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on his first coming to London in 1771 lodged at “Mrs. Lefty's, Grocer in the Strand.” Six shillings a week gained by colouring prints of flowers covered all his expenses. “At the corner of Beaufort Buildings, in the Strand,” lived Charles Lillie, the perfumer, known to every reader of The Tatler and The Spectator. [See Beaufort Buildings.] Mrs. Inchbald, the actress and dramatic writer, was living in 1809 at No. 163, “ by the side of the new Church,” and from the top of this house was a witness of the burning of Drury Lane Theatre. No. 332, now the printing-offices of The Weekly Times and Echo, was during its flourishing epoch the office of The Morning Chronicle,—the upper floors being the Editor's rooms and the residence of Mr. John Black during his long editorship of that journal. No. 346 (corner of Wellington Street), now the offices of The Field and The Queen, was formerly Doyley's warehouse for woollen goods. Dryden in his Limberham speaks of “Doily Petticoats," and Steele in The Guardian (No. 102) of his “Doily Suit,” while Gay in his Trivia describes a Doily as a poor defence against the cold. No. 277 was in the time of Queen Anne the shop of Bat Pidgeon, known to every reader of The Spectator. At No. 132 Bathoe the bookseller established in 1740 the first circulating library in London. On the first floor of a house at the eastern corner of Castle Court (where Agar Street now stands) the Society of Arts held their meetings in 1756, and there they erected assaying furnaces. Nathaniel Smith and Joseph Nollekens were playfellows here. Adjoining Temple Bar and on a part of the site of the New Law Courts, stood the small pent-house of lath and plaster occupied for many years by Crockford 3 (d. 1844) as a shell-fish shop; here he made the money with which he established the Club in St. James's Street which bore his name. (See Crockford's.] The Banking House of Messrs. Coutts and Company is numbered 59.

The business hitherto carried on in St. Martin's Lane was removed by Middleton to its present site in 1757–in a house erected for it, the central house of eleven which formed the New Exchange, or Britain's Bourse. The house itself was at this time known as the Three Crowns. In 1755 Mr. James Coutts of Edinburgh was admitted as a partner, the firm being then entitled Campbell and Coutts. By the death of George Campbell in 1760 Coutts was left sole partner. Soon after his brother Thomas was admitted, and he, surviving his brother, became the head of the firm,--the Old Coutts of boundless wealth. By his death in 1822 the male line of Coutts became extinct. — “Account of Coutts Family,” by Robert Chambers, Chambers's Journal, November 7, 1874. [See the various buildings mentioned under their several names, and also the several streets along the line.]

Strand Bridge, the original name for the fine bridge by John Rennie, but changed by Act of Parliament, and now universally known as Waterloo Bridge. It was previously applied to a bridge over the streamlet from St. Clement's Well, where it crossed the Strand; and afterwards to a landing-pier at the foot of Strand Lane. See Strand Lane.

1 See Forty Years' Recollections, by Charles Mackay, LL.D., vol. i. p. 71.

2 Smith's Nollekens, vol. i. p. 3; vol. ii. p. 217.

3 There is a good view of the house in No. I of J. W. Archer's Vestiges of Old London.

Then had ye in the high street a fair bridge called Strand Bridge, and under it a lane or way down to the landing place on the bank of the Thames. —Stow, p. 165.

February 25, 1527. — The Lady Elizabeth came riding from her house at Hatfield to London. unto her place called Somerset Place, beyond Strand Bridge. -Strype, Hist. Mem., vol. iii. p. 444; Machyn, p. 167.

I landed with ten sail of Apricock boats at Strand Bridge, after having put in at Nine Elms, and taken in Melons, consigned by Mr. Cuffe of that place to Sarah Sewell and Company at their stall in Covent Garden.-- The Spectator, No. 454.

There was a third bridge in the Strand in addition to Ivy Bridge and Strand Bridge, the remains of which were discovered in 1832 during the construction of a sewer a little east of St. Clement's Church. “ It was of stone and consisted of one arch about 11 feet long, very antique in its appearance and of the most durable construction.” 1 It is difficult for us to conceive what a London roadway must have been in the time of the Tudors and Stuarts. When James Naylor, the weak-minded Quaker enthusiast, was flogged by the direct order of Parliament, the historian of the sect records that

The 18th December (1656) J. Naylor suffered part : and after having stood full two hours with his head in the Pillory, was stripped, and whipped at a cart's tail, from Palace Yard to the Old Exchange, and received three hundred and ten stripes ; and the executioner would have given him one more (as he confessed to the Sheriff), there being three hundred and eleven kennels, but his foot slipping, the stroke fell upon his own hand, which hurt him much.-Sewel's llist. of the Quakers, 4to, 1709, vol. i. p. 239.

