serve for two Marshalseas for keeping Prisoners, as Deserters, men prest for military service, Dutch recruits, etc. Towards the east end of this Hall is a fair cupola with glass windows, but all broken, which makes it probable the Hall was as long again ; since cupolas are wont to be built about the middle of great halls. In this Savoy, how ruinous soever it is, are divers good houses. First the King's Printing Press for Proclamations, Acts of Parliament, Gazettes, and such like public papers; next a Prison ; thirdly a Parish Church (St. Mary-le-Savoy) and three or four of the churches and places for religious assemblies, viz. for the French, for Dutch, for High Germans and Lutherans; and lastly, for the Protestant Dissenters. Here be also harbours for many refugees and poor people. -Strype, ed. 1720, B. iv. p. 107.

On Tuesday a person going into the Savoy to demand a debt due from a person who had taken sanctuary there, the inhabitants seized him, and after some consultation agreed, according to the usual custom, to dip him in tar and roll him in feathers, after which they carried him in a wheelbarrow into the Strand, and bound him fast to the Maypole, but several constables and others coming in, dispersed the rabble and rescued the person from their abuses.- The Postman for July 1696, No. 180.

Sir Thomas Heneage appears to have removed from Bevis Marks (which see] to the Savoy in 1590, on being appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and he died at the Duchy House in the Savoy in 1595. In 1687 the Jesuits opened a chapel and schools in the Savoy, and offered to instruct gratuitously all youths who were “ fit to begin Latin ” in that language, Greek, poetry and rhetoric; but schools and chapel were closed and the Jesuits dispersed on the abdication of James II. The inscription on the monument at Acton to Mrs. Barry, the celebrated actress of the reign of Charles II., describes her as “of the parish of St. Mary Savoy.” Alexander Cruden, author of the Concordance, lived here, and here Jacob Tonson had a warehouse. The last vestiges of the Savoy buildings were swept away in forming the approaches to Waterloo Bridge.2

Savoy Church. (See St. Mary le Savoy.]

Scalding Alley, in the Poultry, was so called from the poulterers scalding or scorching their poultry there. (See Poultry.]

But who is this ? O, my daughter Cis,

Minced-pie ; with her do not dally
On pain o' your life : she's an honest cook's wife,

And comes out of Scalding Alley.

1 Lambert, vol. ii. p. 193. Of the Savoy there is a scarce etching by for the Vetusta Monumenta. Its position and Hollar (a river front), done in 1650, and a most the connection of the buildings are well shown careful survey and view by Vertue, done in 1736, in Strype's Map, B. iv. p. 108.

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Schomberg House, Pall Mall, Nos. 81 and 82 on the south side, so called after Frederic Count of Schomberg, a German by birth and descent, but a Marshal of France, and Baron Teyes; Earl of Brentford, Marquis of Harwich, and Duke of Schomberg in England, as also Knight of the Garter and Master of the Ordnance. By a curious limitation in the patent he was succeeded in the dukedom by his third son, Charles, who died in 1693 of wounds received at the battle of Marsaglia, and he in his turn was succeeded by the second son of his father, although the first son was still living. This second son, and third Duke, Mindhardt Schomberg, was the actual builder of this house, which could hardly have been finished when, in 1699, a party of disbanded soldiers drew themselves up before it and threatened to pull it down. After his death it passed into the possession of Lord Holderness, by whom it was let in 1760 to the Duke of Cumberland, of Culloden fame. In 1765 it was purchased for £5000 by John Astley, the handsome portrait painter. Astley was a fellow pupil with Reynolds under Hudson, and they were together in Rome. There, “poor in purse as with the pencil,” he had eked out a deficient toilet by making the hinder part of his waistcoat out of one of his own canvases. On a summer's day a party of painters went for a little excursion. The day was hot, Astley incautiously threw off his coat, and his companions discovered that he was carrying on his back a terrific chasm and tremendous waterfall.2 He had not long to resort to such shifts. Before he had been long back in England in the course of itinerant portrait-painting he attracted the notice of a wealthy widow, Lady Daniel of Duckinfield, who sat to him for her portrait and offered him her hand. Upon Schomberg House Astley spent £5000, dividing it into three, and fitting up the centre part “most whimsically,” says Pennant, for his own use. Others, however, praise his architectural efforts here, as they praise the taste he displayed on his mansion at Duckinfield—at which he died, November 14, 1787. About 1780 Astley let his part of Schomberg House to Dr. Graham, the notorious quack, who converted it into what he called his “Temple of Health," with a living goddess, in the shape of a certain Mrs. Prescott, as the presiding deity. After a few years Graham found it convenient to Ait to Edinburgh, where Scott, it may be remembered, was when a child subjected to his electrical treatment and earth baths.3

