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Normal School of Science (which see), with its Council, Professors, Demonstrators, etc., forms a part of the Science Division.

Art Division.— In 1853 the Training Class was moved from Somerset House to Marlborough House, where temporary schoolrooms were erected. In 1857 the offices of the Department and the Art Training Schools were removed from Marlborough House to South Kensington. The number of students instructed in local schools of art was then 12,500, and in the National Art Training School at South Kensington 396, besides which there were 43,312 scholars of elementary schools taught drawing by the teachers of those schools, while the number of students in the Schools of Design before the establishment of the Department of Science and Art was 6997. In 1864 a Select Committee of the House of Commons was appointed to inquire into the constitution, working, and success of Schools of Art, and its recommendations were adopted as far as they were found practicable. In 1887 there were 209 Schools of Art with 24 branch classes, and a total of 41,263 students; 584 art classes with 33,438 students; 3979 elementary schools at which 875,263 children and pupil teachers were taught drawing, of which 684,306 were examined ; 51 Training Colleges with 3756 students in training examined in drawing, of whom I012 students and teachers obtained certificates. The staff of the Art Division consists of a Director, an Assistant Director, an Official Examiner and Assistant Examiner, and an Examination Clerk. There is also the Staff of the National Art Training School.

The South Kensington Museum (which see) is in connection with the Science and Art Department.

Scotland Yard, WHITEHALL, was divided into Great and Little, situated between Whitehall and Northumberland Avenue. It was so called, it is said, after the Kings of Scotland and their ambassadors, who were occasionally lodged here.

On the left hand from Charing Cross be also divers fair tenements lately built, till ye come to a large plot of ground inclosed with brick, and is called Scotland, where great buildings have been for receipt of the kings of Scotland and other estates of that country; for Margaret, Queen of Scots, and sister to King Henry VIII., had her abiding there, when she came into England after the death of her husband, as the kings of Scotland had on former times, when they came to the Parliament of England. --Stow, p. 168.

Part of Scotland Yard was long the official residence of the Surveyor of the Works to the Crown. It was occupied by Inigo Jones. There is a letter from him dated “Office of Works, Scotland Yard, August 16, 1620, complaining that "many masons employed on the Banquetting Hall have run away." Inigo's successor, Sir John Denham, the poet of Cooper's Hill, died here, March 1668.

June 10, 1666.-He [Pierce, the surgeon) tells me further, how the Duke of York is wholly given up to his new mistress, my Lady Denham, going at noonday with all his gentlemen with him to visit her in Scotland Yard ; she declaring she will not be his mistress, as Mrs. Price, to go up and down the Privy-stairs, but will be owned publicly : and so she is.--Pepys.

his left eye.

His successor, Sir C. Wren, had his office here; and in a house designed by himself and built out of the ruins of Whitehall (destroyed by fire in 1697) lived Sir John Vanburgh. It was probably built by him as comptroller of the Royal Works, for he did not succeed Sir C. Wren.

Milton, on his appointment as Latin Secretary to the Council of State in 1649, was granted an official residence in Scotland Yard, and there he continued to reside till 1652, when he removed to “a pretty garden-house" in Petty France. Whilst in Scotland Yard he lost his infant and only son, March 1650 ; and also the sight of

Mrs. Cibber lived in Scotland Yard, and here Charles Burney, previously a pupil of her brother Dr. Arne, was introduced to her in 1749, and laid the foundation of his fashionable career. Here in 1761 died Mrs. Dunch, known to the readers of Horace Walpole and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Samuel Pegge, author of the Curialia and of Anecdotes of the English Language, died here, May 22, 1800. After the death of his wife Thomas Campbell took the lease of a large house in Middle Scotland Yard from midsummer 1829; gave evening parties, and was visited by the great Cuvier, August 23, 1830. He describes the situation as “admirably convenient for all parts of London.”

Scotland Yard has been much contracted of late years, and the offices of the Police Commissioners, long associated with the place, have been removed to Whitehall Place. A large building (R. N. Shaw, R.A., architect), to be used as police offices, is now (1890) in course of construction on the Thames embankment, near the old Board of Control Office. It is to be called New Scotland Yard.