There were thus no fewer than 311 open channels crossing the roadway between Westminster Hall and the Royal Exchange ; and after heavy rains every lane leading to the Thames must have been an open watercourse. Perhaps the largest of the unbridged channels was at Milford (Mill Ford) Lane.

Strand Inn, an Inn of Court belonging to the Middle Temple. It was pulled down by the Protector Somerset, and part of the present Somerset House occupies the site.

Strand Lane, in the STRAND, east of Somerset House, and opposite the east end of St. Mary's Church, was originally the channel of the rivulet which crossed the great thoroughfare under Strand Bridge. It must be remembered that the Strand at this part has been raised fully 20 feet above the ancient level. The lane led to the landing-place, at one time known as Strand Bridge ; but this was destroyed in forming the Thames Embankment and the lane is no longer a thoroughfare. On the east side of this lane is a genuine ancient Roman Bath, which is well worth inspection. The bath is 13 feet long and 6 feet wide, and is supplied by a spring of beautifully clear, cold water. The bricks of which it is constructed are similar to those of the City Wall, but smaller in size.2 1 Knight, vol. ii. p. 151.

London, vol. ii. p. 164, 1842. It has been little 2 There is an engraving of the bath in Knight's altered since.

Strand Theatre, on the south side of the Strand, four doors west of Surrey Street, formerly called Punch's Playhouse, is principally devoted to burlesque and farce. The exterior is unpretentious, the interior well appointed.

Stratford Le Bow, (the Stratford atte Bowe of our old writers of the 14th and 15th centuries), now commonly called Bow, formerly a hamlet of Stepney, but made into a separate parish in 1720, lies a mile east of Mile End. The name Stratford or Straet-ford is derived from a ford through the Lea at the place where it was crossed by the old Roman Road to Colchester. About the beginning of the 12th century Queen Matilda built a bridge over the Lea near the “Old Ford,” and from the shape of this bridge the name of the village took the addition of "atte Bow.”

Matilda, wife of Henry I., having herself been well washed in the water, caused two bridges to be builded in a place one mile distant from the Old Ford, of the which one was situated over Lee at the head of the town of Stratford nowe called Bowe, because the bridge was arched like unto a bowe, a rare piece of work, for before that time the like had never been seen in England. The other over the little brooke, commonly called Chanelse Bridge.-Leland's Collections.

The old bridge, consisting of three narrow arches, had been so often repaired as to leave little of the original structure when taken down in 1835. The present one, a substantial structure in Aberdeen granite, of a single elliptical arch, 70 feet in span, was erected from the designs of Messrs. Walker and Burges, and formally opened February 14, 1839. The French of Chaucer's “Prioress” was spoken in the Stratford manner:

And Frensch sche spak ful faire and fetysly,
After the scole of Stratford atte Bowe,
For Frensch of Parys was to hire unknowe.

Prologue to Canterbury Tales, I. 124. Bakers living at Stratford-le-Bow supplied London with bread as late as the reign of Henry VIII.

A custome which many holde that Mile-End is no walke without a recreation at Stratford Bow with creame and cakes.-Kemp's Nine Days' Wonder, 4to, 1600.

William de Croton, of the county of Suffolk, was attached for pretending to be a sergeant of the Sheriffs of London. Meeting Richolda of Stratford and Mabel of Stratford, bakeresses, who were bringing bread to the City with their carts, for sale, he arrested the carts of the said Richolda and Mabel until they had paid him a fine.-- Riley's Memorials, p. 79.

This parish was also for some time the resort of the butchers of London, “ who do rent their houses at Stratforde and around Stratforde." In 1371 the air of the City having been "greatly corrupted and infected” by the slaughtering of cattle therein, Edward III. ordained that

All oxen, sheep, swine and other large animals, for the sustenance of our city aforesaid to be slaughtered, should be taken to the village of Stretteford, on the one side and the village of Knyghtebrugge on the other side of the said city and there be slaughtered.—Riley's Memorials, p. 356.

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The parish church, dedicated to St. Mary, was originally built about the beginning of the 14th century as a chapel of ease to Stepney, and

consecrated as a parish church March 16, 1719.

What is now known as Stratford, a mile or so farther east, is more properly Stratford Langthorn.

Stratford Place, OXFORD STREET, north side, opposite South Molton Street, was built about 1775 by Edward Stratford second Earl of Aldborough, and others, to whom a ground-lease, renewable for ever under certain conditions, had been granted by the Corporation of London. In the mansion that terminates the place, and fronts the entrance from Oxford Street, the Earl of Aldborough resided for many years. Here stood the Lord Mayor's Banqueting House, erected for the Mayor and Corporation to dine in after their periodical visits to the Bayswater and Paddington Conduits, and the Conduit Head adjacent to the Banqueting House, which supplied the City with water.

A conduit head
Hard by the place toward Tyburn, which they call
My Lord Mayor's Banqueting House.