August 23, 1780.-In the morning I went to Dr. Graham's. It is the most impudent puppet-show of imposition I ever saw, and the mountebank himself the dullest of his profession, except that he makes the spectators pay a crown a-piece.H. Walpole to Countess of Ossory.

In 1786 the quack doctor was succeeded in the central portion of the building by Richard Cosway, R.A., the most fascinating of miniature painters. His wonderful skill and the charms and accomplishments of his wife, Maria Hadfield, rendered the house a great resort of the fashioni Vernon Corr., vol. ii. p. 319.

2 Northcote's Life of Reynolds, vol. i. p. 44. 3 Lockhart's Life of Scott, chap. iv.

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able world, and the attractions of their musical parties—where the most popular singer and musician and the latest lion were sure to be found—were not diminished by the circumstance that there was a private door which communicated with the gardens of Carlton House, and that the Prince of Wales on such occasions frequently availed himself of it. These receptions were on Sunday evenings, when Pall Mall, according to Smith, "was hardly passable.” Cosway gave up the house about 1799. It was then successively occupied by the Polygraphic Society, who held an exhibition here of their “ wretched copies of good pictures;"1 by Bryan, the well-known picture-dealer; by Peter Coxe, the auctioneer; and then by Payne, the bookseller,“ honest Tom Payne,” and Messrs. Payne and Foss, who here brought together their matchless collection of old books. Jervas, the portrait painter (d. 1730), eulogised by Pope ; and Nathaniel Hone, R.A. (d. 1784), now chiefly remembered by his picture entitled the “Conjuror,” were in turns tenants of Schomberg House.2

Another portion was more worthily occupied. In the summer of 1774, when Thomas Gainsborough removed from Bath to London, he rented the west wing of Schomberg House from Astley for £300 a year. Here Reynolds at once called upon him, and here, but after an interval of eight years, Sir Joshua had one sitting for his portrait, on Sunday November 3, 1782. But the portrait was never painted; and Reynolds did not again enter his door till he received that affecting letter saying that he had been “six months in a dying state,” and begging as a last favour that he “would come once more under my roof and look at my things.” Here then took place that interesting and solemn interview between these two illustrious painters which left the impression on the mind of the survivor that the dying man's regret at losing life was principally the regret at leaving his art.” Gainsborough died here, August 2, 1798. “We are all going to Heaven," he said, "and Vandyck is of the company.” He is buried at Kew. His widow continued to reside here for some years after his death; in the spring following which an exhibition was here made of his pictures and drawings. There were 56 of the former and 148 of the latter, with their prices marked.

A Society of Arts memorial tablet in commemoration of Gainsborough's residence is placed on the house.

In 1850 part of the house was required for the enlargement of what was then called the Ordnance Office; the east wing was pulled down, and Schomberg House, which, in spite of all this “partitioning,” had continued to preserve the appearance of a single fine mansion of the King William period, was reduced to a very awkward and disjointed condition. The whole of it has since been incorporated in the WAR OFFICE.

School of Design (Government), was opened May 1, 1837, at Somerset House (in rooms vacated by the Royal Academy), by and i Smith's Nollekens, vol. ii. p. 398.

2 Smith, vol. ii. p. 395.

under the superintendence of the Board of Trade, for teaching the art of design or composition, with reference especially to the staple manufactures of the country. The whole arrangements were entrusted to John B. Papworth, architect, who was appointed Director, and he was succeeded by William Dyce, and then by C. H. Wilson. After some fluctuation it was in 1852 remodelled under the superintendence of Mr. (afterwards Sir Henry) Cole, and the title changed to the “Department of Practical Art.” In 1841 a Branch School of Design was established at Spitalfields with the object of educating the weavers of the neighbourhood in the principles of design. In 1853 a Science Division was added; three years later the establishment ceased to be connected with the Board of Trade, and was placed under the direction of the Lord President of the Council and the VicePresident of the Committee of Council on Education. In 1857 the Department was removed to South Kensington. [See Science and Art Department.]