Scottish Corporation, CRANE COURT, FLEET STREET, for the relief of aged and infirm natives of Scotland resident in London or its immediate neighbourhood, to give temporary aid to Scotsmen in distress, nd to educate poor Scottish children. The Corporation derives its origin from a society formed a short time after the accession of James I. for relieving the less fortunate individuals of the Scottish nation. The Society continued to exercise its benevolent purpose under the designation of the “Scottish Box” until the reign of Charles II., when, in the year 1665, a Charter of Incorporation was granted, empowering the Society to hold lands, and to erect a hospital for the reception of the objects of the charity. A second Charter of Incorporation, containing more extended privileges, was granted by the same monarch in 1676. Within a few years after the date of the first charter a hospital was built in what is now Bridge Street, Blackfriars; but experience soon proved that confinement to a charity workhouse was uncongenial to the feelings and habits of the Scottish poor. The maintenance of a hospital, or receptacle for the objects of the charity, was in consequence relinquished, and the plan of assisting and relieving them at their own habitations substituted. That assistance was confined to such natives of Scotland, resident in London, as had



become members by paying stated contributions to the Society, in virtue of which they were entitled to relief when in want. But the system did not work well, and the Society appearing to be fast dwindling away, a new charter was obtained in 1775, whereby the “Scottish Hospital of the Foundation of King Charles II.” was reincorporated, and directed to be governed, in all time coming, by a president, six vice-presidents, a treasurer, and an unlimited number of governors. Donors of £105 and upwards are members of the committee of management for life, a donation of ten guineas and upwards constituting a governor for life, and a subscription of one guinea or more an annual governor, so long as such subscription shall continue to be paid. The necessity of contributing, as a title to admission, was dispensed with, and the corporation thus became completely a charitable institution for the relief of poor natives of Scotland, who might be reduced to poverty and want. The income is about £6000, and about 165 pensions are paid annually, besides about 340 petitioners relieved monthly.

The premises belonging to the corporation in Crane Court were bought from the Royal Society in 1782. The hall was the great meeting-room of the Royal Society when Sir Isaac Newton was president. (See Crane Court.] This interesting building was destroyed by fire on Wednesday, November 14, 1877. A more commodious building of red brick and stone was erected on the site from the designs of Professor T. L. Donaldson, and opened in 1880.

Scriveners' Company, the forty-fourth in rank of the City guilds, was originally known as the Writers of the Court Letter of the City of London, and was incorporated 14 James I. (1616) as the Society of Writers of the City of London. The Company has a livery and a few charities. It had a hall in Noble Street, but “ being reduced to low circumstances ” sold it to the Company of Coachmakers.

Scroope's (or Scrope's) Inn, HOLBORN, a serjeants' inn, over against St. Andrew's Church, in Holborn, so called after the noble family of the Scropes of Bolton. It ceased, it is said, to be a serjeants' inn about the year 1498. Scroope's Inn was succeeded by Scroope's Court, known in the present century as Union Court. In Scroope's Court died, 1632, Sir Oliver Butler. The Holborn (or Scroope's Inn) end of Union Court, was cleared away for the Holborn Viaduct.

Seacoal Lane, a lane 180 yards in length, between Snow Hill (north) and Fleet Lane (south), swept away in extending the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway from Ludgate Hill to the Holborn Viaduct.

The next is Seacoal Lane, I think called Limeburners' Lane, of burning lime there with seacoal ; for I read a record of such a lane to have been in the parish of St. Sepulchre, and there yet remaineth in this lane an alley called Limeburners' Alley.-Stow, p. 145.

Seacoal Lane is named in the Pipe Rolls, 12 Henry III. (1228), being no


doubt then used as a landing-place for sea coal from the barges on the Fleet River ; and in the Patent Rolls, 41 Henry III. (1257) mention is made of ship-loads of sea coal imported into London. These facts dispose of the assertion which has been made that sea coal was not used in London earlier than the time of Edward I. or II.Riley Memorials, p. xvi. note 7.

In the 17th of Edward III. (1343), “a piece of land in the lane called Secollane near the water of Flete,” was granted upon lease to the Butchers of St. Nicholas Shambles, "for the purpose of there in such water cleansing the entrails of beasts . . . they paying yearly to the Lord Mayor, at the Feast of our Lord's Nativity, one boar's head” -(Riley). In the reign of Henry IV. we find it again mentioned in “Writ for the repair of one foot of Flete Bridge, towards Secollane.” 1

The she doctor that cured Abel Drugger of the effects of “fat ram mutton" supper, lived here.

Yes faith—she dwells in Seacoal Lane,-did cure me,
With sodden ale, and pellitory of the wall ;

Cost me but twopence.—Ben Jonson, Alchemist, Act iii. Sc. 2. “The Jest of George and the Barber," in The Merry Conceited Jests of George Peele, Gentleman, is said to have taken place “at a blind ale-house in Sealcoal Lane," where he found" "George in a green jerkin, a Spanish platter-fashioned hat, all alone at a peck of oysters. ” 2

Searle Street. (See Serle Street.]