Ben Jonson, The Devil is an Ass, Act v. Sc. 1. Strype preserves a curious picture of a visit made by the Mayor to the Conduit Heads in the year 1562. Before dinner they hunted the hare and killed her, and after dinner they went to hunting the fox; “there was a cry for a mile, and at length the hounds killed him at the end of St. Giles’; great hallooing at his death and blowing of horns.” The Banqueting House was taken down in 1737, and the cisterns arched over at the same time.2 Here General Strode (the same who set up the statue in Cavendish Square) erected a pillar to commemorate the naval victories of Britain, which it did for a very brief period, as the foundations gave way in 1805.

About 1792 Richard Cosway, R.A., removed from Schomberg House, Pall Mall, to the south-western corner of Stratford Place. The house has a lion on the outside, and hardly had he taken possession of his new abode when a pasquinade, attributed to Peter Pindar, was affixed to his door :

When a man to a fair for a show brings a lion,
'Tis usual a monkey the sign post to tie on :
But here the old custom reverséd is seen

For the lion's without, and the monkey's within ! Cosway, one of the vainest of men, was so mortified that he removed shortly after to No. 20. This he fitted up and furnished in a style then scarcely known in the houses of professional men. His marble chimneypieces were all carved by Thomas Banks, R.A.

The rooms - each fitted in a different manner —"were more like scenes of enchantment pencilled by a poet's fancy, than anything, perhaps, before displayed in a domestic habitation.” i Londiniana, vol. iii. p. 40.

2 Maitland, ed. 1739, p. 779.

His furniture consisted of ancient chairs, couches, and conversation stools, elaborately carved and gilt and covered with the most costly Genoa velvets; escritoires of ebony, inlaid with mother-of-pearl ; and rich caskets for antique gems, exquisitely enamelled, and adorned with onyxes, opals, rubies and emeralds. There were cabinets of ivory, curiously wrought; mosaic tables set with jasper, blood-stone, and lapis-lazuli; having their feet carved into the claws of lions and eagles ; screens of old raised oriental Japan ; massive musical clocks richly chased with or-molu and tortoise-shell; ottomans superbly damasked ; Persian and other carpets . . . and rich hangings of English tapestry. The chimney-pieces, carved by Banks, were further adorned with the choicest bronzes and models in wax and terra-cotta ; the tables covered with old Sèvres, blue, Mandarin, Nankin, and Dresden china ; and the cabinets were surmounted with crystal cups adorned with the York and Lancaster roses, which might probably have graced the splendid banquets of the proud Wolsey. -Smith's Nollekens, vol. ii. p. 401.

In his drawing-room was a marble sarcophagus in which was the embalmed body of his deceased daughter; but this Mrs. Cosway, on her return from her long sojourn in Italy, got rid of, sending the body to the Bunhill Fields cemetery, and the sarcophagus to Nollekens, the sculptor. Cosway resided here to the last. His death occurred in Miss Udney's carriage, on July 4, 1821, while taking an airing on the Edgeware Road. Madame D'Arblay records 1 meeting Sir Joshua Reynolds at a dinner at Mrs. Walsingham's (a daughter of Sir Hanbury Williams) in Stratford Place. Henry Addington (Lord Sidmouth) was living here in 1792. Sydney Smith at No. 18 in 1835. No. 1 is the Portland Club House. R. W. Elliston, the celebrated actor, dated from Stratford Place in June 1822.

Stratton Street, PICCADILLY, west side of Devonshire House. Built circ. 1693, and so called after John, Baron Berkeley of Stratton, the hero of Stratton Fight, fought at Stratton in Cornwall during the Civil Wars under Charles I. This Lord Berkeley built Berkeley House in Piccadilly (on the site of Devonshire House); hence Berkeley Street and Berkeley Square. Thomas Graham, Lord Lynedoch, the hero of Barossa, and Wellington's second in command in the Peninsula, lived at No. 12 in this street, and died here, December 18, 1843, in his ninety-sixth year. No. 1, on the left-hand side, is the residence of the Baroness Burdett Coutts. Here the Duchess of St. Alban's (Mrs. Coutts) gave her magnificent entertainments; and here she died in 1837. For two months before her death she lay in the great dining-room towards Piccadilly, without pain, but weak and tranquil. James Douglas, the author of Nenia Britannica, lived in this street. Thomas Campbell writes to Dr. Currie from No. 2, April 13, 1802.

Streights i' the Strand, a cant name, as Gifford says, given to

'nest of obscure courts, alleys and avenues running between the bottom of St. Martin's Lane, Half-Moon, and Chandos Street," frequented by bullies, knights of the post, and fencing masters, now cleared away. [See Bermudas; Butcher Row; Porridge Island.]


1 Diary, vol. ii. p. 164.

2 Rate-books of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields.

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