The number of students in the School of Design and branch institutions before the reorganisation in 1852 was 6997.

School Board for London (The), VICTORIA EMBANKMENT, was established in pursuance of the Elementary Education Act of 1870 (33 and 34 Vict. c. 75, ss. 37-39). The Board formerly consisted of 49 members, but the number is now fixed at 55. The members are elected by the direct (and cumulative) vote of all persons rated for the relief of the poor. The election of the Seventh Board took place on November 26, 1888. By the terms of the Act the Board have to provide sufficient accommodation in public elementary schools available for all the children resident in the metropolis for whose elementary education sufficient and suitable provision is not otherwise provided, and to furnish elementary education under such conditions as are defined in the Act. Since the Act has been in operation the Board has provided up to 1889 substantial and spacious buildings providing accommodation for upwards of 400,000 children. “ Elementary instruction is not defined in the Act, and the Board have shown themselves disposed to interpret the phrase in a liberal spirit; and some efforts have been made by the foundation of scholarships, etc., to assist promising scholars in obtaining education of a higher grade. Else as a rule the teaching is confined to the simpler branches of an ordinary English education. Drawing is taught in most of the Board Schools, and music as far as singing by the Tonic Sol-fa system. Instruction in plain needlework is a part of the regular teaching in all the girls' schools, and in some instruction is given in cookery and domestic economy.

Instruction in physiology, mensuration, and other special or "extra" subjects sanctioned by the Council of Education is also in some instances given at specific times. In the Infant Schools the Kindergarten system is largely adopted. In certain centres provision is made for teaching the blind and the deaf and dumb. The Board have also for the friendless and refractory a reformatory ship and reformatory

and truant schools. The number of male and female teachers employed in the Board Schools in 1889 was 6898,—2319 male and 4579 female.

There are also about 1696 pupil teachers. The annual expenditure of the Board is about £1,900,000. The office of the Board on the Victoria Embankment is a red brick “Queen Anne” building, from the designs of Mr. E. R. Robson, the Board's architect, who has superintended the erection of all and designed most of the Board Schools, which now form conspicuous features in most of the poorer districts of London.

The London School Board District, as defined by the Act, comprises ten Divisions,-City of London, Chelsea, Finsbury, Greenwich, Hackney, east and west Lambeth, Marylebone, Southwark, Tower Hamlets, and Westminster, and at the census of 1881 contained 488,995 inhabited houses and 3,832,441 inhabitants.

Science and Art Department, South KENSINGTON, founded in 1853, with offices at Marlborough House. In 1857 it was removed to South Kensington. The department grew out of the Government School of Design established in 1837 (see School of Design), and remodelled in 1852 as the “Department of Practical Art,” in accordance with the suggestion of Mr. (afterwards Sir Henry) Cole. When the Science Division was added, the scheme, dated March 16, 1853, was intended “to extend a system of encouragement to local institutions for Practical Science similar to that already commenced in the Depart. ment of Practical Art.” The Department of Science and Art remained under the control of the Board of Trade until the Education Department was constituted by an order of Council of February 25, 1856, and the 19 and 20 Vict., c. 116, to include “(a) the Educational Establishment of the Privy Council Office; (b) the Establishment for the encouragement of Science and Art, now under the direction of the Board of Trade, and called the Department of Science and Art.” These two Departments were placed under the Lord President of the Council, assisted by the Vice-President of the Committee of Council on Education.

The Parliamentary vote for the Department of Science and Art in 1856-1857 was £64,075, while that in 1888-1889 was £445,303. The Department was incorporated by Royal Charter dated April 30, 1864.

Science Division. - When the Department was constituted, the Government School of Mines, the Museum of Practical Geology, the Geological Survey, the Museum of Irish Industry and the Royal Dublin Society were constituted portions of the Department. Though the principle of granting aid to Science Schools and Classes was established in 1853, no general system of making grants applicable to the whole county was formulated until 1859, in which year the first examination for teachers was held. The staff consists of a Director for Science, an Assistant Director, an Official Examiner and two Assistant Examiners, also Professional Examiners for special subjects. The

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