Seething Lane,GREAT TOWER STREET (east end) to CRUTCHED FRIARS. The church of Allhallows Barking is at the corner in Tower Street. Sieuthenestrate, or Suiethenestrate, is mentioned in the City records as early as A.D. 1281; Stow's conjecture that it was originally Sidon Lane would seem, therefore, to be unfounded. Sir Francis Walsingham lived and died in this lane :

Sidon Lane, now corruptly called Sything Lane. . . . In this Sidon Lane divers fair and large houses are built, namely, one by Sir John Allen, some time mayor of London, and of council unto King Henry VIII.; Francis Walsingham, Knight, principal secretary to the Queen's Majesty that now is was lodged there, and so was the Earl of Essex.–Stow, p. 50.

The 6 of April (1590) about midnight deceased Sir Francis Walsingham, Knight, at his house in Seeding Lane, and was about ten of the clocke in the next night following, buried in Paules Church without solemnity.-Slow, by Howes, ed. 1631, p. 761. Walsingham's widow continued to live in Seething Lane, and at her house here Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, was baptized by Lancelot Andrewes, 3

Seething or Sything Lane runneth northwards from Tower Street unto Crutched Friars. It is now [1720] a place of no great account ; but amongst the inhabitants some are merchants. Here is the Navy Office ; but the chief gate for entrance is out of Crutched Friars.—Strype, B. ii. p. 53. Pepys lived at the Navy Office in this lane during the nine years, 16601669, over which his Diary extends.

1 Liber Albus, p. 502.

Dyce's Peele, vol. ii. p. 271. 3 Life of Bishop Andrewes, p. 34.

July 4, 1660.-Up early and with Commissioner Pett to view the houses in Seething Lane belonging to the Navy, where I find the worst very good, and had great fears that they will shuffle me out of them, which troubles me.Pepys.

July 18, 1660.-—This morning we met at the (Navy) Office: I dined at my house in Seething Lane. — Pepys.

September 5, 1666.—About two in the morning my wife calls me up and tells me of new cryes of fire, it being come to Barking Church, which is at the bottom of our lane. —Pepys.

May 9, 1667.-In our street, at the Three Tuns Tavern, I find a great hubbub: and what was it but two brothers had fallen out, and one killed the other. And who should they be but the two Fieldings; one whereof, Bazill, was page to my Lady Sandwich ; and hath killed the other, himself being very drunk, and so was sent to Newgate.Pepys.

It was Basil who was killed. They were sons of George Fielding, Earl of Desmond, and uncles of the father of Henry Fielding the novelist. Seething Lane has now many corn, wine, and general merchants among its inhabitants. Here are the Corn Exchange Chambers and Subscription Room. Pepys's Three Tuns Tavern has disappeared. (See Navy Office; Allhallows Barking.)

Sepulchre (St.) in the BAILEY (occasionally written St. ’PULCHER's), a church at the western end of Newgate Street, and in the ward of Farringdon Without. About a fifth of the parish of St. Sepulchre lies “without the liberties” of the City of London, and the church is in consequence in the anomalous position of having two sets of churchwardens. A church existed here in the 12th century; but the oldest part of the present edifice, the tower and south-west porch, is of the middle of the 15th century. The body of the church was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666, and was rebuilt and the tower repaired, it is said, by Sir C. Wren, the works being completed in 1670. The fire itself was stopped at Pie Corner, a few yards north of the church. In 1338 William of Newcastle-under-Lyme bequeathed an estate to the parish for the maintenance of the fabric. With the process of time the estate has increased in value, and now yields, it is said, nearly £2000 a year. The consequence has been frequent repairs and restorations, by the last of which the church has been thoroughly transformed. Large repairs were done in 1738. The body of the church was in a great measure rebuilt and a new roof put on in 1837. In 1863 and following years considerable alterations were made ; but the most material were effected in 1875 and 1878. In 1875 the tower and porch-a separate building of three floors, projecting from the tower on the south-had new window tracery inserted, pinnacles to the tower rebuilt, a new oriel on the south front of the porch, where Popham's statue stood, and the whole refaced and completely restored, the architect being Mr. W. P. Griffith. In 1878-1880 the body of the church was restored under Mr. Robert Billing, architect. New windows filled with tracery of a very florid type were inserted, new buttresses, battlements, and pinnacles added, and the interior made conformable. The church is now Gothic throughout, but Gothic of the last quarter of the 19th

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